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Treating Adhd 1

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Treating Adhd 1

  1. 1. Treating ADHD The Right Way
  2. 2. ADHD History <ul><li>The first accurate description of ADHD was back in1845. “...the first person to describe ADD ADHD in its commonly accepted sense was Dr. Heinrich Hoffman.” (adult-child-add-adhd.com) </li></ul><ul><li>“ It wasn't until 1902 that such characteristics were actually studied by the medical community, as was done by Sir George F. Still,” (adult-child-add-adhd.com) </li></ul><ul><li>Zooming ahead to the 1980 was when it first appeared in The Diagnostic Manuel for Psychological Disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Since than it has been studied quit frequently. </li></ul>
  3. 3. ADHD Myths <ul><li>That it is not real, or it is just children being lazy. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: It has been around for a very long time it just has not been studied till more recent times. </li></ul><ul><li>It only affects children and they out grow it. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: It effects about 2/3rds of all Adults that have been diagnosed as children. </li></ul><ul><li>Using medicine is the only cure, or management. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: The best way to treat it is with behavior therapy, coping skills and, and lastly medicine if needed. </li></ul><ul><li>All excerpts, paraphrases taken from (adhdquestionsandanswers.com) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><ul><li>ADHD is an abbreviation for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are three different aspects to this disorder “ADHD is characterized by developmentally inappropriate symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and significant impairment to multiple domains of functioning” (Langberg, 2008). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It can cause or lead to secondary problems such as depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. ADHD and Childhood <ul><li>From studies it is estimated that 5-7% of school age children are diagnosed with ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>It effects a child’s ability to pay attention and to focus on what is being taught , as well as schoolwork. </li></ul><ul><li>Some children fidget and have trouble sitting still, others day dream. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Research Strengths <ul><li>The amount of research on this subject is quite large. Even gaining news and political attention. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Some specific policy issues that need to be addressed include the limited access to quality services; the trend in viewing child mental health narrowly using a medical, as opposed to an integrative bio-psychosocial, approach; and the expansion of psychological services to children and adolescents through school-based and primary care programs.” (Levant, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Another strength is the recent focus on how it effects females and not just males. “Nevertheless, there are data supporting the presence of a valid syndrome of ADHD in girls (Hinshaw et al., 2002).” (Seidman, 2006) </li></ul>
  7. 7. ADHD in Adolescences <ul><li>The main difference from childhood is trying to learn to deal with ADHD more independently. </li></ul><ul><li>Another factor is that school has become harder putting even more pressure on the struggling student to practice skills previously learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper socialization and the need to fit into a group becomes a very important part of life at this age. ADHD can impair a persons ability to socialize. </li></ul><ul><li>“… peer relationships(Landau, Milich, & Diener, 1998), and the upholding of societal standards (Hinshaw, 1987). Many of these problems persist into adolescence and adulthood (Barkley, 1998), and new problems also arise at these later ages.” (Flory, 2003) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Research Strengths <ul><li>One of the strengths in general is addressing the needs at this stage of development differently compared to childhood. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Participants made significant improvements in organizational and homework management skills during the intervention and these gains were maintained at 8 week follow-up.” (Langberg, 2008) . At this age these skills can be understood and mastered to benefit the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of research, a focus on other developing problems such as depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem are being addressed, and recognized as stemming from ADHD. </li></ul>
  9. 9. ADHD Adulthood <ul><li>One difficulty of dealing with ADHD as an adult is the significant lack of time management, and organization that occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>If an adult has learned coping skills these need to be redirected from a school setting to fit into a work environment, or managing a house hold. </li></ul><ul><li>“ ADHD in adults can significantly affect quality of life and often impairs performance at school and work, in relationships, and with social functioning, health, and safety” (Manos, 2010) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Research Strengths <ul><li>Because of the research done that proves ADHD is not out grown adults are able to find help to deal with this issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Also psychologists are taking note on how to deal with patients who have ADHD as adults. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Without taking into account ADHD’s neurologic foundation, unstructured therapies that place a premium on monitoring the associations presented by patients run the risk of becoming too unfocused to be effective.” (Ramsey, </li></ul><ul><li> “ It is now clear that two thirds of children with ADHD will continue to have problems attributed to ADHD as adults and, because ADHD is a chronic disorder, will require treatment throughout their lives.” (Root & Resnick, 2003) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Research Weaknesses <ul><li>One of the weaknesses is that very little research has been done involving female children and adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Properly presenting the information in a way that can be used for the general public. Specifically addressed to parents of children, and adults who have ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Such poor coordination results in inefficient and at times conflicting treatments.” (Levant, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Another weakness is the lack of treating secondary symptoms and treating the main symptoms rather than teach coping skills. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Conclusion <ul><li>To best address ADHD it needs to be treated appropriately from childhood to adulthood. This includes good understandable information. </li></ul><ul><li>More research needs to be done on how to prevent the many secondary problems associated with ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Different treatment methods at various stages is the best way to help an individual with ADHD. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Authors Notes <ul><li>I have found this research project to be very enlightening in a few ways. </li></ul><ul><li>I sought out to prove that the best way to treat ADHD was with various methods throughout life. </li></ul><ul><li>This was true based on research but this is not how the majority of individuals are treated. </li></ul><ul><li>I also learned how little research has been done involving adults and females. Moat research thus far has dealt with young boys </li></ul><ul><li>The lack research that extends to secondary symptoms such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, high drug use. If research is found little is done in the area of prevention/intervention. </li></ul>
  14. 14. References <ul><li>Flory, K., Milich, R., Lynam, D., Leukefeld, C., Clayton, R., Relation Between Childhood Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Substance Use and Dependence Symptoms in Young Adulthood: Individuals With Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder Are Uniquely at Risk, 2003, Psychology of Addictive Behaviors Vol. 17, No. 2, 151–158 </li></ul><ul><li>Langberg, J., Epstein, J., Urbanowiez, C., Simon, J., Graham, A., Efficacy of an Organizational Skills Intervention to Improve the Academic Functioning of students With Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, School Psychology Quarterly, 2008, Vol. 23, No3,407-417. </li></ul><ul><li>Levant, R., Tolan, P., Dodgen, D., New Directions in Children’s Mental Health Policy: Psychology’s Role, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 2002, Vol. 33, No.2, P115-124. </li></ul><ul><li>Manos, M., Nuances of Assessment and Treatment of ADHD in Adults: A Guide for Psychologists, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 2010, Vol. 41,No. 6, 511-51. </li></ul>
  15. 15. References Continued <ul><li>RAMSAY, J., ROSTAIN A., ADAPTING PSYCHOTHERAPY TO MEET THE NEEDS OFADULTS WITH ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, 2005, Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, Vol. 42, No. 1, 72–84 </li></ul><ul><li>Root II, R., Resnick, R., An Update on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention –Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder in Children, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 2003, Vol. 34, No 1, p.34-41 </li></ul><ul><li>Seidman, L., Biederman, J., Valera, E., Monuteaux, M., Doyle, A., Faraone S., Neuropsychological Functioning in Girls With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With and Without Learning Disabilities, Neuropsychology , 2006, Vol. 20, No 2, 166-177 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.adult-child-add-adhd.com/categories/general/history_adhd.php </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.adhdquestionsandanswers.com/ADHD_Facts_and_Myths.html </li></ul>

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