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# Conditionals

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### Conditionals

1. 1. Conditionals
2. 2. Zero Conditionals <ul><li>The zero conditional is a structure used for talking about general truths -- things which always happen under certain conditions. Following I will explain how the zero conditional is formed, and when to use it. </li></ul>
3. 3. The structure of a zero conditional sentence <ul><li>A zero conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an &quot;if&quot; clause and a main clause (note that most zero conditional sentences will mean the same thing if &quot;when&quot; is used instead of &quot;if&quot;): </li></ul><ul><li>If clause+ main clause: </li></ul><ul><li>If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils. </li></ul>
4. 4. Comma?! <ul><li>If the &quot;if&quot; clause comes first, a comma is usually used. If the &quot;if&quot; clause comes second, there is no need for a comma: </li></ul><ul><li>main clause+ if clause </li></ul><ul><li>Water boils if you heat it to 100 degrees. </li></ul><ul><li>We use the same verb form in each part of a zero conditional: the simple present tense: </li></ul><ul><li>if clause: if +subject + simple present verb </li></ul><ul><li>main clause: subject + simple present verb </li></ul>
5. 5. Using the zero conditional <ul><li>The zero conditional is used to talk about things which are always true -- scientific facts , general truths , and so on: </li></ul><ul><li>Example: If you cross an international date line, the time changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: This always happens, every time you cross a dateline. </li></ul><ul><li>If you go 10 meters under water, the pressure increases to two atmospheres. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: This is basically always true -- the pressure of 10 meters of water equals one atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus burns if you expose it to air. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: This is a scientific fact -- you can test it in a laboratory. </li></ul>
6. 6. Let’s Practice: <ul><li>Use the conditions and results in the box to complete the phrases below. </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions: you've got a headache, you don't wear a crash helmet, you heat it to 100 ºc, she comes home very late, you leave gates open in the country, you add sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Results: you get pink, A dog bites, the DVD player comes on, Butter melts, it scratches you, You have more chance of being killed </li></ul><ul><li>Water boils if __________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>If you mix red and white _________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________ if you leave it in the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>If ____________________________________ , take an aspirin. </li></ul><ul><li>If _____________________________________ , it tastes sweet. </li></ul><ul><li>__________________________ if you go near its food when it's eating. </li></ul><ul><li>If you pull a cat's tail, _______________________________ . </li></ul><ul><li>_______________if you don't wear a seat belt. </li></ul><ul><li>If you press this button,……………………………………………………………………………… </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers get very angry if _______________________________________ </li></ul>
7. 7. The First Conditional <ul><li>The first conditional (also called conditional type 1 ) is a structure used for talking about possibilities in the present or in the future. Following I will explain how the first conditional is formed, and when to use it. </li></ul>
8. 8. The structure of a first conditional sentence <ul><li>A first conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an &quot;if&quot; clause and a main clause: </li></ul><ul><li>if clause+ main clause: </li></ul><ul><li>If you study hard, you will pass the test. </li></ul>
9. 9. Comma?! <ul><li>If the &quot;if&quot; clause comes first, a comma is usually used. If the &quot;if&quot; clause comes second, there is no need for a comma: </li></ul><ul><li>main clause+ if clause: </li></ul><ul><li>You will pass the test if you study hard. </li></ul><ul><li>We use different verb forms in each part of a first conditional: </li></ul><ul><li>if clause: if + subject + simple present verb </li></ul><ul><li>main clause: subject + will + verb </li></ul>
10. 10. Using the first conditional <ul><li>The first conditional is used to talk about things which are possible in the present or the future -- things which may happen : </li></ul><ul><li>Example: If it's sunny, we'll go to the park. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: Maybe it will be sunny -- that's possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Paula will be sad if Juan leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: Maybe Juan will leave -- that's possible. </li></ul>
11. 11. Let’s Practice: <ul><li>If Clare ________   late again, the hockey trainer will be furious. (to arrive) </li></ul><ul><li>You'll be sorry if you ___________________  for your exams. (to revise) </li></ul><ul><li>We ___________________  if the weather's good. (to go) </li></ul><ul><li>They _____________  you if you wear a wig and dark glasses. (to recognize) </li></ul><ul><li>If the bus ________________ on time, I won't miss the football. (to be) </li></ul><ul><li>If you ____________ your homework now, you'll be free all tomorrow. (to do) </li></ul><ul><li>We___________________  out if there's no food at home. (to eat) </li></ul><ul><li>You'll find life much easier if you ____________ more often. (to smile) </li></ul><ul><li>If it's hot, we___________________  for a swim. (to go) </li></ul><ul><li>You'll do it better if you ___________________ more time over it. (to take) </li></ul><ul><li>If she ___________________ practicing, she'll get better. (to keep) </li></ul><ul><li>I___________________  so happy if I pass the exam. (to be) </li></ul><ul><li>You'll be really tired tomorrow if you ___________________  to bed soon. (to go) </li></ul>
12. 12. Second Conditionals <ul><li>The second conditional (also called conditional type 2 ) is a structure used for talking about unreal situations in the present or in the future. Following I will explain how the second conditional is formed, and when to use it. </li></ul>
13. 13. The structure of a second conditional sentence <ul><li>Like a first conditional, a second conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an &quot;if&quot; clause and a main clause: </li></ul><ul><li>if clause+ main clause </li></ul><ul><li>If I had a million dollars, I would buy a big house. </li></ul>
14. 14. Comma?! <ul><li>If the &quot;if&quot; clause comes first, a comma is usually used. If the &quot;if&quot; clause comes second, there is no need for a comma: </li></ul><ul><li>main clause+ if clause </li></ul><ul><li>I would buy a big house if I had a million dollars. </li></ul><ul><li>We use different verb forms in each part of a second conditional: </li></ul><ul><li>if clause: if + subject + simple past verb* </li></ul><ul><li>main clause: subject + would + verb* </li></ul><ul><li>Note that this &quot;simple past&quot; form is slightly different from usual in the case of the verb BE. Whatever the subject, the verb form is &quot;were&quot;, not &quot;was&quot;: If I were rich, I'd buy a big house. </li></ul>
15. 15. Using the second conditional <ul><li>The second conditional is used to talk about things which are unreal (not true or not possible) in the present or the future -- things which don't or won't happen : </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>If I were you, I would drive more carefully in the rain. ( I am not you -- this is unreal ) </li></ul><ul><li>Paula would be sad if Jan left. ( Jan will not leave -- that's not going to happen ) </li></ul><ul><li>If dogs had wings, they would be able to fly. ( Dogs don't have wings -- that's impossible. ) </li></ul>
16. 16. Let’s Practice: <ul><li>If Joe……….. (be) here, he …………(catch) some fish for supper. 2. It …………(be) nice if the rain………… (stop)! 3. I ………….(sing) you a song if I ……..(have) my guitar. 4. If I …………(have) a better sleeping bag, I………. (not feel) so cold. 5. If this tent….. (be) any smaller, one of us ..(have to sleep) outside! 6. I…….. (look) out for bears if I ……..(be) you! 7. If I ………(not be) so hungry, I (share)…… my beans with you. </li></ul>
17. 17. Third Conditionals <ul><li>The third conditional (also called conditional type 3 ) is a structure used for talking about unreal situations in the past . Following I will explain how the third conditional is formed, and when to use it. </li></ul>
18. 18. The structure of a third conditional sentence <ul><li>Like the other conditionals, a third conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an &quot;if&quot; clause and a main clause: </li></ul><ul><li>if clause +main clause </li></ul><ul><li>If I had studied harder, I would have passed the exam. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: </li></ul><ul><li>I failed the exam, because I didn't study hard enough. </li></ul>
19. 19. Comma?! <ul><li>If the &quot;if&quot; clause comes first, a comma is usually used. If the &quot;if&quot; clause comes second, there is no need for a comma: </li></ul><ul><li>main clause+ if clause </li></ul><ul><li>I probably would have passed the exam if I had studied harder. </li></ul>
20. 20. <ul><li>We use different verb forms in each part of a third conditional: </li></ul><ul><li>if clause: if + subject + past perfect verb* </li></ul><ul><li>main clause :subject + would (OR could, OR might) have + past participle </li></ul><ul><li>*The past perfect is formed with the auxiliary verb &quot;had&quot;, and the past participle (or third form) of the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Note also that third conditional forms can be contracted: </li></ul><ul><li>Full form: If I had studied harder, I probably would have passed the exam. </li></ul><ul><li>Contracted form :If I'd studied harder, I probably would've passed the exam. </li></ul>
21. 21. Using the third conditional <ul><li>The third conditional is used to talk about things which DID NOT HAPPEN in the past . If your native language does not have a similar construction, you may find this a little strange, but it can be very useful. It is often used to express criticism or regret : </li></ul>
22. 22. Example <ul><li>If you had driven more carefully, you would not have had an accident. </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism: You had an accident because you didn't drive carefully enough. </li></ul>
23. 23. Example <ul><li>If it had snowed, we could have gone skiing. </li></ul><ul><li>Regret: It didn't snow, so we couldn't go skiing. </li></ul>
24. 24. Let’s Practice: <ul><li>He crashed his car, because he fell asleep while driving. If he ……………asleep while driving, he……………….. his car. 2. We couldn't go to the concert, because we didn't have enough money. If we……………. enough money, we…………….. to the concert. 3. I lost my job because I was late for work. I……………………. my job if I………………. late for work. 4. The wind was so strong that the bridge collapsed. If the wind ………………so strong, the bridge…………………… . 5. I couldn't call Sally because I had lost her number. I …………………..Sally if I…………………… her number. </li></ul>