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For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com Week 1 Problem 1: A generous university benefactor has agreed to donate a large amount of money for student scholarships. The money can be provided in one lump sum of $12 million in Year 0 (the current year), or in parts, in which $7 million can be provided at the end of Year 1, and another $7 million can be provided at the end of Year 2.

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BUS 640 All New Assignments
For more course tutorials visit
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Week 1
Problem 1:
A generous university benefactor has agreed to donate a large
amount of money for student scholarships. The money can be
provided in one lump sum of $12 million in Year 0 (the current
year), or in parts, in which $7 million can be provided at the end of
Year 1, and another $7 million can be provided at the end of Year 2.
Describe your answer for each item below in complete sentences,
whenever it is necessary. Show all of your calculations and processes
for the following points:
Assuming the opportunity interest rate is 8%, what is the present
value of the second alternative mentioned above? Which of the two
alternatives should be chosen and why?
How would your decision change if the opportunity interest rate is
12%?
Provide a description of a scenario where this kind of decision
between two types of payment streams applies in the “real-world”
business setting.
Problem 2:
The San Diego LLC is considering a three-year project, Project A,
involving an initial investment of $80 million and the following cash
inflows and probabilities:
Year 0
Initial Investment $80 million discount rate 8%
Year 1 Probability .2 Cash flow $50 million, Probability .3 Cash
flow $40 million,Probability .4 Cash flow $30 million,Probability .1
Cash flow $20 million
Year 2 Probability .1 Cash flow $60 million, Probability .2 Cash
flow $50 million,Probability .3 Cash flow $40 million,Probability .4
Cash flow $30 million
Year 3 Probability .3 Cash flow $70 million, Probability .4 Cash
flow $60 million,Probability .1 Cash flow $50 million,Probability .2
Cash flow $40 million
Describe your answer for each question in complete sentences,
whenever it is necessary. Show all of your calculations and processes
for the following points:
Describe and calculate Project A’s expected net present value
(ENPV) and standard deviation (SD), assuming the discount rate (or
risk-free interest rate) to be 8%. What is the decision rule in terms
of ENPV? What will be San Diego LLC’s decision regarding this
project? Describe your answer.
The company is also considering another three-year project, Project
B, which has an ENPV of $32 million and standard deviation of
$10.5 million. Project A and B are mutually exclusive. Which of the
two projects would you prefer if you do not consider the risk factor?
Explain.
Describe the coefficient of variation (CV) and the standard deviation
(SD) in connection with risk attitudes and decision making. If you
now also consider your risk-aversion attitude, as the CEO of the San
Diego LLC will you make a different decision between Project A
and Project B? Why or why not?
BUS640 Week 2 Assignment
Consumer Demand Analysis and Estimation Applied Problems
Please complete the following two applied problems:
Problem 1:
Patricia is researching venues for a restaurant business. She is
evaluating three major attributes that she considers important in
her choice: taste, location, and price. The value she places on each
attribute, however, differs according to what type of restaurant she
is going to start. If she opens a restaurant in a suburban area of Los
Angeles, then taste is the most important attribute, three times as
important as location, and two times as important as price. If she
opens a restaurant in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, then
location becomes three times as important as taste and two times as
important as price. She is considering two venues, respectively, a
steak restaurant and a pizza restaurant, both of which are priced
the same. She has rated each attribute on a scale of 1 to 100 for each
of the two different types of restaurants.
Attribute
Taste
Location
Price
Show all of your calculations and processes. Describe your answer
for each question in complete sentences.
a. Which of the two options should Patricia pursue if she wants to
open a restaurant in a suburban area of Los Angeles? Calculate the
total expected utility from each restaurant option and compare.
Graph is not required. Describe your answer, and show your
calculations.
b. Which of the two options should she pick if she plans to open a
restaurant in the Los Angeles metropolitan area? Describe your
answer, and show your calculations.
c. Which option should she pursue if the probability of finding a
restaurant venue in a suburban area can be reliably estimated as 0.7
and in a metropolitan area as 0.3? Describe your reasoning and
show your calculations.
d. Provide a description of a scenario in which this kind of decision
between two choices, based on weighing their underlying attributes,
applies in the “real-world” business setting. Furthermore, what are
the benefits and drawbacks, if any, to this method of decision
making?
Problem 2:
The demand function for Newton’s Donuts has been estimated as
follows:
Qx = -14 – 54Px + 45Py + 0.62Ax
where Qx represents thousands of bagels; Px is the price per bagel;
Py is the average price per bagel of other brands of bagels; and Ax
represents thousands of dollars spent on advertising Newton’s
Donuts. The current values of the independent variables are
Ax=120, Px=0.95, and Py=0.64. Show all of your calculations and
processes. Describe your answer for each question in complete
sentences, whenever it is necessary. a. Calculate the price elasticity
of demand for Newton’s Donuts and describe what it means.
Describe your answer and show your calculations. b. Derive an
expression for the inverse demand curve for Newton’s Donuts.
Describe your answer and show your calculations. c. If the cost of
producing Newton’s Donuts is constant at $0.15 per donut, should
they reduce the price and thereafter, sell more donuts (assuming
profit maximization is the company’s goal)?
d. Should Newton’s Donuts spend more on advertising?
Reference:
Douglas, E. (2012). Managerial Economics (1st ed.). San Diego, CA:
Bridgepoint Education
BUS640 week 3 Assignment
Production Cost Analysis and Estimation Applied Problems
Please, complete the following 3 applied problems in a Word or
Excel document. Show all your calculations and explain your
results. Submit your assignment in the drop box by using the
Assignment Submission button.
1. Jennifer Trucking Company operates a large rig transportation
business in Texas that transports locally grown vegetables to San
Diego, California. The company owns 5 large rigs and hires local
drivers paid fixed salaries monthly, regardless of the number of
trips or tons of cargo that each driver transports each month. The
below table presents details about the number of drivers and the
total cargo transported by the company at different staff levels.
Drivers employed
Total Cargo Transported (tons)
Which inputs are fixed and which are variable in the production
function of Jennifer Trucking Company? Over what ranges do there
appear to be increasing, constant and/or diminishing returns to the
number of drivers employed?
b. What number of drivers appears to be most efficient in terms of
output per driver?
c. What number of drivers appears to minimize the marginal cost of
transportation assuming that all drivers are paid the same salary?
1. 2. The Palms Dry Cleaning Shop in Fort Lauderdale, Florida,
faces a highly seasonal demand for its services, as the snow-birds
retirees flock to Florida in mid-fall to enjoy the mild winter weather
and then return to their main homes in mid-spring. Given this
seasonality, Palms tries to keep the overhead costs as low as possible
and therefore, often uses seasonal contracted labor to man its
operations. The following table shows the labor costs in each month
of operation over the past 12 months as well as the total number of
garments that were dry-cleaned in each month.
Palms pays fixed wages per hour to each employee, and we can
assume that the costs of other variable inputs (such as chemicals,
electricity, etc) have remained constant.
Month
June
July
August
September
October
TVC ($)
a. Derive average variable cost (AVC) data from the data in this

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BUS 640 Become Exceptional--bus640.com

  • 1. BUS 640 All New Assignments For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com Week 1 Problem 1: A generous university benefactor has agreed to donate a large amount of money for student scholarships. The money can be provided in one lump sum of $12 million in Year 0 (the current year), or in parts, in which $7 million can be provided at the end of Year 1, and another $7 million can be provided at the end of Year 2. Describe your answer for each item below in complete sentences, whenever it is necessary. Show all of your calculations and processes for the following points: Assuming the opportunity interest rate is 8%, what is the present value of the second alternative mentioned above? Which of the two alternatives should be chosen and why? How would your decision change if the opportunity interest rate is 12%? Provide a description of a scenario where this kind of decision between two types of payment streams applies in the “real-world” business setting. Problem 2: The San Diego LLC is considering a three-year project, Project A, involving an initial investment of $80 million and the following cash
  • 2. inflows and probabilities: Year 0 Initial Investment $80 million discount rate 8% Year 1 Probability .2 Cash flow $50 million, Probability .3 Cash flow $40 million,Probability .4 Cash flow $30 million,Probability .1 Cash flow $20 million Year 2 Probability .1 Cash flow $60 million, Probability .2 Cash flow $50 million,Probability .3 Cash flow $40 million,Probability .4 Cash flow $30 million Year 3 Probability .3 Cash flow $70 million, Probability .4 Cash flow $60 million,Probability .1 Cash flow $50 million,Probability .2 Cash flow $40 million Describe your answer for each question in complete sentences, whenever it is necessary. Show all of your calculations and processes for the following points: Describe and calculate Project A’s expected net present value (ENPV) and standard deviation (SD), assuming the discount rate (or risk-free interest rate) to be 8%. What is the decision rule in terms of ENPV? What will be San Diego LLC’s decision regarding this project? Describe your answer. The company is also considering another three-year project, Project B, which has an ENPV of $32 million and standard deviation of $10.5 million. Project A and B are mutually exclusive. Which of the two projects would you prefer if you do not consider the risk factor?
  • 3. Explain. Describe the coefficient of variation (CV) and the standard deviation (SD) in connection with risk attitudes and decision making. If you now also consider your risk-aversion attitude, as the CEO of the San Diego LLC will you make a different decision between Project A and Project B? Why or why not? BUS640 Week 2 Assignment Consumer Demand Analysis and Estimation Applied Problems Please complete the following two applied problems: Problem 1: Patricia is researching venues for a restaurant business. She is evaluating three major attributes that she considers important in her choice: taste, location, and price. The value she places on each attribute, however, differs according to what type of restaurant she is going to start. If she opens a restaurant in a suburban area of Los Angeles, then taste is the most important attribute, three times as important as location, and two times as important as price. If she opens a restaurant in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, then location becomes three times as important as taste and two times as important as price. She is considering two venues, respectively, a steak restaurant and a pizza restaurant, both of which are priced the same. She has rated each attribute on a scale of 1 to 100 for each of the two different types of restaurants. Attribute Taste Location Price Show all of your calculations and processes. Describe your answer
  • 4. for each question in complete sentences. a. Which of the two options should Patricia pursue if she wants to open a restaurant in a suburban area of Los Angeles? Calculate the total expected utility from each restaurant option and compare. Graph is not required. Describe your answer, and show your calculations. b. Which of the two options should she pick if she plans to open a restaurant in the Los Angeles metropolitan area? Describe your answer, and show your calculations. c. Which option should she pursue if the probability of finding a restaurant venue in a suburban area can be reliably estimated as 0.7 and in a metropolitan area as 0.3? Describe your reasoning and show your calculations. d. Provide a description of a scenario in which this kind of decision between two choices, based on weighing their underlying attributes, applies in the “real-world” business setting. Furthermore, what are the benefits and drawbacks, if any, to this method of decision making? Problem 2: The demand function for Newton’s Donuts has been estimated as follows: Qx = -14 – 54Px + 45Py + 0.62Ax where Qx represents thousands of bagels; Px is the price per bagel; Py is the average price per bagel of other brands of bagels; and Ax represents thousands of dollars spent on advertising Newton’s Donuts. The current values of the independent variables are Ax=120, Px=0.95, and Py=0.64. Show all of your calculations and processes. Describe your answer for each question in complete
  • 5. sentences, whenever it is necessary. a. Calculate the price elasticity of demand for Newton’s Donuts and describe what it means. Describe your answer and show your calculations. b. Derive an expression for the inverse demand curve for Newton’s Donuts. Describe your answer and show your calculations. c. If the cost of producing Newton’s Donuts is constant at $0.15 per donut, should they reduce the price and thereafter, sell more donuts (assuming profit maximization is the company’s goal)? d. Should Newton’s Donuts spend more on advertising? Reference: Douglas, E. (2012). Managerial Economics (1st ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education BUS640 week 3 Assignment Production Cost Analysis and Estimation Applied Problems Please, complete the following 3 applied problems in a Word or Excel document. Show all your calculations and explain your results. Submit your assignment in the drop box by using the Assignment Submission button. 1. Jennifer Trucking Company operates a large rig transportation business in Texas that transports locally grown vegetables to San Diego, California. The company owns 5 large rigs and hires local drivers paid fixed salaries monthly, regardless of the number of trips or tons of cargo that each driver transports each month. The below table presents details about the number of drivers and the total cargo transported by the company at different staff levels. Drivers employed Total Cargo Transported (tons) Which inputs are fixed and which are variable in the production
  • 6. function of Jennifer Trucking Company? Over what ranges do there appear to be increasing, constant and/or diminishing returns to the number of drivers employed? b. What number of drivers appears to be most efficient in terms of output per driver? c. What number of drivers appears to minimize the marginal cost of transportation assuming that all drivers are paid the same salary? 1. 2. The Palms Dry Cleaning Shop in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, faces a highly seasonal demand for its services, as the snow-birds retirees flock to Florida in mid-fall to enjoy the mild winter weather and then return to their main homes in mid-spring. Given this seasonality, Palms tries to keep the overhead costs as low as possible and therefore, often uses seasonal contracted labor to man its operations. The following table shows the labor costs in each month of operation over the past 12 months as well as the total number of garments that were dry-cleaned in each month. Palms pays fixed wages per hour to each employee, and we can assume that the costs of other variable inputs (such as chemicals, electricity, etc) have remained constant. Month June July August September October TVC ($) a. Derive average variable cost (AVC) data from the data in this
  • 7. table. b. Use gradient analysis to provide an estimate of eleven data points that seem to represent the MC curve over this range of outputs. Plot these data points and sketch in estimated MC and AVC curves that seem to best fit these data points. c. Suppose that demand is estimated to move from its present (May) level of 3,500 units to 4,000 units next month (June). What is the incremental cost of meeting this demand? d. Assuming that Palm’s price to dry clean a garment has been constant at $15 over the past year, and will remain at that level, what contribution to overheads and profit can it expect in June? 2. 3. Over the past 12 months the Four Winds Novelty Company firm has recorded its internet sales (equals monthly output levels) and its monthly total variable costs (TVC) for a particular novelty item as shown in the following table. Sales have grown over this period with relatively few shocks due to uncontrollable weather, political and sporting events. This online retailer carries no inventories; when it receives a pre-paid on-line order from a customer, it simply buys the product from a supplier and ships it out to the customer. Sales = Output TVC ($) 102,813 a.Using regression analysis, find an equation that best fits the data to represent the TVC function. b. At what sales/output level will marginal costs (MC) reach a minimum? c. Estimate the value of TVC for sales/output level 250,000 units, and calculate the 95% confidence interval for your estimate.
  • 8. BUS640 week 4 Assignment Market Structures and Pricing Decisions Applied Problems. Please complete the following two applied problems: Problem 1: Robert’s New Way Vacuum Cleaner Company is a newly started small business that produces vacuum cleaners and belongs to a monopolistically competitive market. Its demand curve for the product is expressed as Q = 5000 – 25P where Q is the number of vacuum cleaners per year and P is in dollars. Cost estimation processes have determined that the firm’s cost function is represented by TC = 1500 + 20Q + 0.02Q2. Show all of your calculations and processes. Describe your answer for each question in complete sentences, whenever it is necessary. a. What are the profit-maximizing price and output levels? Explain them and calculate algebraically for equilibrium P (price) and Q (output). Then, plot the MC (marginal cost), D (demand), and MR (marginal revenue) curves graphically and illustrate the equilibrium point. b. How much economic profit do you expect that Robert’s company will make in the first year? c. Do you expect this economic profit level to continue in subsequent years? Why or why not? Problem 2: Greener Grass Company (GGC) competes with its main rival, Better Lawns and Gardens (BLG), in the supply and installation of in-ground lawn watering systems in the wealthy western suburbs of a major east-coast city. Last year, GGC’s price for the typical lawn system was $1,900 compared with BLG’s price of $2,100. GGC installed 9,960 systems, or about 60% of total sales and BLG installed the rest. (No doubt many additional systems were installed
  • 9. by do-it-yourself homeowners because the parts are readily available at hardware stores.) GGC has substantial excess capacity–it could easily install 25,000 systems annually, as it has all the necessary equipment and can easily hire and train installers. Accordingly, GGC is considering expansion into the eastern suburbs, where the homeowners are less wealthy. In past years, both GGC and BLG have installed several hundred systems in the eastern suburbs but generally their sales efforts are met with the response that the systems are too expensive. GGC has hired you to recommend a pricing strategy for both the western and eastern suburb markets for this coming season. You have estimated two distinct demand functions, as follows: Qw =2100 – 6.25Pgw + 3Pbw + 2100Ag - 1500Ab + 0.2Yw for the western market and Qe = 36620 - 25Pge + 7Pbe + 1180Ag - 950Ab + 0.085Ye for the eastern market, where Q refers to the number of units sold; P refers to price level; A refers to advertising budgets of the firms (in millions); Y refers to average disposable income levels of the potential customers; the subscripts w and e refer to the western and eastern markets, respectively; and the subscripts g and b refer to GGC and BLG, respectively. GGC expects to spend $1.5 million (use Ag = 1.5) on advertising this coming year and expects BLG to spend $1.2 million (use Ab = 1.2) on advertising. The average household disposable income is $60,000 in the western suburbs and $30,000 in the eastern suburbs. GGC does not expect BLG to change its price from last year because it has already distributed its glossy brochures (with the $2,100 price stated) in both suburbs, and its TV commercial has already been produced. GGC’s cost structure has been estimated as TVC = 750Q + 0.005Q2, where Q represents
  • 10. single lawn watering systems. Show all of your calculations and processes. Describe your answer for each item below in complete sentences, whenever it is necessary. a. Derive the demand curves for GGC’s product in each market. b. Derive GGC’s marginal revenue (MR) and marginal cost (MC) curves in each market. Show graphically GGC’s demand, MR, and MC curves for each market. c. Derive algebraically the quantities that should be produced and sold, and the prices that should be charged, in each market. d. Calculate the price elasticities of demand in each market and discuss these in relation to the prices to be charged in each market. e. Add a short note to GGC management outlining any reservations and qualifications you may have concerning your price recommendations. Reference: BUS640 week 5 Assignment 1. Your company, Bright Paints, is one of a dozen companies manufacturing a special reflective paint used for traffic signs. The State Department of Transportation has called for tenders to supply 10,000 gallons of blue reflective paint to be delivered within two months. You can foresee fitting in a production run of the blue paint and have decided to bid on the job. You calculate your incremental costs for this job to be $76,200. This particular contract is standard, similar in all in respects to hundreds of contracts you have bid on over the past few years. Your pricing policy has been to apply a mark-up to incremental costs to arrive at the bid price. Your mark- up has been higher when you had plenty of orders and lower when you had few or no orders to fulfill. You have assembled data relating the mark-up rate used and the percentage of contracts won at each mark-up rate, as follows.
  • 11. Mark-up rate (%) Percentage of contracts won at that rate (%) 0 95.9 10 84.8 15 65.4 20 41.3 25 15.7 30 3.0 35 0 A. Why would your company have bid with a zero mark-up on some past tenders? Why didn’t it win all of those contracts? b. What is the bid price that maximizes the expected contribution of the contract? c. Why, or why not, is the fixed-price mode of bidding likely to be the best one to use for this contract? 2. In calculating the incremental cost of a particular project, how would you treat the possible future costs of a lawsuit that may occur as a result of this project, where the cost of the lawsuit might range from $10,000 to $500,000 with an associated probability distribution? BUS640 Week 6 Paper(Wal-Mart) Managerial Decision Making Research and Analysis Research a specific company of your choice and identify some of the managerial decisions that were made over time and in response to changes in its market or competitive environment. Use Ashford University Online library and web-based resources for your research. At least 3 external resources must be used. Address all of the following areas:
  • 12. Focus of the Final Paper Describe the company and provide a brief history of its operations. Find or use graphs to illustrate its financial performance over the years. Identify any sources of risk or uncertainty in its operations. Do the financial reports indicate risky or uncertain activities or changes to the economic environment that ultimately appear to have affected the company’s financial outcomes? Be specific. Are there any government regulations that have affected this company’s operations domestically or abroad? Explain. Describe the inputs that are used in this company’s production function and identify any challenges to securing these inputs. Determine if the company has introduced new products in existing markets or created new markets over time. What is the impact on its finances? Determine if the price of its products increased or declined over time and analyze the reasons for price fluctuations. Study the demand elasticity for its products and discuss the availability of close substitutes for its products. How does that affect pricing decisions? Analyze the company’s profitability. Identify the economy or industry influences on its costs, operations, and profitability. Describe the competitive environment in which the firm operates, the distribution of market power, and the strategic behavior of the firm and its competitors. Apply your knowledge of the theory of this company’s market structure. How does the company make pricing and production decisions? Is your observation supported by the theoretical models? Refer to the financial reports for illustration.
  • 13. Identify any non-price competitive strategies that the company might be engaging in? Provide specific examples. Evaluate if the company made any mistakes in its decisions over time, and recommend any changes or improvements for the future operations. Refer to the financial reports when making specific observations or recommendations. Use economic language and demonstrate your understanding of the concepts and theories of this course. Writing the Final Paper The Final Paper: 1. Must be 8 to 10 double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. 2. Must include a title page with the following: a. Title of paper b. Student’s name c. Course name and number d. Instructor’s name e. Date submitted 3. Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement. 4. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  • 14. 5. Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis. 6. Must use at least 3 scholarly sources. 7. Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. 8. Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com BUS 640 Week 1 DQ 1 Firm Objectives BUS 640 Week 1 DQ 2 Decision Making Under Uncertainty BUS 640 Week 1 Economics of Risk and Uncertainty Applied Problems BUS 640 Week 2 DQ 1 Marginal Rate of Substitution BUS 640 Week 2 DQ 2 Demand Elasticity BUS 640 Week 2 Consumer Demand Analysis and Estimation Applied Problems BUS 640 Week 3 DQ 1 Relevant Costs BUS 640 Week 3 DQ 2 Contribution Analysis BUS 640 Week 3 Production Cost Analysis and Estimation Applied Problems BUS 640 Week 4 DQ 1 Strategic Behavior Oligopolies BUS 640 Week 4 DQ 2 Local Market Power
  • 15. BUS 640 Week 4 Market Structures and Pricing Decisions Applied Problems BUS 640 Week 4 Journal Economics in News BUS 640 Week 5 DQ 1 Good Will in Price Bidding BUS 640 Week 5 DQ 2 New Product Introduction BUS 640 Week 5 Price Quotes and Pricing Decisions Applied Problems BUS 640 Week 6 DQ 1 Game Theory and Strategic Behavior BUS 640 Week 6 DQ 2 Sustainable Competitive Advantage BUS 640 Week 6 Final Paper Managerial Decision Making ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Week 1 DQ 1 Firm Objectives For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com Firm Objectives. Why do some business firms pursue a triple- bottom-line outcome while others focus only on profit maximization? Please, use a real company example to illustrate your points ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Week 1 DQ 2 Decision Making Under Uncertainty For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com Decision Making Under Uncertainty. To save on gasoline expenses, Edith and Mathew agreed to carpool together for traveling to and
  • 16. from work. Edith preferred to travel on I-20 highway as it was usually the fastest, taking 25 minutes in the absence of traffic delays. Mathew pointed out that traffic jams on the highway can lead to long delays making the trip 45 minutes. He preferred to travel along Shea Boulevard, which was longer (35 minutes), but rarely had traffic jams. Edith agreed that in case of traffic jams, Shea Boulevard was a reasonable alternative. Neither of them knows the state of the highway ahead of time. After driving to work on the I-20 highway for 1 month (20 workdays), they found the highway to be jammed 3 times. Assuming that this month is a good representation of all months ahead, should Edith and Mathew continue to use the highway for traveling to work? How would you conclusion change for the winter months, if bad weather makes it likely for traffic jams on the highway to increase to 6 days per month? How would your conclusion change if Mathew purchased a new smart-phone app that could show the status of the highway traffic prior to their drive each morning, thus reducing the probability of them getting into a jam down to only 1day per month (where on this day, the app showed no traffic jam, but a jam developed in the meantime as they were driving along the highway). ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Week 1 Economics of Risk and Uncertainty Applied Problems (New) For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com
  • 17. BUS640 week 1 Assignment Problem 1: A generous university benefactor has agreed to donate a large amount of money for student scholarships. The money can be provided in one lump sum of $12 million in Year 0 (the current year), or in parts, in which $7 million can be provided at the end of Year 1, and another $7 million can be provided at the end of Year 2. Describe your answer for each item below in complete sentences, whenever it is necessary. Show all of your calculations and processes for the following points: Assuming the opportunity interest rate is 8%, what is the present value of the second alternative mentioned above? Which of the two alternatives should be chosen and why? How would your decision change if the opportunity interest rate is 12%? Provide a description of a scenario where this kind of decision between two types of payment streams applies in the “real-world” business setting. Problem 2: The San Diego LLC is considering a three-year project, Project A, involving an initial investment of $80 million and the following cash inflows and probabilities: Year 0 Initial Investment $80 million discount rate 8% Year 1 Probability .2 Cash flow $50 million, Probability .3 Cash flow $40 million,Probability .4 Cash flow $30 million,Probability .1 Cash flow $20 million Year 2 Probability .1 Cash flow $60 million, Probability .2 Cash
  • 18. flow $50 million,Probability .3 Cash flow $40 million,Probability .4 Cash flow $30 million Year 3 Probability .3 Cash flow $70 million, Probability .4 Cash flow $60 million,Probability .1 Cash flow $50 million,Probability .2 Cash flow $40 million Describe your answer for each question in complete sentences, whenever it is necessary. Show all of your calculations and processes for the following points: Describe and calculate Project A’s expected net present value (ENPV) and standard deviation (SD), assuming the discount rate (or risk-free interest rate) to be 8%. What is the decision rule in terms of ENPV? What will be San Diego LLC’s decision regarding this project? Describe your answer. The company is also considering another three-year project, Project B, which has an ENPV of $32 million and standard deviation of $10.5 million. Project A and B are mutually exclusive. Which of the two projects would you prefer if you do not consider the risk factor? Explain. Describe the coefficient of variation (CV) and the standard deviation (SD) in connection with risk attitudes and decision making. If you now also consider your risk-aversion attitude, as the CEO of the San Diego LLC will you make a different decision between Project A and Project B? Why or why not? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Week 2 Consumer Demand Analysis and Estimation Applied Problems (New) For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com
  • 19. We have another Set (old one) of Week 2 Assignment (But with different description, values), it can be found on this link http://www.bus640.com/product-16-BUS-640-Week-2-Consumer- Demand-Analysis-and-Estimation-Applied-Problems Week 2 Assignment Consumer Demand Analysis and Estimation Applied Problems Please complete the following two applied problems: Problem 1: Patricia is researching venues for a restaurant business. She is evaluating three major attributes that she considers important in her choice: taste, location, and price. The value she places on each attribute, however, differs according to what type of restaurant she is going to start. If she opens a restaurant in a suburban area of Los Angeles, then taste is the most important attribute, three times as important as location, and two times as important as price. If she opens a restaurant in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, then location becomes three times as important as taste and two times as important as price. She is considering two venues, respectively, a steak restaurant and a pizza restaurant, both of which are priced the same. She has rated each attribute on a scale of 1 to 100 for each of the two different types of restaurants. Attribute Steak Restaurant Pizza Restaurant Taste 80 70 Location 55 80 Price 65 50
  • 20. Show all of your calculations and processes. Describe your answer for each question in complete sentences. a. Which of the two options should Patricia pursue if she wants to open a restaurant in a suburban area of Los Angeles? Calculate the total expected utility from each restaurant option and compare. Graph is not required. Describe your answer, and show your calculations. b. Which of the two options should she pick if she plans to open a restaurant in the Los Angeles metropolitan area? Describe your answer, and show your calculations. c. Which option should she pursue if the probability of finding a restaurant venue in a suburban area can be reliably estimated as 0.7 and in a metropolitan area as 0.3? Describe your reasoning and show your calculations. d. Provide a description of a scenario in which this kind of decision between two choices, based on weighing their underlying attributes, applies in the “real-world” business setting. Furthermore, what are the benefits and drawbacks, if any, to this method of decision making? Problem 2: The demand function for Newton’s Donuts has been estimated as follows: Qx = -14 – 54Px + 45Py + 0.62Ax where Qx represents thousands of donuts; Px is the price per donut; Py is the average price per donut of other brands of donuts; and Ax represents thousands of dollars spent on advertising Newton’s
  • 21. Donuts. The current values of the independent variables are Ax=120, Px=0.95, and Py=0.64. Show all of your calculations and processes. Describe your answer for each question in complete sentences, whenever it is necessary. a. Calculate the price elasticity of demand for Newton’s Donuts and describe what it means. Describe your answer and show your calculations. b. Derive an expression for the inverse demand curve for Newton’s Donuts. Describe your answer and show your calculations. c. If the cost of producing Newton’s Donuts is constant at $0.15 per donut, should they reduce the price and thereafter, sell more donuts (assuming profit maximization is the company’s goal)? d. Should Newton’s Donuts spend more on advertising? e. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Week 2 DQ 1 Marginal Rate of Substitution For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com Marginal Rate of Substitution. What is the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) and why does it diminish as the consumer substitutes one product for another? Use examples to illustrate ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Week 2 DQ 2 Demand Elasticity For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com
  • 22. Demand Elasticity. Please, read the article Hainer, R. (2010), provided in the required readings section for this week. The tobacco industry is a prime example to consider when talking about price elasticity of demand. While nicotine use can be addictive for many users, it is not addictive for the so-called "social smokers". What can we say about the price elasticity of demand for nicotine products (such as cigarettes, pipes, tobacco) in the group of nicotine addicted users, versus the group of "social smokers"? Can we say whose demand is likely to be more elastic? Why? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Week 3 DQ 1 Relevant Costs For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com Relevant Costs. Two partners own together a small landscaping business in North Carolina, called Summer Lawn Care. They have been specializing in summer grass seeding, installation, and maintenance. Recently, the partners acquired special technology and know-how for winter grass installations and maintenance. They also added a tree cutting service as recent storms in the area had caused demand for this service to soar. One of the partners insists that the name of the business should change to Lawn and Tree Care, so that it better reflects the range of services and, thus, generates more customer interest, and thus contracts. The second partner wants to keep the old name and argues, “We have already paid for business cards, vehicle paint, signage, and ads in Yellow Pages”. Evaluate the arguments of the two partners. Explain and illustrate
  • 23. their points by identifying the relevant and irrelevant costs for this decision. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Week 3 DQ 2 Contribution Analysis For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com Contribution Analysis. Explain what is meant by “contribution analysis”. Carefully define the term and provide examples to illustrate it. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Week 3 Production Cost Analysis and Estimation Applied Problems (New) For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com We have another Set (old one) of Week 3 Assignment (But with different description, values), it can be found on this link Production Cost Analysis and Estimation Applied Problems Please complete the following two applied problems: Problem 1: William is the owner of a small pizza shop and is thinking of increasing products and lowering costs. William’s pizza shop owns four ovens and the cost of the four ovens is $1,000. Each worker is paid $500 per week.
  • 24. Workers employed Qty of pizzas produced per week 0 0 1 75 2 180 3 360 4 600 5 900 6 1140 7 1260 8 1360 Show all of your calculations and processes. Describe your answer for each question in complete sentences, whenever it is necessary. a. Which inputs are fixed and which are variable in the production function of William’s pizza shop? Over what ranges do there appear to be increasing, constant, and/or diminishing returns to the number of workers employed? b. What number of workers appears to be most efficient in terms of pizza product per worker? c. What number of workers appears to minimize the marginal cost of pizza production assuming that each pizza worker is paid $500 per week? d. Why would marginal productivity decline when you hire more workers in the short run after a certain level? e. How would expanding the business affect the economies of scale? When would you have constant returns to scale or diseconomies of scale? Describe your answer.
  • 25. Problem 2: The Paradise Shoes Company has estimated its weekly TVC function from data collected over the past several months, as TVC = 3450 + 20Q + 0.008Q2 where TVC represents the total variable cost and Q represents pairs of shoes produced per week. And its demand equation is Q = 4100 – 25P. The company is currently producing 1,000 pairs of shoes weekly and is considering expanding its output to 1,200 pairs of shoes weekly. To do this, it will have to lease another shoe-making machine ($2,000 per week fixed payment until the lease period ends). Show all of your calculations and processes. Describe your answer for each item below in complete sentences, whenever it is necessary. a. Describe and derive an expression for the marginal cost (MC) curve. b. Describe and estimate the incremental costs of the extra 200 pairs per week (from 1,000 pairs to 1,200 pairs of shoes). c. What are the profit-maximizing price and output levels for Paradise Shoes? Describe and calculate the profit-maximizing price and output. d. Discuss whether or not Paradise Shoes should expand its output further beyond 1,200 pairs per week. State all assumptions and qualifications that underlie your recommendation. e. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Week 4 DQ 1 Strategic Behavior Oligopolies For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com
  • 26. Strategic Behavior Oligopolies. An interesting example of strategic behavior comes from a 1997 article about Microsoft’s investment in Apple (New Straits Times, 1997). The article is included in the Required Readings list. Facing tough anti-trust scrutiny from government agencies, Microsoft provided financial support to Apple in order to ensure Apple’s survival and, therefore, to ensure that competitiveness in the industry remains. Moreover, the partnership with Apple provided an additional market for Microsoft’s products – the MS Office and the IE products were to be bundled with the MAC OS as one of the conditions for this financing. Discuss this case in the context of market structure and strategic behavior. What market structure do these firms operate in? Why did Microsoft need to preserve competitiveness in the industry? What was Microsoft afraid of in the event that Apple did not survive? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Week 4 DQ 2 Local Market Power For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com Local Market Power. Bulls Eye department store specializes in the sales of discounted clothing, shoes, household items, etc. similar to the offerings at a regular Walmart or Target. Bulls Eye is the only department store in Show Low and the nearest other discount retailer is Target, located 49 miles away in Eagar. Bulls Eye,
  • 27. therefore, has some market power in its local area. Despite having some market power, Bulls Eye is currently suffering losses. An analyst at Bulls Eye is recommending to the manager to raise prices, so that profitability can be improved. The manager is unsure of this strategy as recent data points to increasing numbers of individuals shopping more and more. What are the pros and cons of raising the prices at Bulls Eye and would that strategy be profitable? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Week 4 Journal Economics in News For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com BUS 640 Week 4 Journal Economics in News BUS 640 Week 4 Market Structures and Pricing Decisions Applied Problems (New) For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com We have another Set (old one) of Week 4 Assignment (But with different description, values), it can be found on this link http://www.bus640.com/product-10-BUS-640-Week-4-Market- Structures-and-Pricing-Decisions-Applied-Problems Market Structures and Pricing Decisions Applied Problems. Please complete the following two applied problems: Problem 1: Robert’s New Way Vacuum Cleaner Company is a newly started small business that produces vacuum cleaners and belongs to a
  • 28. monopolistically competitive market. Its demand curve for the product is expressed as Q = 5000 – 25P where Q is the number of vacuum cleaners per year and P is in dollars. Cost estimation processes have determined that the firm’s cost function is represented by TC = 1500 + 20Q + 0.02Q2. Show all of your calculations and processes. Describe your answer for each question in complete sentences, whenever it is necessary. a. What are the profit-maximizing price and output levels? Explain them and calculate algebraically for equilibrium P (price) and Q (output). Then, plot the MC (marginal cost), D (demand), and MR (marginal revenue) curves graphically and illustrate the equilibrium point. b. How much economic profit do you expect that Robert’s company will make in the first year? c. Do you expect this economic profit level to continue in subsequent years? Why or why not? Problem 2: Greener Grass Company (GGC) competes with its main rival, Better Lawns and Gardens (BLG), in the supply and installation of in-ground lawn watering systems in the wealthy western suburbs of a major east-coast city. Last year, GGC’s price for the typical lawn system was $1,900 compared with BLG’s price of $2,100. GGC installed 9,960 systems, or
  • 29. about 60% of total sales and BLG installed the rest. (No doubt many additional systems were installed by do-it-yourself homeowners because the parts are readily available at hardware stores.) GGC has substantial excess capacity–it could easily install 25,000 systems annually, as it has all the necessary equipment and can easily hire and train installers. Accordingly, GGC is considering expansion into the eastern suburbs, where the homeowners are less wealthy. In past years, both GGC and BLG have installed several hundred systems in the eastern suburbs but generally their sales efforts are met with the response that the systems are too expensive. GGC has hired you to recommend a pricing strategy for both the western and eastern suburb markets for this coming season. You have estimated two distinct demand functions, as follows: Qw =2100 – 6.25Pgw + 3Pbw + 2100Ag - 1500Ab + 0.2Yw for the western market and Qe = 36620 - 25Pge + 7Pbe + 1180Ag - 950Ab + 0.085Ye for the eastern market, where Q refers to the number of units sold; P refers to price level; A refers to advertising budgets of the firms (in millions); Y refers to average disposable income levels of the potential customers; the subscripts w and e refer to the western and eastern markets, respectively; and the subscripts g and b refer to GGC and BLG, respectively. GGC expects to spend $1.5 million (use Ag = 1.5) on advertising this coming year and expects BLG to spend $1.2 million (use Ab = 1.2) on
  • 30. advertising. The average household disposable income is $60,000 in the western suburbs and $30,000 in the eastern suburbs. GGC does not expect BLG to change its price from last year because it has already distributed its glossy brochures (with the $2,100 price stated) in both suburbs, and its TV commercial has already been produced. GGC’s cost structure has been estimated as TVC = 750Q + 0.005Q2, where Q represents single lawn watering systems. Show all of your calculations and processes. Describe your answer for each item below in complete sentences, whenever it is necessary. a. Derive the demand curves for GGC’s product in each market. b. Derive GGC’s marginal revenue (MR) and marginal cost (MC) curves in each market. Show graphically GGC’s demand, MR, and MC curves for each market. c. Derive algebraically the quantities that should be produced and sold, and the prices that should be charged, in each market. d. Calculate the price elasticities of demand in each market and discuss these in relation to the prices to be charged in each market. e. Add a short note to GGC management outlining any reservations and qualifications you may have concerning your price recommendations. Reference: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Week 5 DQ 1 Good Will in Price Bidding For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com
  • 31. Good Will in Price Bidding. Sometimes, a bidder on a work contract may bid lower than what would maximize his/her profit from the contract and the reason for that is to create goodwill (to increase expected future business from the buyer). How would you value the goodwill that is obtained in this way? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Week 5 DQ 2 New Product Introduction For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com New Product Introduction. Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Germany owns the Alka-Seltzer, which was launched in 1931 and was meant for relief of minor aches, pains, inflammation, fever, headache, heartburn, sour stomach, indigestion, and hangovers. The Alka- Seltzer Plus was a spin-off of the original medicine, meant to relieve colds and flu. The company has recently introduced a new and improved Alka- Seltzer Plus, as described in the TV ad: “The Cold Truth”, (please, watch the ad listed in the Required Readings) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Week 5 Price Quotes and Pricing Decisions Applied Problems (New)
  • 32. For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com We have another Set (old one) of Week 5 Assignment (But with different description, values), it can be found on this link http://www.bus640.com/product-6-BUS-640-Week-5-Price-Quotes- and-Pricing-Decisions-Applied-Problems Week 5 Assignment Price Quotes and Pricing Decisions Applied Problems Please complete the following two applied problems: Problem 1: Jessica Alba, a famous actress, starts the baby and family products business, The Honest Company, with Christopher Gavigan. Alba and Gavigan set up their site so families can choose what kinds of non-toxic, all-natural products they'd like to use and get them in a bundle. Families can choose all kinds of products from food to hygiene necessities and cleaning supplies. Suppose they are thinking of expanding their business into five domestic markets: Phoenix, Dallas, Chicago, New York, and Atlanta. Assume their primary goal of business is to maximize economic profits, although they want to do business honestly. Show all your calculations and process. Describe your answer for each question in three- to five-complete sentences. a. You are a business adviser for Alba and Gavigan. Describe a skimming price and a penetration price, and advise them whether they should charge a skimming price or a penetration
  • 33. price, with supportive reasoning for and against each pricing alternative. b. Are they likely to make economic profits initially? Can they continue to make economic profits in the long term? Why or why not? Discuss. c. What advice would you give to Alba and Gavigan to help them make more profit in the long term? Problem 2: You operate your own small building company and have decided to bid on a government contract to build a pedestrian walkway in a national park during the coming winter. The walkway is to be of standard government design and should involve no unexpected costs. Your present capacity utilization rate is moderate and allows sufficient scope to understand this contract, if you win it. You calculate your incremental costs to be $268,000 and your fully allocated costs to be $440,000. Your usual practice is to add between 60% and 80% to your incremental costs, depending on capacity utilization rate and other factors. You expect three other firms to also bid on this contract, and you have assembled the following competitor intelligence about those companies. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Week 6 DQ 1 Game Theory and Strategic Behavior For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com Game Theory and Strategic Behavior. Suppose that GE is trying to prevent Maytag from entering the market for high efficiency clothes dryers. Even though high efficiency dryers are more costly to
  • 34. produce, they are also more profitable as they command sufficiently higher prices from consumers. The following payoffs table shows the annual profits for GE and Maytag for the advertising spending and entry decisions that they are facing. Based on this information, can GE successfully prevent Maytag from entering this market by increasing its advertising levels? What is the equilibrium outcome in this game? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Week 6 DQ 2 Sustainable Competitive Advantage For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com Sustainable Competitive Advantage. Describe the circumstances under which a firm chooses a low-cost strategy to attain sustainable competitive advantage. What about the situations when a differentiation strategy is chosen? Provide specific real world examples. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Week 6 Final Paper (Apple) For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com We have another set of final paper based on walmart which could be found on this link http://www.bus640.com/product-24-BUS-640-Week-6-Final-Paper- (Wal-mart)
  • 35. Focus of the Final Paper Research a specific company of your choice and identify some of the managerial decisions that were made over time and in response to changes in its market or competitive environment. Use the Ashford University Online Library and web-based sources for your research. At least three external scholarly sources must be used. Address all of the following areas: Describe the company and provide a brief history of its operations. Find or use graphs to illustrate its financial performance over the years. Identify any sources of risk or uncertainty in its operations. Do the financial reports indicate risky or uncertain activities or changes to the economic environment that ultimately appear to have affected the company’s financial outcomes? Be specific. Are there any government regulations that have affected this company’s operations domestically or abroad? Explain. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUS 640 Week 6 Final Paper (Wal-mart) For more course tutorials visit www.bus640.com We have another set of Final Paper based on Apple company, it could be found on this link
  • 36. http://www.bus640.com/product-3-BUS-640-Week-6-Final-Paper- Managerial-Decision-Making BUS640 Week 6 Paper(Wal-Mart) Managerial Decision Making Research and Analysis Research a specific company of your choice and identify some of the managerial decisions that were made over time and in response to changes in its market or competitive environment. Use Ashford University Online library and web-based resources for your research. At least 3 external resources must be used. Address all of the following areas: Focus of the Final Paper Describe the company and provide a brief history of its operations. Find or use graphs to illustrate its financial performance over the years. Identify any sources of risk or uncertainty in its operations. Do the financial reports indicate risky or uncertain activities or changes to the economic environment that ultimately appear to have affected the company’s financial outcomes? Be specific. Are there any government regulations that have affected this company’s operations domestically or abroad? Explain. Describe the inputs that are used in this company’s production function and identify any challenges to securing these inputs. Determine if the company has introduced new products in existing markets or created new markets over time. What is the impact on its finances? Determine if the price of its products increased or declined over
  • 37. time and analyze the reasons for price fluctuations. Study the demand elasticity for its products and discuss the availability of close substitutes for its products. How does that affect pricing decisions? Analyze the company’s profitability. Identify the economy or industry influences on its costs, operations, and profitability. Describe the competitive environment in which the firm operates, the distribution of market power, and the strategic behavior of the firm and its competitors. Apply your knowledge of the theory of this company’s market structure. How does the company make pricing and production decisions? Is your observation supported by the theoretical models? Refer to the financial reports for illustration. Identify any non-price competitive strategies that the company might be engaging in? Provide specific examples. Evaluate if the company made any mistakes in its decisions over time, and recommend any changes or improvements for the future operations. Refer to the financial reports when making specific observations or recommendations. Use economic language and demonstrate your understanding of the concepts and theories of this course. Writing the Final Paper The Final Paper: 1. Must be 8 to 10 double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. 2. Must include a title page with the following: a. Title of paper b. Student’s name
  • 38. c. Course name and number d. Instructor’s name e. Date submitted 3. Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement. 4. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought. 5. Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis. 6. Must use at least 3 scholarly sources. 7. Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. 8. Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------