The Three Voyages• 1768-71 Voyage to observe the transit of Venus across the sky. Red• 1772-75 Voyage to discover the mythological Terra Australis. (the southern continent) Green• 1776-79 Voyage to land on Hawaii and explore the (northwest passage) As well as his death in Hawaii. Blue
st The 1 Voyage Cook’s first Voyage wasto observe the transit ofVenus across the sky, inorder to measure thedistance from the Sun to theEarth. While themeasurements he obtainedin Tahiti were not usefulenough for measuring thedistance, it still was usefulbecause Cook and thenaturalists with himexplored islands such asNew Zealand, Australia,and Tahiti..
nd The 2 Voyage Cook’s Second voyagewas to find the mythologicalTerra Australis. While muchevidence disproved theexistence of an 8th Continentbelow Australia and yet aboveAntarctica, the notion was socompelling and popular thatthe Royal British Navy sentCook on an expedition. Ofcourse, Cook’s voyagedisproved the existence of thecontinent; but it allowed himto map the island of Georgia.
rd The 3 VoyageCook’s third and final voyagewas to explore the fablednorthwest strait, a route thatcould bring goods from oneside of the world to the otherwithout rounding Cape Horn.After exploring in the Arctic,Cook turned around andlanded in Hawaii. .On 14February at Kealakekua Bay,some Hawaiians took one ofCooks small boats. Normally,as thefts were quite commonin Tahiti and the other islands,Cook would have takenhostages until the stolenarticles were returned. Insteadhe tried to retrieve the boats.In the resulting fight Cookwas hit in the head, and thenstabbed to death. Four of themarines accompanying himwere likewise killed.
The Ships• The Endeavour, Formerly The Earl of Pembroke, was used by Cook in the 1st and 3rd voyages. Top• The HMS Resolution was used by cook in his second voyage. Bottom• The ships are featured in pictures on the first 2 voyage slides
The Black Glove Most people do not know thatJames Cook always wore a blackglove over his right hand becauseof scars on the hand which weredue to an explosion off the coastof Quebec.
The Quartermaster On Cook’s third voyage, in themiddle of the Bering strait, thequartermaster lowered the anchor, buthis ponytail snagged on the anchor’srope and he was pulled under the icywater.
The Aborigines• New Zealand : The Aborigines of New Zealand (The Maori) were very friendly. At least they were friendly enough to come on the ship, and trade fish and other such items with Cook and his men.• Australia: The Aborigines in Australia were very hostile. In the beginning they just tried to watch everything the crew did from the bushes but later the became hostile, and threw stones.• Hawaii: At first the islanders thought the newcomers were gods, but when they inevitably figured out they weren’t, they became angry.
Scurvy It was captain Cook and his crew that originally discovered the cure for scurvy— Vitamin C.Cook discovered this in New Zealand when some of his men with scurvy ate meadow cress, celery and other vegetables, and were cured of scurvy.
Legacy Many modern scholarshave a desire to turn CaptainCook into some type ofmarauding invader that justsailed around and killedpeople. This is not really true.Despite the turbulent times inwhich he lived, Captain Cookwas a very happy, religiousman. He was known as anuncommonly kind and justleader to his men. When not atsea James Cook lived on theeast side of London with hiswife and six children. I am hisdescendent on my father’sside, so I have a specialappreciation for him.
Conclusion Captain James Cook was a great explorer,and without him Western civilization wouldnot have found out many important facts untilmuch later.He served his country well, and despite hisuntimely death, his legacy lives on.