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5
My Learning Episode Overview
One mortal sin that teachers commit is giving tests that lack content validity.
This means ...
My Learning Essentials
A Table of Specifications [TOS] is a table that specifies the learning outcomes/ lesson
objectives,...
My Map
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Research My Learning Essentials.
Ask my Resource Teacher for a copy of her
TOS.
Surf the internet...
My LearningActivities
1. Study Sample TOS
I will study the sample of TOS below.
2nd
SemesterSY20__-20___
EDUC11 Table of S...
2. Comparison of given TOS that I research on.
I will compare the given TOS with other TOS that I research on
My Analysis
...
3. Can a teacher have a test with content validity even without making TOS?
______________________________________________...
My Reflections
Read this conversation and reflect on teachers’ assessment practices. Write your
reflections here.
Did you ...
Integrating Theoryand Practice
1. Here is a lesson objective/ intended learning outcome: “illustrate the law of
supply and...
D. Research on the answers to this scientific problem: Can aerial plans survive
when transferred in soil?
4. Here is an in...
My Learning Portfolio
Give an example of TOS that reflects levels of learning either by Bloom or Kendall and
Marzano.
Whic...
______________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________...
Reflections/Insights
Reflection
statementsare
profoundandclear,
supportedby
experiencesform
the learning
episodes.
4
Refle...
FS 5 - Episode 5
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FS 5 - Episode 5

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FIELD STUDY

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FS 5 - Episode 5

  1. 1. 5 My Learning Episode Overview One mortal sin that teachers commit is giving tests that lack content validity. This means that a number of teachers give tests which are not aligned to their learning outcomes or objectives. This is contrary to outcomes-based education. The use of a Table of Specifications (TOS) can help address the problem of tests lacking in content validity. My Intended Learning Outcomes At the end of this Episode, you must be able to:  Construct a Table of Specifications  Apply OBE by formulating test items with content validity My Performance Criteria I will be rated along the following: a. quality of my observations and documentations, b. completeness and depth of my analysis, c. depth and clarity of my classroom observation-based reflections, d. completeness, organizations, clarity of my portfolio and e. time of submission of my portfolio. FS 5FIELD STUDY LearningEpisode TABLE OF SPECIFICATIONS (TOS) CONTENT VALIDITY and OUTCOMES- BASED EDUCATION (OBE)
  2. 2. My Learning Essentials A Table of Specifications [TOS] is a table that specifies the learning outcomes/ lesson objectives, the amount of time spent for each outcomes/ objective which will serve as basis in determining the corresponding number of items. TOS helps teachers align objectives, instruction, and assessment. It is sometimes called a test blueprint. This strategy can be used for a variety of assessment method but is most commonly associated with constructing traditional summative tests. Aligning assessment tools and tasks to learning outcomes is a must in Outcomes- Based Teaching- Learning. A test or any assessment tool or task that matter possesses content validity only when that assessment tool or task measures or assesses what it is supposed to measure or assess. You are supposed to assess students’ ability to draw conclusions based on given facts but your assessment tool and task make the students define a conclusion. It is one thing to draw conclusion. It is another thing to define it. The assessment task is not aligned to the learning outcome; therefore, it does not possess content validity. The assessment task that has content validity is to ask the students to draw conclusion from the facts that teacher gives. Defining a conclusion is in the level of comprehension, perhaps even recall if definition is simply memorized, while drawing
  3. 3. My Map 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Research My Learning Essentials. Ask my Resource Teacher for a copy of her TOS. Surf the internet for more samples. Study these samples of TOS. Answer the LET-like test items. Come up with my portfolio.
  4. 4. My LearningActivities 1. Study Sample TOS I will study the sample of TOS below. 2nd SemesterSY20__-20___ EDUC11 Table of Specification FINAL Course CatalogNumber Assessmentof StudentLearning2 Periodical Examination Course Title TOTALRemembering Understanding Thinking Declarative (Comprehending/ Applying ) ( Analyzing/ Evaluating/ Creating ) # % # % Item # # % Item # Item # Authentic Assessment:Basic Concept 20 33.3% 1-4,7- 15,20-26 20 33% Authentic Assessment: Advance Application 10 17% 5,6,16- 19,27-30 10 17% Discussof Behavioral Objective / IntendedLearning Outcomes 10 17% 31 10 17% Portfolioon Authentic 20 33% 32-35 20 33% Assessment TOTAL 20 33% 10 17% 30 50% 60 100.0% Prepared by: _____________________ Instructor
  5. 5. 2. Comparison of given TOS that I research on. I will compare the given TOS with other TOS that I research on My Analysis 1. For a TOS to ensure test content validity, what parts must it have? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 2. Among the TOSs that you researched on, which is a better TOS? Why? _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________
  6. 6. 3. Can a teacher have a test with content validity even without making TOS? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 4. Explain why the use of TOS enhances that content validity? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _
  7. 7. My Reflections Read this conversation and reflect on teachers’ assessment practices. Write your reflections here. Did you have a similar experience? Reflect on it? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ But we talked about Puerto Princesa for – like 2 second last week. Why would she put that on the exam?” “You know how teachers are… they’re always trying to trick you.” “Yes, they find the most nit-picky little details to put on their test and don’t even care if the information is important.” “It’s just not fair. I studied everything we discussed in class about the Philippines things she made a big deal about, like comparing the Philippines And to think all she asked was ‘What’s the capital of Singapore? Really? Grrr” [Adapted from Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, Vol.18 No.3, February 2013]
  8. 8. Integrating Theoryand Practice 1. Here is a lesson objective/ intended learning outcome: “illustrate the law of supply and demand with your original concrete example”. For content validity, which test items is aligned? A. Define the law of supply and demand and illustrate it with an example. B. Illustrate the law of supply and demand with drawing. C. Illustrate the law of supply and demand with concrete, original example. D. Explain the law of supply and demand and illustrate it with a diagram. 2. Teacher Joji wrote this learning outcome; “To interpret a given quotation.” For content validity which should she ask? A. Interpret Nietsche’s statement: “He who has a why to live for can bear with almost any how.” B. Did you believe in Nietsche’s statement “He who has a why to live for can bear with almost any how”? C. What is true in Nietsche’s statement “He who has a why to live for can bear with almost any how”? D. Nietsche was an atheist. Do you believe that he can give this statement” He who has a why to live for can bear with almost any how? 3. After teaching them the process of experimenting, Teacher Joe wanted his students to be able set up an experiment to find an answer to a scientific problem. Which will he ask his students to do? A. Set up and experiment to find out if aerial plants can also live on land. B. Can aerial plants also live on land? Research on experiment already conducted. Present your finding in class. C. Observe if aerial plants can survive when planted in soil. Note your observations and present them in class.
  9. 9. D. Research on the answers to this scientific problem: Can aerial plans survive when transferred in soil? 4. Here is an intended learning outcome of a Health teacher: “Identify skill-related fitness and activities suitable for the individual”. Does her test item measure this particular outcome and therefore has content validity? Question 1. Identify the components of Physical Fitness under the skill-related activities. A. Body composition C. Flexibility B. Agility D. organic vigor A. Yes, very much B. Yes because it asks something about skill-related activities C. No D. No, the opinion have nothing to do with skill-related activities 5. In Teacher Lea’s Table of Specifications TOS, 60 percent of the 1st grading test items are applying questions based on Bloom’s Taxonomy. A review of her test shows that 50% are remembering items, 20% are analyzing questions and 30% are applying questions. Does Teacher’s test coincide with her TOS? A. No B. No, her analyzing questions is supposed to be 60% C. Yes D. Yes, her applying question are also analyzing question, too.
  10. 10. My Learning Portfolio Give an example of TOS that reflects levels of learning either by Bloom or Kendall and Marzano. Which TOS is better? Why? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________
  11. 11. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ My LearningRubric FieldStudy5,Episode 5 – Table of Specification(TOS)ContentValidityand Outcomes-BasedEducation(OBE) Focusedon:  Constructinga Table of Specifications  ApplyingOBEbyformulatingtestitemswithcontentvalidity Name of FS Student: ___________________________ Date Submitted: _______________ Year & Section: _______________________________ Course: ______________________ Learning Episodes Exemplary 4 Superior 3 Satisfactory 2 Needs Improvement 1 Learning activities All episodeswere done with outstanding quality;work exceeds expectations 4 All or nearlyall episodeswere done withhigh quality. 3 Nearlyall episodes were done with acceptable quality. 2 Fewerthanhalf of episodesweredoe; or most objectives were metbutneed improvement. 1 Analysis of the Learning Episode All questionsor episodeswere answered completely;in depthanswers; thoroughly groundedon theories.Exemplary grammar and spelling. 4 Analysisquestions were answered completely. Clearconnection withtheories. Grammar and spellingare superior. 3 Analysisquestions were not answered completely. Vaguelyrelatedto the theories. Grammar and spelling acceptable. 2 Analysisquestions were notanswered. Grammar and spelling unsatisfactory. 1
  12. 12. Reflections/Insights Reflection statementsare profoundandclear, supportedby experiencesform the learning episodes. 4 Reflection statementsare clear,but not clearlysupported by experiences fromthe learning episodes. 3 Reflection statementsare shallow; supportedby experiencesfrom the learning episodes. 2 Reflection statementsare unclearand shallow and are not supportedby experiencesfrom the learning episodes. 1 Learning Portfolio Portfoliois complete,clear, well-organized;all supporting documentations are locatedin sectionsclearly designated. 4 Portfoliois complete,clear, well-organized; mostsupporting documentations are available and logical andclearly markedlocations. 3 Portfoliois incomplete; supporting documentations are organizedbut are lacking. 2 Analysisquestions were notanswered. Grammar and spelling unsatisfactory. 1 Submission of Learning Episodes Submittedbefore the deadline. 4 Submittedonthe deadline. 3 Submittedaday afterthe deadline 2 Submittedtwodays or more after the deadline. 1 COMMENTS Over-all score Rating: (Based on transmutation) TRANSMUTATION OF SCORE TO GRADE/RATING Score 20 19-18 17 16 15 14 13-12 11 10 9-8 7- below Grade 1.0 1.25 1.5 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.5 5.00 99 96 93 90 87 84 81 78 75 72 71-below Signature of FS Teacher Date

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