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Iapri 2019 migration from food packaging materials-concerns and opportunity



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Presentation on Migration from Food Packaging Materials- Concerns and Opportunities by Dr. Ziynet Boz, Dr. Claire Sand, and Javiera Rubilar
With 30 years of experience across the food science and packaging spectrum, Dr Claire Sand through her company, Packaging Technology & Research, offers clients solutions using Strategy, Technology, Consulting and Coaching.

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Dr. Claire Sand | Owner, Packaging Technology & Research, LLC; Adjunct Professor, Michigan State University; Columnist for Food Technology Magazine

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Iapri 2019 migration from food packaging materials-concerns and opportunity

  1. 1. Created by PTR Learn more at : Migration from Food Packaging materials - Concerns and Opportunity Ziynet Boz, Ph.D. Packaging Technology and Research LLC. Claire Koelsch Sand, Ph.D., Packaging Technology and Research LLC. Javiera Rubilar Penn Color Inc. June 2019 29th IAPRI Symposium
  2. 2. Migrants of Concern Intentionally Added Substances Non-Intentionally Added Substances Risk Mitigation Recommendations Modeling Approach
  3. 3. Introduction: Motivation and Objectives • Review of IAS and NIAS sand their global limits • Modeling efforts • Proactive testing of actual migration • Recommend risk mitigating strategies based on available research on packaging migrants • Increased concerns related to migration of chemicals into foods • Recycled materials • Fillers • Active compounds • Nanocompounds • Processing technology changes • New materials • Global regulatory variabilities
  4. 4. Introduction: Motivation and Objectives •The variability of substances is quite high and this limits direct food contact with recycled polymers and paperboard •Risks increase as food and package fraud increases •Processing aids to reduce energy costs or yield improved mechanical or chemical properties are known •Migration occurs as a function of the food, time of exposure and the nature of the migrant itself within the packaging matrix
  5. 5. Migration Mechanism • Migration mechanism in food- packaging systems • Several affecting factors • Numerous packaging technologies, conditions, food types • Databases generated with food simulants for compliance PACKAGING SUBSTRATE FOOD INK OR COATING Migration Temperature Concentratio n MW Solubility Time Composition s Partition Coefficients Surface/Volu me Ratio Contact type Mobility
  6. 6. Introduction: Motivation and Objectives
  7. 7. IAS : Known Migrants • BPA Starting material for synthesis, epoxy resins, polysulfones; Brightness, clearness, toughness • Phthalates Flexibility, transparency, durability, PVC softening • Styrene Precursor to copolymers, ”known carcinogen” • Vinyl Chloride PVC production, occupational hazard • Melamine Approved as adhesives, coatings, paperboard component, Reduced exposure limits
  8. 8. IAS : Emerging Migrants • BPS Building block in polycarbonates, epoxies, & fast curing, enables “BPA Free” • BPF Epoxies, thickness and durability of the materials, chronic low-level exposure, not regulated • BPAF New BPA analogue, hormone disruptors in fish • Bisphenol PH polycarbonates, epoxies, not regulated, synthesis of polyester polymers such as PC, epoxy resins, polyurethanes, polyesters, polyarylates and polyethers, children’s cups, sippy cups • (Per- and polyfluoroalkyl) PFAS cancers, toxicity, immunotoxicity, fluorinated chemicals in grease-resistant packaging, high fluorine content in pkg. • (Perfluorooctanoic acid) PFOA contaminants of paper coatings
  9. 9. IAS : Nanocompounds • Carbon black • Synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide (SAS) • Bentonite : Respirable crystalline silica • Aluminosilicate • Nano-sized titanium nitride: Better heat transfer during PET stretching • Carbon nanotubes • Nanocellulose Bott et al. 2014
  10. 10. Risk Mitigation for Migrants • Replacement - R&D • Accurate low-dose assessment • Strategic partnerships and collaborations with consortiums - E.g. National Toxicology Program, FDA, NIEHS, CLARITY BPA • Avoid phthalates for high fat foods • Replacement of PVC with PE • Look for synergistic health effects • Prolonged exposure to nanomigrants should be avoided
  11. 11. NIAS • From recycling paperboard • From recycling polymers • Substances formed during food processing • Adulterants • Flavoring and Enrichment Substances
  12. 12. Risk Mitigation for NIAS • Ease of separation for indirect contact • Employing barrier in paperboard • Reusable recycled content- cleaning • Chain of Custody from packaging supplier/converter for direct food contact recycling • Ease of sorting of polymers • Chemical recycling
  13. 13. Risk Mitigation : Ensure Proper Testing • Engage with advanced methods • Confirm that the food simulant is the highest possible migration to prevent underrepresenting migration • NIAS: UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis of non-volatile migrants for characterization • Assess nanomigrants carefully, additional testing methods, ICP-MS, AF4, AAS, XRD, HRMS • Reducing migration: nanoparticles fully incorporated into a polymer matrix • Understand the impact of inconsistent dispersion of NMs
  14. 14. Risk Mitigation: Regulatory Compliance • Global regulations-US : FDA (FCN, FAP, TOR) • Global regulations-EU : Polymer- focused • Global regulations-South America : MERCOSUR
  15. 15. Migration Modeling • Experimental procedures are time- intensive, costly • Numerous combinations of packaging- food-environment • Risk assessment in decision-making • Limited migration packaging design • Lowering the additive diffusivity during synthesis • Monomers, antioxidants, stabilizers, antimicrobials etc. 𝜕𝐶𝐴 𝑃 𝜕𝑡 = 𝐷𝐴 𝑃 𝜕2 𝐶𝐴 𝑃 𝜕𝑥2 𝐾𝑝 = 𝐶𝐴 𝑃 (∞) 𝐶𝐴 𝐹 (∞) 𝛼 = 𝑀𝐴 𝐹 (∞) 𝑀𝐴 𝑃 (∞) = 𝐶𝐴 𝐹 (∞) 𝐶𝐴 𝑃 (∞) = 𝑉 𝐹 𝐾𝑝 𝑉 𝑃
  16. 16. Regulatory Opinions on Modeling • Current state of the models in compliance • Accepted models for FCMs are oversimplified, deterministic, “worst case” scenario • Initial Conditions: uniform distributions, no-migrant in • Boundary Conditions: No interface resistance • No spatial distribution after migration • Total migration amount is constant (No reaction / generation) • High solubility of migrant in food (Partition coefficient = 1) • If result is lower than SML
  17. 17. Current Approach • FDA Model, EU Piringer model -> Overestimation 95% • E.g. HDPE-food simulant, PET-water, AO-Tenax®, Photoinitiator-paper- Tenax® • Oversimplification and assumptions: Over- or under-estimated migration • Possibility of rejecting potentially safe materials and chemicals • Trained professionals • Only for known chemicals IAS • Target group: Converters and Chemical Industry • High-throughput models only suitable for multiple migrants
  18. 18. Research Needs in Migration Models • A more realistic estimation of diffusion coefficients are needed • Effects of swelling phenomenon • Environment-package-food systems should be considered • Data needed beyond regulatory compliance but a food quality perspective • Actual interactions should be considered E.g. Oxygen effects, Flavor desorption etc. • Models of migrants from multilayer materials with numerical methods • Industrial tools to assess the migration: Practical, Robust • Non-plastic materials: E.g. paper and paperboard • Nanomaterial migration assessment • Emerging modeling methods E.g. Molecular modeling, molecular thermodynamics, coupled models with human exposure
  19. 19. Thank you! Let’s Connect For a reference list, please contact us!

Editor's Notes

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