Limestone, oil, fractional      distillation
LimestoneLimestone is a __________ rock made up ofmainly calcium carbonate. It’s cheap and easy toobtain. Some uses:1) Bui...
ANSWERSLimestone is a sedimentary rock made up of mainlycalcium carbonate. It’s cheap and easy to obtain.Some uses:1) Buil...
LimestoneIf soil is too _____ crops will fail. Limestone can also be usedas a neutralising agent. There are two reactions ...
ANSWERSIf soil is too acidic crops will fail. Limestone can also be usedas a neutralising agent. There are two reactions t...
Formation of oil and gas1) Layers of     2) Layers of       3) The heat and ________ fromdead sea _____   __________      ...
Hydrocarbons and crude oil             Crude oil is a mixture of HYDROCARBONS             (compounds made up of carbon and...
Fractional distillationCrude oil can be separated by fractional distillation. The oil is evaporatedand the hydrocarbon cha...
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Limestone, oil & fractional distillation revision

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To aid Y11 Core Science Unit 2 revision

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Limestone, oil & fractional distillation revision

  1. 1. Limestone, oil, fractional distillation
  2. 2. LimestoneLimestone is a __________ rock made up ofmainly calcium carbonate. It’s cheap and easy toobtain. Some uses:1) Building materials – limestone can be quarriedand cut into blocks to be used in _______.However, it is badly affected by ____ ____.2) Glass making – glass is made by mixing limestonewith _____ and sodium carbonate : Limestone + sand + sodium carbonate glass3) Cement making – limestone can be “roasted” in a rotary kilnto produce dry cement. It’s then mixed with sand and gravelto make _______. Words – sand, building, sedimentary, concrete, acid rain
  3. 3. ANSWERSLimestone is a sedimentary rock made up of mainlycalcium carbonate. It’s cheap and easy to obtain.Some uses:1) Building materials – limestone can be quarriedand cut into blocks to be used in building.However, it is badly affected by acid rain.2) Glass making – glass is made by mixing limestonewith sand and sodium carbonate: Limestone + sand + sand + soda Limestone + sodium carbonate glass glass3) Cement making – limestone can be “roasted” in a rotary kilnto produce dry cement. It’s then mixed with sand and gravelto make concrete
  4. 4. LimestoneIf soil is too _____ crops will fail. Limestone can also be usedas a neutralising agent. There are two reactions to know:1) Firstly, a THERMAL _________________ reaction is usedto break the calcium carbonate down into calcium oxide(quicklime) and _______ __________: HEAT Calcium carbonate calcium oxide + carbon dioxide2) This is then “slaked” with water to produce calciumhydroxide (“_________ lime”): WATER Calcium oxide calcium hydroxideCalcium hydroxide is alkaline and is used to ______ acidic soil. Words – slaked, acidic, neutralise, decomposition, carbon dioxide
  5. 5. ANSWERSIf soil is too acidic crops will fail. Limestone can also be usedas a neutralising agent. There are two reactions to know:1) Firstly, a THERMAL decomposition reaction is used tobreak the calcium carbonate down into calcium oxide(quicklime) and carbon dioxide: HEAT Calcium carbonate calcium oxide + carbon dioxide2) This is then “slaked” with water to produce calciumhydroxide (“slaked lime”): WATER Calcium oxide calcium hydroxideCalcium hydroxide is alkaline and is used to neutralise acidicsoil.
  6. 6. Formation of oil and gas1) Layers of 2) Layers of 3) The heat and ________ fromdead sea _____ __________ these rocks, along with thesettle on the rock build up on absence of ______, mean that oilseabed. top. and gas are formed over ______ of years. Words – sedimentary, millions, oxygen, creatures, pressure
  7. 7. Hydrocarbons and crude oil Crude oil is a mixture of HYDROCARBONS (compounds made up of carbon and hydrogen). Some examples: H H Longer chains mean… Increasing length H C C H H H 1. Less ability to flow Ethane 2. Less flammable H H H HH C C C C H 3. Less volatile H H H H 4. Higher boiling point Butane
  8. 8. Fractional distillationCrude oil can be separated by fractional distillation. The oil is evaporatedand the hydrocarbon chains of different lengths condense at differenttemperatures: Fractions with low boilingpoints condense at the top Fractions with high boilingpoints condense at the bottom

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