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The History Of Anglo American Culture


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The History Of Anglo American Culture

  1. 1. CL4 – English Language and Culture for Business The History of Anglo- American Culture Prof. Peter Cullen
  2. 2. US Demographic Growth and Comparative Demographics
  3. 3. Pre-Columbian Old-World Systems
  4. 4. Western Europe and Cultivation Time Immemorium
  5. 5. Braudel’s Secular Trends and European Production Increase
  6. 6. The Columbian Moment Aztec Civilisation
  7. 7. The European “Age of Discovery”
  8. 8. The Columbian Moment Central American Production
  9. 9. The Spread of Colonisation 1600 - 1700
  10. 10. Colonial America (1750 – 1776)
  11. 11. The Columbian Moment Chesapeake Civilisation in 1607
  12. 12. The Columbian Moment Chesapeake Civilisation in 1670
  13. 13. The Columbian Moment New England and New France
  14. 14. The British Atlantic Economy in the 18° Century
  15. 15. The Columbian Moment The North
  16. 16. The Colombian Moment Trade and Exploration
  17. 17. European Global Politics War, War, and more War
  18. 18. European Expansion in America War, War, and more War
  19. 19. European Population Movements in North America Refugees from the United States
  20. 20. Society and the State 13 Atlantic American Colonies Declaration of Independence Drafting of the United States Constitution Consolidation of the structures of Government in the US Problem: Monarchy, Federalism, Regional Differences (state vs. State)
  21. 21. Thomas Jefferson (1743 – 1826) Born in Virginia to a prominent family 2° American governor of Virgina (1779 – 1781) 1° United States Secretary of State (1789 – 1793) 2° Vice-President of the United States (1797 – 1801) 3° President of the United States (1801 – 1809) Principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) Anti-Federalist (particulalry fiscal intrusion) Founded the Democratic-Republican Party with James Madison
  22. 22. Alexander Hamilton (1755 – 1804) Born on the island of Nevis in the West Indies Artillery captain in the War of Independence 1° United States Secretary of the Treasury (1789 – 1795) Believed in a strong a strong central government Created the 1° US national bank Federal funding of the national debt Federal assumption of state debts Import taxes and taxes on whiskey Created the Federalist Party – later the Whig or Democratic party Wanted friendly relations with Britain, industrialisation, extensive federal fiscal authority Was killed in a duel with Vice President Aaron Burr
  23. 23. US Elections 1789 - 1808
  24. 24. Immigration and the Consolidation of the American Republic
  25. 25. European Expansion in America Anglicising a Continent
  26. 26. Pres. James Monroe and The Monroe Doctrine The Monroe Doctrine: 1823 a constitutional amendment European powers could no longer colonise or interfere in the Americas The US will not intervene in European affairs unless its rights are disturbed It is a moral objection to colonialism It complements US recognition of South American countries struggling for independence from Spain
  27. 27. Manifest Destiny
  28. 28. Manifest Destiny Term coined in 1845 by journalist John O’Sullivan Idea supported by Andrew Jackson’s Democoratic Party to justify annexation of Texas and Oregon and expansion of territory west of the Mississippi “... our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of your yearly multiplying millions.”
  29. 29. The Americas and Slavery Slaves Transported to America (1500 - 1800) and the American Black Population (1800) Figures x 1000 American Slaves Proportion of Black Transported out Population in American Blacks of Africa to 1800 1800 to Imported Slaves United States 348 1002 2.88 Spanish Mainland 750 920 1.23 Brasil 2261 1988 0.88 Carrib ean 3889 1692 0.43 Eng. Car. 2060 570 0.28 Frnch Car. 1415 732 0.52 Spn. Car. 414 390 0.94 Total 7248 5602 0.77
  30. 30. American Westward Expansion
  31. 31. Production, Logistics, Westward Expansion
  32. 32. Civil War and Production
  33. 33. Slavery and Production 1860
  34. 34. The American Civil War The Fighting
  35. 35. Civil War and Production The Economic War
  36. 36. US Wealth Distribution 1872
  37. 37. The World on the Move 19th Century Population Movements
  38. 38. European Emigration to America the 19th Century
  39. 39. US Expansion in Latin America The Monroe Doctrine and the Roosevelt Corollary
  40. 40. Global Trade Logistics and American Expansion The Panama Canal
  41. 41. America’s Place in Global Affairs Entering the 20th Century World Stage
  42. 42. US Population Movement During the Depression
  43. 43. The Mid-20th Century Global Economy
  44. 44. US Economic Growth After WWII
  45. 45. US Population Movement in the 20th Century
  46. 46. US Highway Infrastructure
  47. 47. Global Exports 1970 - 2003
  48. 48. Prices and Inflation Price stability Consumer prices Price inflation Central Banks Consumer Confidence Price-directed spending Market Factors The cost of living Micro-economics Macro-economics Retail prices B2B prices Infrastructure and “Just in Time” delivery
  49. 49. Prices and Inflation Production Consumption Info and infrastructure Communication Cell phones, Internet, Courrier, road, rail, boat, air. Which sectors depend on physical Infrastructure ? Knowledge and infrastructure influence distribution and development cost. Cost influences the margin = price to end user
  50. 50. Prices and Inflation When consumer prices do not fall with the cost of production = INFLATION Negative affect on sales, jobs, and output = possible MARKET SHRINKAGE Cost/Price gap is driven by domestic production vs. imported materials/services Prices fluctuate: every 4-5 months in consumer manufactures never/rarely in fuel/utilities (until 2006/2007)
  51. 51. Milton Friedman and Monetarism 1970’s = Inflation AND high unemployment Curing STAGFLATION = Monetary policy vs. Fiscal policy Milton Friedman = unemployment cannot drop below a certain level without provoking an acceleration in the inflation rate. Price inflation was linked to wage inflation – which depended on inflationary expectations of employer/worker negotiation
  52. 52. Milton Friedman and Monetarism Workers wages Employers (unions) prices (capital) = layoffs unemployment Theoretically, wages conform to business cycles wages and prices rise until unemployment reaches market equilibrium = Labour market in balance with consumer market
  53. 53. Milton Friedman and Monetarism Goverment regulation and policies to cut unemployment necessarily drive UP inflation FRIEDMAN: instead of employment reform, government should guarantee a steady supply of money (print more) Problem: The globalisation of industrial and financial processes = OFF-SHORING and OUTSOURCING
  54. 54. Milton Friedman and Monetarism Friedman advocated DEREGULATION 1972 = the US $ is no longer tied to GOLD it is tied to PRODUCTION GROWTH Friedman and Ronald Reagan (Republican – 1980 – 1988) De–regulate production to stimulate the economy print a great deal of money increase US deficit immensly (3.x trillion dollars) do this by speculating on the value of US production
  55. 55. Milton Friedman and Monetarism Monetary policy = a central bank’s strategy for managing the production and circulation of money Affects: DI = $ circulating = spending exchange value of currency = change in impt/expt interest and circulation inflation = changes in spending/cost of production/ unemployment
  56. 56. Price Fluctuations in Europe and the US (2006) 2006 - The European Central Bank (ECB) publishes a 3 year study on retail prices Euro consumer prices change every 4 -5 quarters Prices change more often in the USA where discount sales are important Euro price changes tend to be BIG (average cut = 10%) (average hike = 8%)
  57. 57. Price Fluctuations in Europe and the US (2006) GENERAL RULE: more raw material in production = more price fluctuation i.e. Gas prices change every 5/6 months Fresh food prices change faster than processed food Service prices are “stickier” because they are LABOUR INTENSIVE = little downward movement Europe’s labour market is “gummier” than the US - cost of labour is higher - unions are more powerful
  58. 58. Commerce and the Balance of Payments The US and Italy
  59. 59. OPEC and Oil Prices
  60. 60. US Trading Partners in 2002
  61. 61. Global Population Increases
  62. 62. Global Transnationals and SMEs
  63. 63. Scale of Multinational Corporations a -1990 - 2005, b -Q3 2006 a b
  64. 64. The US Mexican Border 2006