Leadership and Business

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An overview of questions relating to leadership in business

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Leadership and Business

  1. 1. Globalisation andGlobalisation and TeamworkTeamwork Dr. Peter CullenDr. Peter Cullen Language and Culture for BusinessLanguage and Culture for Business Faculty of Foreign Languages and LiteratureFaculty of Foreign Languages and Literature University of Urbino Carlo BoUniversity of Urbino Carlo Bo www.cl4englishlistening.wordpress.comwww.cl4englishlistening.wordpress.com peter.cullen@uniurb.itpeter.cullen@uniurb.it
  2. 2. Teamwork: What is a team?Teamwork: What is a team? AA teamteam is a group of people who work together to acheiveis a group of people who work together to acheive a commona common goalgoal via commonly established and followedvia commonly established and followed proceduresprocedures ,, processesprocesses andand rulesrules.. m+m+m+m = 4m?m+m+m+m = 4m? associationassociation m+m+m+m = N?m+m+m+m = N? communitycommunity A team hasA team has directiondirection .. A team agrees onA team agrees on processprocess and rules for completing tasks.and rules for completing tasks. A team is a finite sphere ofA team is a finite sphere of cultural interactioncultural interaction .. A team may or may not have aA team may or may not have a team leaderteam leader .. Teams may beTeams may be formalformal oror informalinformal..
  3. 3. Understanding teamwork andUnderstanding teamwork and globalisationglobalisation Globalisation:Globalisation: ““The process ofThe process of transformationtransformation of local or regionalof local or regional phenomena into global ones. This process is aphenomena into global ones. This process is a combination of economic, technological, socio-cultural,combination of economic, technological, socio-cultural, and political forces.” Sheila Croucher (Miami U).and political forces.” Sheila Croucher (Miami U). Global systems are NOT new.Global systems are NOT new. The current scale of globalisation is.The current scale of globalisation is. ““Globalisation” as a theory developed from academicGlobalisation” as a theory developed from academic interest in capitalism and imperialism.interest in capitalism and imperialism.
  4. 4. Understanding teamwork andUnderstanding teamwork and globalisationglobalisation Information:Information: Information Technology (Information Technology ( ITIT) has increased participation in) has increased participation in global processes.global processes. ““global villageglobal village ” term popularised by communications” term popularised by communications theorist M. McLuhan between 1962-1964.theorist M. McLuhan between 1962-1964. ICTs now influence processes of:ICTs now influence processes of: personal communicationpersonal communication film/TV/musicfilm/TV/music marketingmarketing personal consumption (Amazon)personal consumption (Amazon) financefinance transport consumption (e-tickets)transport consumption (e-tickets) managementmanagement behavioural interactionbehavioural interaction languagelanguage ICT development itselfICT development itself
  5. 5. Understanding teamwork andUnderstanding teamwork and globalisationglobalisation Recent globalisation has dramatically changed theRecent globalisation has dramatically changed the field offield of interactioninteraction across societies.across societies. BUT:BUT: each society functions according to its owneach society functions according to its own culturalcultural learninglearning – initially.– initially. How can culturally different people from differentHow can culturally different people from different societies findsocieties find common valuescommon values and forms ofand forms of communicationcommunication for the purpose of acheiving a goal orfor the purpose of acheiving a goal or goals through shared processes?goals through shared processes? Lakshmi Mittal –Lakshmi Mittal – CEO/owner ofCEO/owner of Arcelor MittalArcelor Mittal
  6. 6. Understanding teamwork andUnderstanding teamwork and globalisationglobalisation Globalised teamwork may take two forms:Globalised teamwork may take two forms: Division of competenciesDivision of competencies among teams across the globeamong teams across the globe (traditional multinational corporate model)(traditional multinational corporate model) InteractionInteraction withinwithin a global team.a global team. (globalisation of management)(globalisation of management) In companies, each form suggests a different approach toIn companies, each form suggests a different approach to teamwork andteamwork and LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
  7. 7. What is leadership?What is leadership? LeadershipLeadership is the actis the act andand quality of leading other peoplequality of leading other people in a common effort to acheive a goal.in a common effort to acheive a goal. LeadersLeaders may be people or institutions.may be people or institutions. LeadershipLeadership may be formal, informal or both.may be formal, informal or both. LeadershipLeadership requires structures, systems and processes ofrequires structures, systems and processes of communication. It is institutionalised.communication. It is institutionalised. IT IS A FORM OFIT IS A FORM OF CULTURAL COMMUNCATIONCULTURAL COMMUNCATION
  8. 8. Leading peopleLeading people InIn humanhuman andand animalanimal societies and communities, certainsocieties and communities, certain individuals or limited groups act to organise and regulateindividuals or limited groups act to organise and regulate the behaviour of other group members.the behaviour of other group members. Conflict resolution was the prime motivator of the earlyConflict resolution was the prime motivator of the early functionality offunctionality of leadershipleadership in human communities.in human communities. It created a need forIt created a need for authorityauthority.. This differentiation significantly changed the wayThis differentiation significantly changed the way primates view theirprimates view their cultural fieldcultural field , creating a culture of, creating a culture of norms, rules and lawsnorms, rules and laws ..
  9. 9. Leading peopleLeading people Authorities function to establishAuthorities function to establish consensusconsensus andand directiondirection in groupin group behaviourbehaviour with respect to norms, rules and laws.with respect to norms, rules and laws. This requires cultural negotiation between leaders andThis requires cultural negotiation between leaders and the group.the group. Cultural negotiation may occur throughCultural negotiation may occur through linguisticlinguistic communicationcommunication OROR Non-linguisticNon-linguistic communication.communication.
  10. 10. Language and cultureLanguage and culture The language process uses aThe language process uses a codecode toto communicatecommunicate aa messagemessage from afrom a producerproducer to ato a receiverreceiver – but:– but: Each variable depends on its relationship to the other variablesEach variable depends on its relationship to the other variables forfor understandingunderstanding to happen.to happen. CultureCulture operates with a similar series of feedback loops.operates with a similar series of feedback loops. (i.e. Bourdieu)(i.e. Bourdieu) ProducerProducer codecode messagemessage communicationcommunication receiverreceiver understandingunderstanding MEMORYMEMORY Feedback loop at eachFeedback loop at each stagestage
  11. 11. Leading peopleLeading people Authority accessesAuthority accesses cultural feedback loopscultural feedback loops at differentat different places for different purposes.places for different purposes. Authority may beAuthority may be concentratedconcentrated oror distributeddistributed.. Concentrated to distributed authority.Concentrated to distributed authority. DictatorshipDictatorship Absolute monarchyAbsolute monarchy OligarchyOligarchy Parliamentary monarchyParliamentary monarchy Republican democracyRepublican democracy Cooperatives or communesCooperatives or communes
  12. 12. Leading peopleLeading people ConcentratedConcentrated authorityauthority createscreates andand imposesimposes message,message, enforcing rigid interpretation ofenforcing rigid interpretation of codecode.. Why?Why? DistributedDistributed authority creates message through activeauthority creates message through active consensus,consensus, seekingseeking legitimacylegitimacy of both message and codeof both message and code throughthrough social accordsocial accord .. Why?Why? Authority = responsibiltyAuthority = responsibilty
  13. 13. Leadership in businessLeadership in business Businesses have specific social, cultural, economic,Businesses have specific social, cultural, economic, political and historicalpolitical and historical contexts of developmentcontexts of development .. BusinessBusiness functions and processesfunctions and processes inform theirinform their approaches to leadership. Economic resources are theapproaches to leadership. Economic resources are the key.key. CorporationsCorporations Public companiesPublic companies Large family-owned companiesLarge family-owned companies MSMEsMSMEs US models?US models? Euro models?Euro models? Asia? Africa?Asia? Africa? Board of DirectorsBoard of Directors CEO/CFOCEO/CFO Dept. Director/ManagerDept. Director/Manager Middle managementMiddle management Owner-operatorOwner-operator Class A shareholderClass A shareholder Class B shareholderClass B shareholder StakeholdersStakeholders
  14. 14. Teamwork and leadershipTeamwork and leadership Global teams must understand their relationships toGlobal teams must understand their relationships to authorityauthority.. WhoseWhose goals?goals? Which processesWhich processes to achieve these goals?to achieve these goals? Is authorityIs authority concentratedconcentrated oror distributeddistributed?? Is the teamIs the team globally interactiveglobally interactive or divided according toor divided according to competencycompetency?? Is authorityIs authority internalinternal oror externalexternal to the team? Or both?to the team? Or both?
  15. 15. Teamwork and leadershipTeamwork and leadership Global teamwork may need toGlobal teamwork may need to create newcreate new andand personalised forms ofpersonalised forms of communicationcommunication in order to agree onin order to agree on processes for reaching team goals. Internal feedbackprocesses for reaching team goals. Internal feedback loops.loops. •Forms of communication must beForms of communication must be functionalfunctional to dailyto daily practice.practice. •Values within the team must beValues within the team must be functionalfunctional to dailyto daily practice.practice. •Results of teamwork must beResults of teamwork must be functionalfunctional to teamto team communication and values!communication and values! •Global teamwork must makeGlobal teamwork must make diversitydiversity functional.functional. Global teams must createGlobal teams must create communitycommunity . m+m+m+m = N. m+m+m+m = N
  16. 16. What is the role of culture in theWhat is the role of culture in the economy?economy? ConceptsConcepts :: ProductionProduction costcost exchangeexchange DistributionDistribution priceprice trade/exchangetrade/exchange ConsumptionConsumption returnreturn valuevalue All of these concepts involve learning feedback loops.All of these concepts involve learning feedback loops. Some of them directly involve a relationship to theSome of them directly involve a relationship to the physical worldphysical world .. Some of them areSome of them are abstractionsabstractions created for the purpose ofcreated for the purpose of understanding the physical world.understanding the physical world.
  17. 17. What is the role of culture in theWhat is the role of culture in the economy?economy? The concepts and actions that we defineThe concepts and actions that we define as “as “economiceconomic ” are” are bound by culturebound by culture .. What are some concepts of “economy”What are some concepts of “economy” and “business”?and “business”?
  18. 18. What is the role of culture in theWhat is the role of culture in the economy?economy? ValueValue:: The establishment of value is abstract, fluxuating, andThe establishment of value is abstract, fluxuating, and dependent on the cultural feedback loop.dependent on the cultural feedback loop. It combinesIt combines primary necessityprimary necessity withwith utilityutility (abstract)(abstract) Today, we useToday, we use moneymoney to establish value.to establish value. Luca Fantacci – money is:Luca Fantacci – money is: a means of exchangea means of exchange a measure of valuea measure of value a reserve of valuea reserve of value All dependent on the cultural feedback loop.All dependent on the cultural feedback loop.
  19. 19. What is the role of culture in theWhat is the role of culture in the economy?economy? TIMETIME: a dependent variable: a dependent variable The concept of time measures theThe concept of time measures the rate of changerate of change . It is a. It is a tooltool.. Tools are objects invented by man to interact with theTools are objects invented by man to interact with the internal and external environment.internal and external environment. i.e.i.e. Memory/activity requires timeMemory/activity requires time production, distribution, consumption requireproduction, distribution, consumption require timetime The approach to time is fundamental in economics.The approach to time is fundamental in economics. How does itHow does it functionfunction in relation to your team?in relation to your team?
  20. 20. What is the role of culture in theWhat is the role of culture in the economy?economy? ““Time is moneyTime is money ” – an American concept” – an American concept This is not true in real terms, but the metaphor guidesThis is not true in real terms, but the metaphor guides American business practices.American business practices. Can American concepts of time, expressed and learned inCan American concepts of time, expressed and learned in their business practices, betheir business practices, be appliedapplied in other parts of thein other parts of the world – such as Italy?world – such as Italy? Why? Why not? How? i.e -Why? Why not? How? i.e - business quarters, costbusiness quarters, cost accounting, mark toaccounting, mark to market,market, business planning, etc.,business planning, etc., etc., etc.etc., etc. Why is this an important question for Italians?Why is this an important question for Italians?
  21. 21. What is the role of culture in theWhat is the role of culture in the economy?economy? Answers to these questions are fundamental to success inAnswers to these questions are fundamental to success in global business and teamwork.global business and teamwork. FindingFinding functionalfunctional answers requires culturalanswers requires cultural contextualisations of relationships.contextualisations of relationships. contractual, informal, communicationscontractual, informal, communications consumption, service, production...consumption, service, production... History can help find explanations of culturally specificHistory can help find explanations of culturally specific behaviour in different regions.behaviour in different regions. i.e.i.e. AmericaAmerica is notis not ItalyItaly – why? Understand this– why? Understand this  teamwork!teamwork!
  22. 22. What is the role of diversity inWhat is the role of diversity in culturally diverse teams?culturally diverse teams? Teamwork in the global arena requiresTeamwork in the global arena requires RESPECTRESPECT for diversity.for diversity. DiversityDiversity of approach to authority, time, value, labourof approach to authority, time, value, labour RespectRespect == listenlisten identifyidentify messagemessage contextualisecontextualise meaningmeaning TOWARDTOWARD teamteam functionalityfunctionality establishestablish message in team context (NOT easy!)message in team context (NOT easy!) Diversity produces strong teams since cultural and linguisticDiversity produces strong teams since cultural and linguistic feedback loops with in the group arefeedback loops with in the group are consciousely evaluatedconsciousely evaluated more often. This takes a lot of work! BE patient!more often. This takes a lot of work! BE patient! Fewer cultural assumptions = stronger emphasis on currentFewer cultural assumptions = stronger emphasis on current group identity. Functionality = identity-building opportunity.
  23. 23. Food for thoughtFood for thought Businesses are culturally formedBusinesses are culturally formed identity systemsidentity systems .. NONO single business system is thesingle business system is the right oneright one for everyone.for everyone. Successful GLOBAL business respectsSuccessful GLOBAL business respects identities in transitidentities in transit between local, regional and global arenas.between local, regional and global arenas. Global business is in aGlobal business is in a push/pull relationshippush/pull relationship with globalwith global teamwork opportunities.teamwork opportunities. BusinessBusiness benefits frombenefits from learninglearning about multiple existing socio-about multiple existing socio- cultural and economic systems in order to build effective NEWcultural and economic systems in order to build effective NEW interactional business contexts = better teamworkinteractional business contexts = better teamwork  betterbetter global business!global business!
  24. 24. Thank you!Thank you! Dr. Peter CullenDr. Peter Cullen Language and Culture for BusinessLanguage and Culture for Business Faculty of Foreign Languages and LiteratureFaculty of Foreign Languages and Literature University of Urbino Carlo BoUniversity of Urbino Carlo Bo www.cl4englishlistening.wordpress.comwww.cl4englishlistening.wordpress.com peter.cullen@uniurb.itpeter.cullen@uniurb.it

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