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Cl4 B2 And Laz B1 Module 1 Italian Culture And Business


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Cl4 B2 And Laz B1 Module 1 Italian Culture And Business

  1. 1. CL4/LAZ: Language and Culture for Business Module 1: Italian Culture and Business Prof. Peter Cullen
  2. 2. Introduction to Language, Culture and Business in Italy Why language, culture and business? International communication Modes in the English case: EFL ESL CLIL Since WWII the Italian economy has become increasingly involved in a US dominated global economy. But – English is not only for the English! Wall Street
  3. 3. Introduction to Language, Culture and Business in Italy Millions of non-native speakers use English frequently. It is a lingua franca – or global language It facilitates global interaction in politics, economics and culture BUT – communication is CULTURAL!!! Business MUST understand culturally contextualised MEANING!!!
  4. 4. Introduction to Language, Culture and Business in Italy For example: A contract means different things in different places – In the US – formal product to govern a relationship In Italy, formal recognition of a continuing relationship In Iraq – it is the formal recognition of the beginning of a relationship
  5. 5. Introduction to Language, Culture and Business in Italy How can we understand cultural contexts in business? 1° - WHAT IS LANGUAGE? 2° - WHAT IS CULTURE? 3° - WHAT IS BUSINESS? All of these are PROCESSES that form part of human behaviour.
  6. 6. What is Language? The language process uses a code to communicate a message from a producer to a receiver – but: Each variable depends on its relationship to the other variables for understanding to happen. Producer code message communication receiver understanding Feedback loop at each stage
  7. 7. Introduction to Language, Culture and Business in Italy Culture operates with a similar process. It includes language, but also: Physical relationships with the internal and external environments (mind – body, nature – nurture) based on the sensory perception Psychological perception, processing, memory and physical activation
  8. 8. What is Culture? <ul><li>Learning culture: Pierre Bourdieu and field , habitus, doxa </li></ul><ul><li>Field : the arena of social interaction – verticle and horizontal – constituted by the relational differences of social agents. </li></ul><ul><li>Habitus : lasting aquired schemes of perception, thought and action internally developed by </li></ul><ul><li>social agents in reaction to objective conditions (i.e. of field). </li></ul><ul><li>Doxa : deep-founded, unthought beliefs that inform an agent’s actions in the field . Universal </li></ul><ul><li>concepts. These propagate the structure of the field. </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is the role of culture in society? People are socially dependent. Social dependency requires communication of some form to: Establish behaviour – NORMS Reinforce accepted or functional behaviour Learn boundaries of acceptance/refusal The learning feedback loop makes culture active: It is the ways in which a society establishes, reinforces, and limits its behaviours within the group.
  10. 10. What is the role of culture in the economy? The concepts and actions that we define as “economic” are bound by culture. What are some concepts of “economy” and “business”?
  11. 11. What is the role of culture in the economy? Concepts: Production cost exchange Distribution price trade/exchange Consumption return value All of these concepts involve the learning feedback loop. Some of them directly involve a relationship to the physical world. Some of them are abstractions created for the purpose of understanding the physical world.
  12. 12. What is the role of culture in the economy? Value: The establishment of value is abstract, fluxuating, and dependent on the cultural feedback loop. It combines primary necessity with utility (abstract) Today, we use money to establish value. Luca Fantacci – money is: a means of exchange a measure of value a reserve of value All dependent on the cultural feedback loop.
  13. 13. What is the role of culture in society? TIME: a dependent variable The concept of time measures the rate of change. It is a tool. Tools are objects invented by man to interact with the internal and external environment. i.e. Memory/activity requires time production, distribution, consumption require time The approach to time is fundamental in economics
  14. 14. What is the role of culture in the economy? “ Time is money” – an american concept This is not true in real terms, but the metaphor guides american business practices. Can American concepts of time, expressed and learned in their business practices, be applied in other parts of the world – such as Italy? Why? Why not? How? Why is this an important question for Italians?
  15. 15. What is the role of culture in the economy? Answers to these questions are fundamental to success in business. Finding functional answers requires cultural contextualisations of relationships. contractual, informal, communications consumption, service... History can help find explanations of culturally specific behaviour in different regions. i.e. America is not Italy – why?
  16. 16. Abu-Lughud’s 13° Century World System
  17. 17. Italy – physical geography <ul><li>Alps </li></ul><ul><li>Appennines </li></ul><ul><li>Tyrhennian Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Adraitic Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Ionian Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Gulf of Genoa </li></ul><ul><li>Gulf of Taranto </li></ul><ul><li>Po Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Apulian Plain </li></ul><ul><li>Po River </li></ul><ul><li>Tiber River </li></ul><ul><li>Adige River </li></ul>
  18. 18. Italy: Regions - The North <ul><li>Piedmont </li></ul><ul><li>Lombardy </li></ul><ul><li>Liguria </li></ul><ul><li>Trentino </li></ul><ul><li>Veneto </li></ul><ul><li>Friuli </li></ul><ul><li>Parma and Modena </li></ul><ul><li>Emilia-Romagna </li></ul><ul><li>Cities : Turin, Milan, Genoa, </li></ul><ul><li>Trent, Parma, Modena, </li></ul><ul><li>Verona, Bologna, Venice, </li></ul><ul><li>Udine, Trieste, Rimini </li></ul>
  19. 19. Italy: Regions - The Centre <ul><li>Tuscany </li></ul><ul><li>The Marches </li></ul><ul><li>Umbria </li></ul><ul><li>Lazio </li></ul><ul><li>Cities: Bologna, Rimini, </li></ul><ul><li>Florence, Pisa, Livorno, </li></ul><ul><li>Siena, Pesaro, Ancona, </li></ul><ul><li>Fabriano, Perugia, Foligno, </li></ul><ul><li>Macerata, Ascoli, Assisi, Terni, </li></ul><ul><li>Viterbo, Rome, Latina, Aprilia </li></ul>
  20. 20. Italy: Regions – The South <ul><li>Abruzzo </li></ul><ul><li>Campania </li></ul><ul><li>Molise </li></ul><ul><li>Puglia </li></ul><ul><li>Basilicata </li></ul><ul><li>Calabria </li></ul><ul><li>Sicily </li></ul><ul><li>Sardinia </li></ul><ul><li>Cities: Naples, Benevento, </li></ul><ul><li>Campobasso, Pescara, Bari, </li></ul><ul><li>Taranto, Lecce, Potenza, </li></ul><ul><li>Matera, Cosenza, Catanzaro, </li></ul><ul><li>Reggio Calabria, Messina, </li></ul><ul><li>Catania, Palermo, Trapani, </li></ul><ul><li>Syracuse, Cagliari, Sassari </li></ul>
  21. 23. Soil Characteristics in Italy
  22. 25. U.S. Bureau of the Census
  23. 27. Grain Harvest in the Marches (1950’s)
  24. 28. Threshing Grain (1940’s)
  25. 29. Water Powered Flour Mill
  26. 30. Baking Equipment (1950’s)
  27. 31. The Cattle Market (1939)
  28. 32. A Land-owner on His Horse
  29. 33. Womens’ Work?
  30. 34. Mens’ Work? (transhumance)
  31. 35. Field Accomodations for Migrant Labourers in Northern Lazio
  32. 36. Pressing Wine
  33. 37. Italy Compared to World Manufacturing Output
  34. 38. European Infrastructure and Demography 1870
  35. 39. Italy at Unification, 1866-1870
  36. 41. Colonial Empires 1850-1945
  37. 42. Consumption per Area in 1885 (gr/day) <ul><li>North Centre South </li></ul><ul><li>Bread 656 760 1029 </li></ul><ul><li>Pasta 5.8 18.4 29.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Corn Flour 21.8 18.6 - </li></ul><ul><li>Rice 19.7 4.6 1.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh Meat 11.1 10.7 7.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Salted Meat 2.4 2.3 1.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Cheese 3.0 5.0 4.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Milk (Lt) 0.1 0.03 0.04 </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables 22.7 18.3 35.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Wine (Lt) 0.44 0.74 0.81 </li></ul>
  38. 43. Urban Landscape in 1900: Salt and Tabacco Monopolies, The Bar
  39. 44. Italy in WWI <ul><li>Entered in 1915 after pressure from UK and France </li></ul><ul><li>Motive – to capture or receive Trento, Trieste, and Istria, Dalmatia, and some territories in Turkey (promised by UK and France) </li></ul><ul><li>They fought against the Austro-Hungarians in the Alps </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences: </li></ul><ul><li>600,000 killed </li></ul><ul><li>Post-war economic collapse with high inflation and unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Italy only received Trento, Trieste, and Istria – considered a “mutilated victory” </li></ul>
  40. 45. The Italian Campaign – Fighting in the Alps <ul><li>Altitude </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-Permanent winter war </li></ul><ul><li>Little movement – intense </li></ul><ul><li>labour </li></ul>
  41. 46. The Italian Campaign in the North 1915 - 1917
  42. 47. The Italian Campaign at the End of the War - 1918
  43. 48. Imperial Interests in North Africa - WWI
  44. 49. Fascism <ul><li>1921, Bourgeois socialist movement </li></ul><ul><li>without ties to industry or agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>prone to violent conflict with radical socialists </li></ul><ul><li>1921 – Mussolini’s attempt to make </li></ul><ul><li>a pact with the socialists fails (internally) </li></ul><ul><li>The March on Rome 26-30/10/1922 – Fascists under Mussolini take control </li></ul><ul><li>prompted by weak central government under Luigi Facta and a general strike called by the socialists – Mussolini seizes the moment for Fascist squads to break the strike </li></ul><ul><li>Vittorio Emmanuele “invites” the Fascists to Rome by refusing to sign a decree supressing their “march” by force </li></ul><ul><li>(this receives support from England and the US as an anti-communist solution. The New York Times called Mussolini “Garibaldi in a Black Shirt”) </li></ul>
  45. 50. Facsism and the Economy 1922-1943 <ul><li>Monetary policy is orthodox – based on gold standard and tending to increase liquidity = creates inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Fiscal policy 1° emphasises balanced budget then increases public spending as central authority increases </li></ul><ul><li>The Fascist govt. Must repay war debt to US and UK and reached a repayment accord in 1925 of nominal favour but relative severity (until which no FDI) </li></ul><ul><li>April, 1926 – the Lira tanks but Mussolini is able to scale back prices and wages – without great difficulty. Benefits of dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>1927-28 = relative currency stability but industry is fragmented and artisanal: </li></ul>
  46. 51. Facsism and the Economy 1922-1943 <ul><li>...and the 1929 Stock Market Crash </li></ul><ul><li>Hits gold standard economies hard </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini – like the US etc. Manages to save the economy through public spending (war in Ethiopia) and economic development projects </li></ul><ul><li>More money printed = inflation = 10/1936 Italy abandons the gold standard </li></ul><ul><li>Price and wage discipline keeps the economy afloat internally </li></ul><ul><li>WWII allows massive public spending (also on industrial goods) </li></ul>
  47. 52. Wages in the Fascist Period <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>WAGES (index 1913 = 100 at constant prices) </li></ul><ul><li>total private </li></ul><ul><li>consumption IV cat . XII cat. </li></ul><ul><li>per capita day labour factories rail state emp. state emp. </li></ul><ul><li>______________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>1923 115 129 133 145 67 94 </li></ul><ul><li>1925 116 113 126 135 75 80 </li></ul><ul><li>1927 118 123 125 140 75 78 </li></ul><ul><li>1929 122 130 110 155 85 80 </li></ul><ul><li>1931 114 132 110 162 109 95 </li></ul><ul><li>1934 115 135 119 160 114 106 </li></ul><ul><li>1936 112 125 105 158 103 99 </li></ul><ul><li>1938 120 120 106 153 100 95 </li></ul><ul><li>1941 111 nd nd nd 86 95 </li></ul>
  48. 53. Fascism and Foreign Affairs <ul><li>Fascism had significant support in the UK and the US as a way of bringing order to fragmented post-WWI Italian politics and economy </li></ul><ul><li>(until 1929) </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini wanted Germany to guarantee Italian border with Austria and signed the Kellog-Briand Pact (1928) of non-agression in Europe – hinted at war with France over borders as long as Austria remained a buffer with Germany </li></ul>
  49. 54. Fascism and Foreign Affairs <ul><li>Mussolini held UK in high regard, initially. Churchill called him “the greatest legislator alive” after a visit in 1927. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy’s foreign policy was to be “the weight that tips the balance” (Foreign Minister Grandi – 1931) </li></ul><ul><li>1935 war with Ethiopia was a way to leave the “gold block” and excercise direct govt. control over trade through ministerial licences </li></ul>
  50. 55. Fascism and Foreign Affairs – Build up to War <ul><li>1932 – Mussolini assumes personal control over the Ministry of Foreign Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>1933 – he pushes for a “Pact of Four” between UK, France, Italy and Germany – taking for granted Grandi’s “weight that tips...” policy without having the real economic or military weight needed. Only UK signs </li></ul><ul><li>1934 – after a Nazi coup attempt in Vienna – Mussolini mobilised 4 divisions on the north-east border to thwart German expansion </li></ul>
  51. 56. Fascism and Foreign Affairs – Build up to War <ul><li>5/10/1935 – Italian troops enter Ethiopia – upsetting African colonial powers. UK sends the fleet and Mussolini sends 3 divisions to the border with Egypt. Diplomatically resolved – Italy is allowed use of the Suez – but economic sanctions are imposed by the League of Nations on exports and oil/weapons imports </li></ul><ul><li>1936 – Mussolini sends 60,000 troops to Spain to support Franco </li></ul>
  52. 57. Fascism and the Build-up to War – Relations with Germany <ul><li>1936 – Mussolini cedes the Foreign Ministry to Galeazzo Ciano </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish Civil War is a meeting point for Hitler and Mussolini </li></ul><ul><li>24° Oct. 1936 – Ciano and his counterpart Neurath form the Rome-Berlin axis to counter bolshevism – inviting all European countries to participate – this indicates a return to German influence in the East </li></ul><ul><li>1938 – Anschluss with Austria must be accepted </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler guarantees Italian influence in the Med. </li></ul><ul><li> to cover the southern theatre in case of war with </li></ul><ul><li>UK and France </li></ul>
  53. 58. Fascism and the Build-up to War – Relations with Germany <ul><li>German ministers court Italy in 1937-38 </li></ul><ul><li>1937 status quo in Med = Gentlemen’s agreement </li></ul><ul><li>with the UK </li></ul><ul><li>29/09/1938 Munich meeting – Hitler states his confidence that Italy will stay by Germany in any eventuality – Mussolini attempts neutrality on Sudetenland </li></ul><ul><li>22/05/1939 – Italy and Germany </li></ul><ul><li>sign the Pact of Steel , binding military </li></ul><ul><li>alliance – Vittorio Emanuele III </li></ul><ul><li>is not consulted </li></ul>
  54. 59. Italy in the Mediterranean: WWII <ul><li>09/1939 – Ciano forwards to Hitler logistical reasons Italy cannot enter the war </li></ul><ul><li>The Mediterranean secures logistics for land war in the surrounding theatres. Italy’s primary objective was to resolve border disputes with France </li></ul><ul><li>1940 – Italy enters the war on June 10 1940 – sending troops to France </li></ul><ul><li>(guaranteeing a place at peace talks and assuaging German reprisal for non-intervention) </li></ul><ul><li>June 11 Italy lays naval siege to the port of Malta (under British Control) this was a naval and air battle </li></ul><ul><li>To support the Italian Air effort, and German advance in North Africa – the Luftwaffe sent a bomber wing to Sicily </li></ul><ul><li>UK reinforces by aircraft carrier and by 1942 defended the island with modern Spitfire aircraft – Gibraltar and Suez are in British hands </li></ul><ul><li>Malta later offered air cover for shipping and the amphibious invasion of Sicily </li></ul>
  55. 60. Italy in the Mediterranean: Invasion <ul><li>July 9 1943 –US 7° army and British 8° army invade Sicily </li></ul><ul><li>Idea was to take Sicily for strategic bombing and pressure Mussolini’s hold on the country. VE III had been alienated (also self alienated) from the war effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Sicily would act as a staging ground for land invasion of the peninsula – but this was planned only after the invasion of Sicily. (9/9/1943 – Salerno; 22/01/1944 – Anzio). </li></ul>
  56. 61. Italy in the Mediterranean: Invasion <ul><li>24-25 July, ’43 – The General Council (with Grandi and Ciano) voted to limit Mussolini’s power. </li></ul><ul><li>25/07 Vittorio Emanuele nominated Pietro Badoglio as President of the Council – VE takes command of the Army and has the Carabinieri arrest Mussolini. </li></ul><ul><li>8/09/1943 – Badoglio signed an armistice with the allies AFTER VE had promised Hitler that Italy would not abandon the Axis. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler turns his troops against the Italian army and occupies the peninsula as far south as Naples. </li></ul>
  57. 62. Italy in the Mediterranean: Invasion <ul><li>Badoglio and General Secretary Prunas of the Southern Kingdom look to Stalin for recognition of legitimacy as a national government – ’43 and ’44. </li></ul><ul><li>It was the British VIII army, however, that actually occupied the territory on the Adriatic side of the peninsula and guaranteed the removal of the Germans. </li></ul><ul><li>29/09/1943 </li></ul><ul><li>The Anglo-American forces, in the process of forming a joint staff in preparation for the invasion of France, forced the Southern Kingdom into a harsh armistice, without granting them the position of ally. </li></ul><ul><li>Badoglio attempts to declare war against Germany, but the declaration is “returned to sender”. </li></ul><ul><li>The southern kingdom is treated as a pacified enemy. </li></ul>
  58. 63. Italy in the Mediterranean: Recognition <ul><li>Hitler’s paratroopers broke Mussolini out of prison. </li></ul><ul><li>– Stalin offered support to Italian communist partisans and opened formal diplomatic relations (14/03/1944) with Prunas in order to return former PCI secretary Palmiro Togliatti – </li></ul><ul><li>but in an interview with Togliatti, Stalin forbids “revolution” so as not to upset his allies – </li></ul><ul><li>rather, he supports “ a long slow march towards the </li></ul><ul><li>institutions”. </li></ul><ul><li>This has lasting effect on the way communism would be supported in this country. </li></ul>
  59. 64. Italy in the Mediterranean: Recognition <ul><li>The southern kingdom was an arena pulled in three different directions: </li></ul><ul><li>Toward Russian interests through Prunas and Togliatti </li></ul><ul><li>Toward British interests through Badoglio (Churchill’s Britain) </li></ul><ul><li>Toward American interests through formal diplomatic recognition of relations on 26/10/1944 (Gothic line had fallen) – Germans in orderly retreat to the North. </li></ul><ul><li>Communism Monarchy Free-market Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>ITALY </li></ul>
  60. 65. The Geography of the Allied Advance in WWII
  61. 66. The Gothic Line 1944
  62. 67. Italy in the Mediterranean: Government <ul><li>Nazi Germany falls in Aprile 1945. </li></ul><ul><li>In Italy, the allies ask the partisans to come out of hiding and enter talks about reconstructing the country and the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporation rather than exclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Three parties are formed: </li></ul><ul><li>PCI – international communism </li></ul><ul><li>Socialists – a “third path” between communism and capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>The Christian Democrats – international catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>All anti-fascist – embarked on a programme of “de-nationalisation” (in the fascist sense) of the country. </li></ul>
  63. 68. Export Growth 1820-1992 1602 17,784 2350 612 3853 2090 1071 494 1992 128 210 225 97 126 149 35 100 1950 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1913 24 3 13 - 39 31 18 31 1870 3 - 1 - 7 4 4 3 1820 Export Volume Index (1913 = 100) World Japan USA Russia Italy France Germany UK Territory
  64. 69. Average Annual Growth <ul><li>1820-1870 1870-1913 1913-1950 1950-1992 </li></ul><ul><li>UK 4.6 2.7 0.0 3.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Germany 3.0 3.8 -1.3 8.1 </li></ul><ul><li>France 3.9 2.7 1.1 6.3 </li></ul><ul><li>Italy 3.4 2.1 0.6 8.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Russia - - -0.1 4.3 </li></ul><ul><li>USA 5.1 4.7 2.2 5.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Japan - 8.1 2.0 10.6 </li></ul><ul><li>World 4.2 3.3 0.7 6.0 </li></ul>
  65. 70. European Per Capita GDP Growth: 1820-1992
  66. 71. Industrial Production of Central/Northern Italy 1440-1990 (x 1 million)
  67. 72. Price-Production Index 1440-1990
  68. 73. Per-capita Production 1440-1990
  69. 74. Post-War Italy: Reconstruction <ul><li>The Referendum on the Republic (June 2 1946) </li></ul><ul><li>total votes: pro-republic pro-monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>12,700,000 (54%) 10,700,000 (46%) </li></ul><ul><li>Regional votes (%): </li></ul><ul><li>Venice-tridentina 85 15 Cities and towns: R M </li></ul><ul><li>Emilia 77 23 Turin 60 40 </li></ul><ul><li>Umbria 71.9 28.1 Rome 46 54 </li></ul><ul><li>Tuscany 71.6 28.4 Ravenna 91.2 8.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Marche 70.1 29.9 Cesena 91.3 8.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Liguria 69 31 Carrara 88.1 11.9 </li></ul><ul><li>Lombardy 64.1 35.9 Livorno 80.5 19.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Val D’Aosta 63.5 36.5 Messina 14.6 85.4 </li></ul><ul><li>Veneto 59.3 40.7 Palermo 15.8 84.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Piedmont 57.1 42.9 Catania 18.2 81.4 </li></ul><ul><li>Lazio 48.6 51.4 Naples 20.1 79.9 </li></ul><ul><li>Abruzzi 43.1 56.9 Bari 25.2 56.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Lucania 40.6 59.4 </li></ul><ul><li>Calabria 39.7 60.3 </li></ul><ul><li>Sardinia 39.1 60.9 </li></ul><ul><li>Sicily 35.3 64.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Apulia 32.7 67.3 </li></ul><ul><li>Campania 23.5 76.5 </li></ul>
  70. 75. ERP <ul><li>Developed by Sec. of State </li></ul><ul><li>George Marshall </li></ul><ul><li>Active July 1947 – July 1951 </li></ul><ul><li>13 billion USD in economic and </li></ul><ul><li>technical assitance to countries </li></ul><ul><li>joining the EECo-op group </li></ul><ul><li>Offered to Soviets – rejected </li></ul><ul><li>as Dollar Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed by Joint Chiefs of Staff to contain communism </li></ul>
  71. 76. Agricultural Production 1861-1950 <ul><li>The South: Latifundia – agricultural production based on large, extensive land ownership worked by day labourers and employees/bondsmen who owed loyalty to the landowner. Labourers lived in agro-towns. Clientage relationships dominate. </li></ul><ul><li>Latifundia Reform 1882-1890 parcel out land to small holders/day labourers </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-mechanical grain economy = low productivity </li></ul><ul><li>high birth rates </li></ul><ul><li>complemented by sheep </li></ul><ul><li>seasonal productivity </li></ul><ul><li>1861-1907: labourer salaries reduced due to presence of grain threshers </li></ul><ul><li>1882-1890 reforms failed because large landowners were too influential in government: 1.5 million Sicilians emigrated to US, Canada, S. America between 1876 and 1925. </li></ul>
  72. 77. Agricultural Production 1861-1950 <ul><li>The Centre and North: Largely seft-sufficient markets based on mixed cultivation produced in the mezzadria system – peasant family leases the podere from the landlord (1 year renewable) and pays rent in kind at a rate of 50% of harvests. </li></ul><ul><li>Small-medium farms </li></ul><ul><li>family operated </li></ul><ul><li>5-6 people per family </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed agriculture = intense labour and high yield/hectare </li></ul><ul><li>Centre and North have access to oxen = smaller units can work more land. </li></ul><ul><li>North/South divide – in Southern Europe raising 1 ox requires +- 10-12 hectares. In northern Europe only 2-3 hectares needed. </li></ul>
  73. 78. Population of Italy 1771-1991 (x1000)
  74. 79. The 1950 Land Reform <ul><li>700,000 hectares </li></ul><ul><li>taken from 2805 large </li></ul><ul><li>landowners and </li></ul><ul><li>assigned to 109,000 </li></ul><ul><li>families (of small </li></ul><ul><li>landholders and </li></ul><ul><li>landless peasants) </li></ul><ul><li>1950-1975 = % drop in: </li></ul><ul><li>Poderi 22.4 </li></ul><ul><li>Quote 14.3 </li></ul><ul><li>Lotti 25.6 </li></ul>
  75. 80. Internal Migration: 1950-1970 <ul><ul><li>= 15,000 inhabitants </li></ul></ul>
  76. 81. Population Resident by Class of Demographic Concentration <ul><li>Demographic class </li></ul><ul><li>(urban concentration in %) </li></ul><ul><li> 1931 1936 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>< 20,000 </li></ul><ul><li>pop. 64.3 63.0 58.7 53.0 47.6 46.6 47.4 </li></ul><ul><li>20,000- </li></ul><ul><li>250,000 </li></ul><ul><li>pop. 23.5 23.8 25.0 27.7 31.7 33.9 35.3 </li></ul><ul><li>>250,000 </li></ul><ul><li>pop. 12.2 13.2 16.3 19.3 20.7 19.5 17.3 </li></ul><ul><li>Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 </li></ul>
  77. 82. Poor but Beautiful <ul><li>Sofia Loren teaches Italian working class women to be beautiful. </li></ul><ul><li>Sofia Villani Scicolone (Rome: 1934) </li></ul><ul><li>(“L’oro di Napoli” – 1954 by De Sica) </li></ul><ul><li>little make-up </li></ul><ul><li>authentic </li></ul><ul><li>accessible </li></ul><ul><li>= ? </li></ul>
  78. 83. Expansion of Turin - Roman Period to 1971
  79. 84. The Economic Miracle 1950-1975 <ul><li>Transportation revolution: the FIAT 500 </li></ul><ul><li>allowed commuting in rural/provincial areas </li></ul><ul><li>inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>reliable </li></ul><ul><li>efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation revolution: the Piaggio Vespa </li></ul><ul><li>individual transport </li></ul><ul><li>An urban solution </li></ul>
  80. 85. Land Use in Italy 1972
  81. 86. Distribution of Labour 1961-1981
  82. 87. Distribution of Labour 1861-2003 <ul><li>Ag. Ind. Serv. </li></ul><ul><li>% LF %GDP %LF %GDP %LF %GDP </li></ul><ul><li>1861 69.7 54.4 18.1 18.7 12.2 26.9 </li></ul><ul><li>1871 67.5 54.4 19.2 16.7 13.3 31.4 </li></ul><ul><li>1881 61.8 51.9 20.5 16.7 17.7 31.4 </li></ul><ul><li>1911 59.1 42.7 23.6 23.2 17.3 34.1 </li></ul><ul><li>1938 52.0 26.5 25.6 30.5 22.4 43.0 </li></ul><ul><li>2003 05.0 02.3 32.0 29.4 63.0 68.3 </li></ul><ul><li>There are eroding ties between demography and labour productivity = why? </li></ul>
  83. 88. Population of Italy 1972
  84. 89. Italian Rail Network 2007
  85. 90. Regional Industrial Production 1972
  86. 92. Global Distribution of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises per 1000 People
  87. 93. World Transnational Parent Company Presence 1993-2005
  88. 94. Scale of Multinational Corporations a -1990 - 2005, b -Q3 2006 a b
  89. 95. FIAT: The Agnelli Empire (reported 2006) Dicembre G. Agnelli and Co. IFI IFIL FIAT Group “ Cascaded Companies A shares B shares 31.2% of votes 53% of votes* 65% of votes 30.3% of votes 3% of votes *% of extraordinary meeting votes – they hold all votes otherwise
  90. 96. 1968-2007 The From Industry to Services <ul><li>The “Anni di Piombo” – political parties must manage a politicised youth. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy: the population, like in the UK, US, France and Germany – is young and becoming university educated. </li></ul><ul><li>There is much tension between extreme right and extreme left groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic growth is fast – prompting youth to push for faster social change </li></ul><ul><li>Violence was used by both Left and Right wing groups – with corrupt government officials tending to support the Right </li></ul>
  91. 97. Extremism 1968-1987 <ul><li>1960’s the Italian Socialist Party is formally recognised in Parliament and immediately contrasts the traditional Democratic Christian Party (DC) </li></ul><ul><li>Feb. 1968 – the Tet offensive spurs radical communism among youth </li></ul><ul><li>translating into a vehement political need for improving the standards of factory workers in Europe and Italy. </li></ul>
  92. 98. Extremism 1968-1987 <ul><li>PCI influenced groups radicalise (mainly youth) and form splinter extra-parlimentary groups: Lotta Continua, Potere operaio, Avanguardia operaia – workers rights become the cause of the student generation </li></ul><ul><li>By 1970 the istituzione delle regioni confer political power to new regional governments </li></ul><ul><li>AUTUNNO CALDO – Fall 1969 “New Left” members occupy the FIAT factory in Milan </li></ul>
  93. 99. Extremism 1968-1987 <ul><li>December 1969 – 4 bombs struck the Altare della Patria and the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro in Rome, and the Banca Commerciale and Banca Nazionale dell’Agricola in Milan. </li></ul><ul><li>The police arrested 4000 left wing extremists and party associates – causing hot protest among students </li></ul><ul><li>One of the young people arrested – anarchist Giuseppe Pinelli “fell” out of a window while in prison and died. Lotta Continua accused police officer Luigi Calabresi of murdering him. </li></ul>
  94. 100. Extremism 1968-1987 <ul><li>Lotta Continua accused extreme right wing groups of the bombings and using support within the police forces to blame the Left – court procedings in the 1980’s proved them right. </li></ul><ul><li>December 1970 – Junio Valerio Borghese ex Colonel of the X°MAS led (as a figurehead) a fascist coup plot – which was diffused at the beginning of 1971 </li></ul>
  95. 101. Extremism 1968 - 1987 <ul><li>Summer 1971 – Richard Nixon suspends the “convertability” of the US $ into gold – removing the $ from the gold exchange standard. (managing US debt was a form of managing the balance of payments in most of the non-Soviet world) </li></ul><ul><li>May 17, 1972 – Calabresi is assassinated in Milan – the Carabinieri attempt to blame Lotta Continua but in 1974 – two neo-fascist activists are indicted. This is the 1° political assassination of the 1970’s </li></ul>
  96. 102. Extremism 1968-1987 <ul><li>1972 – Peteano – 3 Carabinieri killed in a bomb attack. Lotta Continua is blamed and some of its members are arrested. In the 1980s it was discovered that the bomb was made with military C-4 explosive, and a neo-fascist confessed. </li></ul><ul><li>1972 – 1974 sees a series of these right wing de-stabilising bombings. </li></ul>
  97. 103. Extremism 1968 - 1987 <ul><li>July 1974 – another attempt at Neo-Fascist coup </li></ul><ul><li>Protagonist Count Edgardo Sogno wrote in his memoirs &quot;the United States would have supported any initiative tending to keep the communists out of government.&quot; The CIA and Italian secret service supported this. </li></ul><ul><li>1974-1976 Potere operaio, Lotta Continua, and the Brigate Rosse disband or split apart after the 1974 arrest of the Red Brigade leaders Renato Curcio and Alberto Franceschini. </li></ul>
  98. 104. Extremism 1968 - 1987 <ul><li>1973 Enrico Berlinguer, secretary of the PCI pushed through the Compromesso Storico – partially uniting and pacifying differences between the PCI, the socialists, and the DC – and afferming the non-Soviet characteristics of the PCI (condemned the invasion of Czech in 68). </li></ul><ul><li>The Centre-Left splintered by 76, allowing the PCI to take Italian politics further to the left. </li></ul>
  99. 105. Extremism 1968 - 1978 <ul><li>The governments of this time were not able to discipline the forces of order to combat either left or right wing terrorism. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a period in which the Italian economy suffered the high prices of oil brought about by the political affermation of OPEC. </li></ul>
  100. 106. Extremism 1968 - 1978 <ul><li>Unemployment was high, particularly among young people. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1975, the govt. introduced the scala mobile – or moving scale – to equate wages with the cost of living. </li></ul><ul><li>1977 – Autonomia operaia launches a series of bomb attacks and assassination attempts, primarily against PCI targets = </li></ul><ul><li>Dissaffection with Labour Leadership!!! </li></ul>
  101. 107. Extremism 1968 - 1978 <ul><li>6 March, 1978 – president of the DC , Aldo Moro, was kidnapped by the Brigate Rosse and after 55 days, assassinated on May 9. </li></ul><ul><li>1978 – Inflation dropped to 13.6% - the lowest since 1974 – and the govt. attempted to rationalise the tax structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus govt. applying Keynesian economics. High degree of fiscal intervention. Italy joins the European Monetary System </li></ul>
  102. 108. Extremism 1968 - 1978 <ul><li>In industry – 1962-72 saw the beginning of privatisation of state industries – particularly in chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>1962 – Enrico Mattei stipulates and accord between ENI and the “Seven Sisters” (the largest oil companies). He then dies. </li></ul><ul><li>1972 – Eni’s director Cefis becomes head of the Montedison company – afferming the importance of the managerial class while public companies were in the red </li></ul>
  103. 109. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  104. 110. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  105. 111. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  106. 112. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  107. 113. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  108. 114. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  109. 115. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  110. 116. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  111. 117. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  112. 118. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  113. 119. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  114. 120. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  115. 121. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  116. 122. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  117. 123. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  118. 124. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  119. 125. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  120. 126. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  121. 127. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  122. 128. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  123. 129. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  124. 130. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  125. 131. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  126. 132. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  127. 133. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  128. 134. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  129. 135. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  130. 136. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  131. 137. Italy at the Crossroads: Challenges in the 21° Century
  132. 138. Italy at the Crossroads: Climate Change <ul><li>Italy’s “third path” creates some difficulties in adapting to climate change realities in terms of: </li></ul><ul><li>The economy </li></ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Society </li></ul>
  133. 139. Global CO2 Increase 1950-1999 NOAA
  134. 140. Contributors to Global Warming 1900-1999 <ul><li>Europe adds 27.7% to overall global warming </li></ul>
  135. 141. Italy at the Crossroads: Climate Change <ul><li>The Economic Impact of Climate Change in Italy: </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions: </li></ul><ul><li>Option 1 = no reaction: The Stern Report (2006) estimated this would cost </li></ul><ul><li>20% of global GDP </li></ul><ul><li>Option 2 = diversified reaction: Stern stated that this should cost 1% of global GDP </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmented data for Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimates for: </li></ul><ul><li>weather impacts </li></ul><ul><li>sea-level rise </li></ul>
  136. 142. Italy at the Crossroads: Climate Change <ul><li>Weather impacts of climate change in Italy: </li></ul><ul><li>Sectors affected are: agriculture, forests, water, tourism and health </li></ul><ul><li>Study compared projected impact in Sicily and Lombardy: </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive behaviour: </li></ul><ul><li>The south: hot summers = more time at beach and pool </li></ul><ul><li>The North: hot summers = less use of transport and private cars </li></ul>
  137. 143. Italy at the Crossroads: Climate Change <ul><li>Economic effects: Cost of mitigation vs. Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Dangers: increase average 328 forest fires per region </li></ul><ul><li>coastal flooding </li></ul><ul><li>drought </li></ul><ul><li>tourisim </li></ul><ul><li>agriculture </li></ul>
  138. 144. Intensive Crop Agriculture 1999
  139. 145. Per Capita Water Use (2000 – cubic metres/year)
  140. 150. The Ex-Granary of Urbino 2007
  141. 151. Urbino: Population Expansion to the Suburbs 1985-2007
  142. 152. Urbino: Problems of Industry in the Appennine Foothills
  143. 153. Urbino: Problems of Urban Infrastructure
  144. 154. Urbino: Mixed Suburban and Industrual Areas – The Valleys
  145. 155. Urbino: Problems of Urban Infrastructure – Walled Towns and Parking