B2 Module II Internet, Ic Ts And Business Contexts


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B2 Module II Internet, Ic Ts And Business Contexts

  1. 1. LAZ B2 Language and Culture for Business Module II Internet, ICT’s and Business Contexts Prof. Peter Cullen
  2. 2. ICT’s and Changes in Communication <ul><li>Technology has significantly altered the way people in societies communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>It has allowed people to: </li></ul><ul><li>build greater and more complex networks </li></ul><ul><li>speed communication </li></ul><ul><li>increase access to information (memory) </li></ul>
  3. 3. ICT’s and Changes in Communication <ul><li>Students in 2000-2010 have lived through the development of: </li></ul><ul><li>Cameras in phones (once spy-equipment!) </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>Mp3 </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Flickr </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>(messenger and ICQ were around in the 1990s) </li></ul><ul><li>But the communications revolution began 550 years ago. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Technical developments in the Renaissance: printing 16° century woodcut of a press shop Johannes Gutenberg 1398-1468 (Mainz) Was a goldsmith and engraver. Fully developed his printing press by 1455. The Gutenburg bible was in print (300 copies) by 1455. Indulgences were also printed in massive numbers by 1455.
  5. 5. Technical developments in the Renaissance: printing Madonna in the Clouds Barocci 1581/82 Through its application as a medium for etched engravings, the printing press allowed images to be cheaply reproduced in massive numbers – with or without accompanying texts. This changed the face of the art market, allowing previews and marketing with a level of detail not seen before.
  6. 6. Technical developments in the Renaissance: printing Venice quickly became the centre for printing in Italy. It was territorially safe from the Papacy and other monarchical interferences. It had a long tradition of papermaking. It had Leonardo da Vinci in 1499 and Pacioli. It had a need for accounting and record keeping: i.e. mass information. The Arsenal by Canaletto 1732 San Marco in the evening
  7. 7. Technical developments in the Renaissance: printing Nicolas Jensen’s Roman type printed in Venice in 1470 Both Da Vinci and Pacioli published in Venice. Pacioli: Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalita ( Venice 1494) Contained a standardisation of double-entry accounting principles established in the 14° century: balance sheets, trial balances, assets (receivalbes and inventory), liabilites, etc. Manutius and Griffo print ALL Greek classics Develop italic font 1490-1515
  8. 8. Technical developments in the Renaissance: printing Together Da Vinci and Pacioli publish: De divina proportione (written in Milan in 1496–98, published in Venice in 1509) Da Vinci did the illustrations , Pacioli explained the math – particularly the “golden ratio” or Fibonacci sequence. Fra Pacioli saw Catholic religious significance in the ratio – making this proportion acceptable to all types of artists and engineers. The Golden Ratio: A+B is to a as a is to b Vitruvian proportion IS NOT golden LdV 1487
  9. 9. Religious developments in the Renaissance: Reformation The spread of humanism, particularly Erasmian humanism, through book printing (including illustrations) broke open debate about the nature of church hierarchy in relation to man’s salvation. Problems: Economic recovery from the plague concentrated capital in the towns – in Italy and N. Europe Renaissance popes were seen as using ecclesiastical revenues to support temporal policies – concentrating European capital in Italy The Pope (Leo X) as Antichrist in Luther’s Passional Christi und Antichristi (1521); woodcut by Lucas Cranach the Elder
  10. 10. Religious developments in the Renaissance: Reformation Erasmus wrote extensively on the relationship between man as a subject of God and man in relationship to Church hierarchy . He criticized abuses of the Renaissance church – particularly indulgences, simony, and nepotism – temporal abuses. He followed Petrarch’s interest in translating Greek texts, and the Bible – into Greek. His Greek translation of the bible was printed just before the Complutense Polyglot Bible – the Church sanctioned multi-vulgate bible. They competed to get their books to print. Why? Erasmus of Rotterdam: 1466/69-1536 Catholic humanist proponent of reform from within the church
  11. 11. Religious developments in the Renaissance: Reformation Erasmus and Luther shared the need for reform – particularly on indulgences (read fiscal abuse by the Church). They differed on transubstantiation and the question of free will. Luther separated human reason from God – denying man’s free will as a path to salvation. Wrote the 95 Theses (1517) against the collection of indulgences to build St. Peters (i,e. German money to pay for Michelangelo). The 95 theses WERE NOT a break with Rome. Martin Luther: 1466/69-1536 Prof at Wittenberg (Saxony) and proponent of reform from outside the Church
  12. 12. Modern ICT’s – Automation and Information Processing <ul><li>Industrial processes developed 18°-19° centuries created an interest it automated processes. </li></ul><ul><li>The printing press was a semi-automated process – and difusion of information relied on ancient distribution technologies (walking, horse-courier and ship= </li></ul><ul><li>Automation involves_ </li></ul><ul><li>autonomous operations </li></ul><ul><li>reduced human intervention in execution and control </li></ul><ul><li>path towards computing </li></ul>
  13. 13. Economic aspects of Automation <ul><li>Automation is aimed at reducing execution cost/time – but involves higher setup cost/time. It is more efficient if expected number of executions exceeds the break-even point . </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. the telegraph: Marconi 1901-1907 successfully built a telegraph connection across the Atlantic ocean, from Nova Scotia to Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>Telegraph: manual input – automated mechanical conversion of signal </li></ul><ul><li>High initial cost, incredible value in terms of: </li></ul><ul><li>Time – messages sent almost instantly </li></ul><ul><li>Distance – messages sent over 1000 km </li></ul>
  14. 14. Automation and market size <ul><li>Generic commercial products require a set-up cost </li></ul><ul><li>Both initial investment and target profit need to be covered by returns earned over the product’s life-cycle . </li></ul><ul><li>The larger the market size, the lower the unit-price. As market size increases – unit price asymptotically tends to the marginal production cost of each unit. </li></ul>Market Size Cost Break even Unit price
  15. 15. Economic aspects of automation <ul><li>Assume an automated equipment produces an automatic solution to a given problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Then: set up of the automated solution reduces to purchasing the automatic equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>The purchase price of the automatic solution is due to the purchase price of the automatic equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>The larger the market  the lower the purchase cost and the lower the number of breakeven executions – automation is more cost-efficient </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. the difference between a Renaissance printing press and a photocopier. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Economic aspects of automation <ul><li>For this to work, however, society must internalise the value of the automatic solution. </li></ul><ul><li>It must want to free up labour from processes of production or services. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. converting switch-board operators into post-sales service technicians (call-centre) </li></ul><ul><li>In communications: networks must reach a critical mass of end-users for the network set up to be economically viable (have a long life-cycle with robust cost-efficiency) </li></ul><ul><li>The invention of the telegraph, telephone and electrical grids required a shift in social behaviour 1880’s-1950’s. </li></ul>
  17. 17. General purpose vs special purpose machines <ul><li>A general purpose machine can execute different purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>A special purpose machine is tailored for a specific application. </li></ul><ul><li>General purpose machines (i.e. computers) are cost-effective because they can be sold at a lower price and have multiple applications. </li></ul><ul><li>The large market size and easy-to-reach break even point create a postive feed-back loop: adding to competitive advantage . </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. mini vans and SUVs, computers and blackberrys. </li></ul><ul><li>But: they are usually lower performance than special purpose ones. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. the 4x4 Panda v the Ferrari Evo. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Economic aspects of automation <ul><li>General purposes can be re-configured or programmed . (i.e. SUVs or laptops) </li></ul><ul><li>Programming: </li></ul><ul><li>programmable machines are not designed to solve complex problems. They execute elementary instructions from a given set of instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Programmed input will automatically produce the desired process. </li></ul><ul><li>A computer is only as good as its input. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Information theory <ul><li>The ICT revolution occured because of a virtuous relationship between technology, information theory and social needs . </li></ul><ul><li>Information theory changed as inventors learned how to transform audio signals into electrical signals (both use waves) </li></ul><ul><li>George Boole developed the theory that logical relationships can be described as accumulative (AND), alternative (OR), or negative (NOT) </li></ul><ul><li>Information can be expressed in binary language : I or 0 – or “on” and “off”. This means that complex instructions may be communicated by stringing together binary code 10110110001 (if you can read it!) </li></ul><ul><li>This meant that in the industrial age , initial computing was developed through the use of “switch on” and “switch off” commands. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Economic aspects of automation <ul><li>By the 1950’s Boolean theory, switch theory and electronic technology allowed the creation of the first electronic computer using networks of millions of switches. (ENIAC) </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in this technology aimed at decreasing the size of switch networks, allowing more information to be communicated through the logic-gates – increasing functionality and decreasing cost . </li></ul><ul><li>Today: 100 milion transistors can be integrated on a single chip. Large scale production makes chips accessible at low prices. </li></ul><ul><li>Computers are truly general purpose automatic information processing systems based on programmable switching networks. The cost is in the programming . Hardware costs are lower than software costs. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Change and automation <ul><li>In the post-WWII nuclear era, communications studies was at the heart of two powerful movements: </li></ul><ul><li>Military technological development – US, UK and Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in popular culture </li></ul><ul><li>Global military powers were interested in solving problems of communication in the event of nuclear war – developing the internet by the early 1970’s as a solution to centralised communications networks (switch-board communications) </li></ul><ul><li>Social scientists and cultural figures (musicians, artists, radio djs etc.) were interested in developing popular voices and messages for the mass-markets. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Culture and technology <ul><li>The post war world rebuilt society around the values of social constants aimed at minimising risk . </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons of WWII, and cold-war dangers meant that military conflict could never be a solution to social and economic tensions in Europe – as was held to be the primary cause of WWII. </li></ul><ul><li>Society expected peace and governments aligned this with rapid and permanent economic well-being – creating a virtuous circle between military technological development and social/market availability of technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural expectations changed with the wide-spread use of TV and transistor radios by the baby boomer generation. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Culture and Technology <ul><li>Technological development was in a culturally driven virtuous circle and a rapidly expanding business cycle 1945  </li></ul><ul><li>The base-line assumption was that technology improved standards of living. As it became cheaper to the end-user, it became part of every-day life , whether for business or personal use. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural acceptance of media and network technology drove producers to new business models – market-pull model . </li></ul><ul><li>Companies are under market pressure to keep up with demand, although people do not always know which direction/form change should take in material terms. Today – ICT life-cycle of about 18 months. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. – we have developed a culture of expected change . This is new. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Marshall McLuhan: Understanding Media <ul><li>Canadian media theorist </li></ul><ul><li>“ Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man” (1964) </li></ul><ul><li>Media are extensions of human senses </li></ul><ul><li>Lectured via TV to more than 400 students in 1964 </li></ul>McLuhan: 1911-1980
  25. 25. Marshall McLuhan: Understanding Media <ul><li>The extension operates as a ratio between environmental input and human perception. </li></ul><ul><li>The extension can become out of proportion to the perception, becoming itself the message. </li></ul><ul><li>The media is the message </li></ul><ul><li>Media may also amputate human perception. </li></ul>
  26. 26. What is communication? The language process uses a code to communicate a message from a producer to a receiver – but: Each variable depends on its relationship to the other variables for understanding to happen. Producer code message communication receiver understanding Feedback loop at each stage MEMORY
  27. 27. Understanding Media in Learning <ul><li>The multi-media classroom: </li></ul><ul><li>Many forms of media, to facilitate communication of </li></ul><ul><li>MESSAGE </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia classrooms became fundamental to North American teaching qualifications by 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Math, etc., etc., etc. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Understanding Media in Learning <ul><li>The multi-media classroom: </li></ul><ul><li>Dual-code learning </li></ul>
  29. 29. Multi-media and the Message Classroom problems: learning styles time/schedule space/distance to message
  30. 30. Today Multi-Media = Digital Media <ul><li>Digital media changes our access to memory . </li></ul><ul><li>Portable and easily transferrable memory </li></ul><ul><li>Network structure is the key </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Many to many communication of message </li></ul>ACCESS TO INFORMATION
  31. 31. Today Multi-Media = Digital Media <ul><li>Distance education </li></ul><ul><li>Digital media allows much greater access </li></ul><ul><li>But which formats work? </li></ul><ul><li>These questions have practical and cultural answers. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Today Multi-Media = Digital Media <ul><li>Many to Many communication drives wiki-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>Wikimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Youtube </li></ul><ul><li>Slideshare </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>Myspace </li></ul><ul><li>Blogger </li></ul><ul><li>Wordpress Skype Twitter </li></ul>
  33. 33. Media in Language Learning Jukka Korpela (U Helsinki Network IT spec.  2001) Language differences . On the Internet, for example, the lingua franca is badly written and poorly understood English . Some people use it as their native language; other learned some of it from various sources. In any case, whatever you say will be interpreted in a myriad of ways, whether you use idiomatic English or not.
  34. 34. Media in Language Learning <ul><li>Cultural differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Whatever you assume about the recipients of your message - the wider the audience , the more of them will fail to meet your assumptions. </li></ul><ul><li>On the Internet, this virtually guarantees you will be misunderstood. What you intend to say as a neutral matter of fact will be interpreted (by different people) as a detestable political opinion, a horrendous blasphemy, and a lovely piece of poetry. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Media in Language Learning Intercultural communication is about learning to understand message across cultural histories . Assumption Belief Participation Some important areas of global business have different information culture that change on different schedules: China, India, Russia, Brasil
  36. 36. Media in Language Learning <ul><li>Personal differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Any assumption about the prior knowledge on the subject matter fails for any reasonably large audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of </li></ul><ul><li>time </li></ul><ul><li>energy </li></ul><ul><li>learning background/culture </li></ul><ul><li>priority </li></ul><ul><li>equipment </li></ul>
  37. 37. Media in Language Learning <ul><li>Blogging: </li></ul><ul><li>Managed many to many communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Posting </li></ul><ul><li>Specific resource or topic pages </li></ul><ul><li>Media upload </li></ul><ul><li>Links to other web-sites or blog </li></ul><ul><li>www.cl4englishlistening.wordpress.com </li></ul><ul><li>But different services have different positive features. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Media and Learning: Food for Thought <ul><li>Blogs, online, multimedia: </li></ul><ul><li>permit relative and selective participation </li></ul><ul><li>learning on demand requires greater </li></ul><ul><li>organisational skills on the part of the student </li></ul><ul><li>accentuate the personal consumption of message: </li></ul><ul><li>culture </li></ul><ul><li>language </li></ul>
  39. 39. Media and networks <ul><li>Networks must serve a function or they dissolve. </li></ul><ul><li>Function is determined by </li></ul><ul><li>the goals of the participants in </li></ul><ul><li>relation to cost/benefit of input/ </li></ul><ul><li>return on communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Different cultures have different </li></ul><ul><li>reasons for networking. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. youth culture or business </li></ul><ul><li>AND different modes of networking! i.e. face to face v facebook. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Media and networks <ul><li>Networks operate on different life-cycles – they are convergent </li></ul><ul><li>communications systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent on: </li></ul><ul><li>purpose </li></ul><ul><li>means </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the relationship </li></ul><ul><li>between purpose and means of </li></ul><ul><li>networking is fundamental to </li></ul><ul><li>understanding the network culture. Why do the form? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they work? </li></ul>
  41. 41. Media and networks <ul><li>Networks are constructed around the active desire to communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>They are form around group </li></ul><ul><li>identities . So they are both </li></ul><ul><li>inclusive and exclusive. </li></ul><ul><li>Borders may be fluid. </li></ul><ul><li>Some networks are special- </li></ul><ul><li>purpose, like E-Bay. </li></ul><ul><li>Others are open-purpose but special function – like Facebook </li></ul>
  42. 42. Internet is a differentiated global network. It is physical – cabled and stored.
  43. 43. Media and networks <ul><li>Networks are increasingly multi-media . </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation has gone beyond </li></ul><ul><li>technology to focus on modes </li></ul><ul><li>of sharing information. </li></ul><ul><li>This changes social values . </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. open-source software </li></ul><ul><li>intellectual property </li></ul><ul><li>We expect information to be available – often for free. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember Napster? Ever downloaded a film? </li></ul>
  44. 44. Media and networks <ul><li>At the same time, on-line networks fuel our desire to express. </li></ul><ul><li>Expression has become </li></ul><ul><li>compressed – but probably </li></ul><ul><li>reflects current need for </li></ul><ul><li>interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>This is not uniform across </li></ul><ul><li>cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Factors of: </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Region </li></ul>
  45. 45. Media and networks <ul><li>ICT’s have allowed a great degree of personalisation of communication: </li></ul><ul><li>Basic input is automated </li></ul><ul><li>Networked programming has produced vast sub-functions for human interface formats . </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals do not have to be technicians to use the equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment is cheap and serves immediate functions. </li></ul><ul><li>This has produced an explosion of expression – and information consumption. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Business networks: teams and human capital value chains A team is a group of people who work together to acheive a common goal via commonly established and followed procedures, processes and rules. m+m+m+m = 4m? association m+m+m+m = N? community A team has direction. A team agrees on process and rules for completing tasks. A team is a finite sphere of cultural interaction. A team may or may not have a team leader. Teams may be formal or informal.
  47. 47. Understanding networks and globalisation Globalisation: “ The process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones. This process is a combination of economic, technological, socio-cultural, and political forces.” Sheila Croucher (Miami U). Global systems are NOT new. The current scale of globalisation is. “ Globalisation” as a theory developed from academic interest in capitalism and imperialism.
  48. 48. Understanding teamwork and globalisation Information: Information Technology ( IT ) has increased participation in global processes. “ global village ” term popularised by communications theorist M. McLuhan between 1962-1964. ICTs now influence processes of: personal communication film/TV/music marketing personal consumption (Amazon) finance transport consumption (e-tickets) management behavioural interaction language ICT development itself
  49. 49. Understanding teamwork and globalisation Recent globalisation has dramatically changed the field of interaction across societies. BUT: each society functions according to its own cultural learning – initially. How can culturally different people from different societies find common values and forms of communication for the purpose of acheiving a goal or goals through shared processes? Lakshmi Mittal – CEO/owner of Arcelor Mittal
  50. 50. Understanding teamwork and globalisation Globalised teamwork may take two forms: Division of competencies among teams across the globe (traditional multinational corporate model) Interaction within a global team. (globalisation of management) In companies, each form suggests a different approach to teamwork and LEADERSHIP
  51. 51. What is leadership? Leadership is the act and quality of leading other people in a common effort to acheive a goal. Leaders may be people or institutions. Leadership may be formal, informal or both. Leadership requires structures, systems and processes of communication. It is institutionalised. IT IS A FORM OF CULTURAL COMMUNCATION