Examples of Buying behavior-Dissonance reducing .<br />High involvement and a few brands to choose from<br />
Need Recognition<br /> Information Search<br />Cultural, Social, Individual and <br />Psychological Factors affect all steps<br /> Evaluation of Alternatives<br /> Purchase<br /> Post purchase Behavior<br />Consumer Decision-Making Process<br />30<br />
Marketing helps consumers recognize an imbalance between present status and preferred state. Go<br />Internal Stimuli<br />and<br />External Stimuli<br />Preferred State<br />Present Status<br />1) Need Recognition<br />Result of an imbalance between actual and <br />desired states.<br />Result of an imbalance between actual and <br />desired states.<br />Preferred state<br />Present State<br />
NEED IDENTIFICATION-Examples<br />Fully automatic washing machines from Godrej<br />
1) Need Recognition-Case of a John& purchase of laptop<br /><ul><li> I don’t have a laptop ,I must have one
My laptop seems to be out of date, I should change.
There is a discount in International City this is the time.
I want to play games and watch movies</li></li></ul><li>Internal Information Search<br /><ul><li> Recall information in memory</li></ul>2) Information Search<br />External Information search<br /><ul><li>Seek information in outside environment
Marketing controlled</li></ul>Marketing should identify consumer source of information and importance of each source. <br />A company must design its marketing mix to make prospects aware of and knowledgeable about its brand. Go<br />
Information Search<br /> Personal Sources<br />Commercial Sources<br /><ul><li>Family, friends, neighbors
Start paying more attention to Computer ads in TV and Print media </li></li></ul><li>Evoked Set<br />Evaluation of ProductsAnalyze product attributesUse cutoff criteriaRank attributes by importance<br />Purchase!<br />3) Evaluation of Alternatives<br />Marketing should talk about the adage of their product and the proposition that they are offering more than the competitor.Go<br />
Coca Cola- Compagain for Achieving TOMA<br />Coca-Cola didn't have many issues selling Coke during the summer months. To ensure that coke is selected as an alternative in the wintertime, come up with a campaign. <br />"Thirst Knows No Season" <br />“Thanda matlab Coca Cola”<br />
<ul><li>JUST DO IT by Nike to carve niche in customer minds </li></ul>"Just Do It" campaign, purportedly coined during a meeting of executives between WK and Nike ("You Nike guys, you just do it.").<br />Nike tied their brand to smart, humorous and cool advertising to evaluate <br />
Think Small –By Volkswagen talked about their uniqueness<br />Volkswagen had plenty of success with the Beetle in Europe, but wanted to bring it to the U.S.<br />The DDB team knew they had to do something different to win over the jaded consumers.<br />the impact of its ad campaigns revolutionized advertising forever, <br />
Evaluate the alternative (Introduce the X Factor)<br />Marketers should introduce the X Factor to help consumers evaluate the alternatives. This X Factor can be in varied forms which can be:<br /><ul><li>Product Feature
Assign maximum weight age to one particular model</li></li></ul><li>Decision Making Sets<br />
Purchase Decision<br />Unexpected Situational Factors<br />Attitudes of Others<br />Purchase Intention<br />Desire to buy the most preferred brand<br />Purchase Decision<br />Marketing should reduce the time gap between the purchase intent of consumer and the actual buying. GO<br />
Purchase Decision-case of John & laptop<br /><ul><li>Unexpected situational Behavior
John saw an ad that i7 second generation processor is getting launched soon and he postponed his decision to buy laptop for time being
John’s Father told to buy Dell as Dell’s service is better .John was forced to buy Dell.</li></li></ul><li>Cognitive Dissonance<br />?<br />Marketing<br />Did I make a good decision?<br />Did I buy the right product?<br />Did I get a good value?<br />Can minimize through:<br />Effective Communication<br />Follow-up<br />GuaranteesWarranties. Go<br />5) Post purchase Behavior<br />
Purchase Decision-case of John & laptop<br />Satisfied John <br /><ul><li>John will tell good things about his laptop to his friends and relatives and this may influence them to buy the same laptop as John.
John will also be attracted towards other offering the same company</li></ul> Dissatisfied John <br /><ul><li> Spread bad word of mouth