Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Neurons and
Neurotransmitters
RVS Chatianya Koppala
Assistant Professor
Lovely Professional University
Nervous System
– Central nervous system (CNS):
• Brain
• Spinal cord
– Peripheral nervous system (PNS):
• Sensory neurons
...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Central Nervous System (CNS)C...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Divisions of the autonomic ne...
The Nervous System
• A physical organ system like any other
• 2 main kinds of cells
– Neurons
– Glia
 Basic units of the nervous system
 Receive, integrate, and transmit
information
 Operate through electrical impulses
...
Glial cells
• 100 billion neurons
• 10x more glial cells
• Glial cells
– Support neurons (literally, provide physical
supp...
• Regulate
external
environment
(ions, etc.)
• Most abundant
glial cell
• May contribute
to blood-brain
barrier
and to syn...
Three main types of neurons
• Sensory Neurons
• Interneurons
• Motor Neurons
Sensory (Afferent) vs. Motor (Efferent)Sensory (Afferent) vs. Motor (Efferent)
e.g., skin
e.g., muscle
Gray’s Anatomy 38 1...
The Withdrawal Reflex
Neuron Anatomy and Neural
Communication
Neurons
Axon of another
neuron
Axon of another
neuron
Cell BodyCell BodyDendritesDendrites
AxonAxon
Myelin
Sheath
Myelin
S...
Neural Anatomy
 Dendrite
 the bushy, branching extensions of a
neuron that receive messages and
conduct impulses toward ...
Neural Anatomy and
communication
 Synapse
 junction between the axon tip of the sending
neuron and the dendrite or cell ...
Specific Parts: The Neuron
Structure
Specific Parts: The Neuron
Function
Neurons = 3 functions: Reception, Conduction, Transmission
1.3.
2.
Action Potential
When dendrites stimulated, the delicate
balance is altered
Membrane breaks down
Positively charged ions r...
W. W. Norton
Relay Race
• Action Potential starts at dendrite
– Through cell body
– Down Axon
– Axon Terminals
• How does it get to the...
Communication
• Impulse releases
neurotransmitter from
vesicles
• Neurotransmitter
enters synaptic gap
• Neurotransmitter
...
Myelin Sheath
–Fatty material made by glial cells
–Insulates the axon
–Allows for rapid movement of
electrical impulses al...
Myelinization clip
Myelin conduction clip
Neurotransmitters
 chemical messengers that traverse the
synaptic gaps between neurons
 when released by the sending neu...
Neurotransmitters (>60)
• Acetylcholine (ACh)
– 1st
substance identified as NT
– Links motor neurons and muscles (contract...
More neurotransmitters
Receptor binding movie
THANKYOU
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Neuron and neurotransmitters

3,603 views

Published on

neuron, neuron system, neurotransmitters, neurotransmission, neuronal stimuli , parts of neuron

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Follow the link, new dating source: ❤❤❤ http://bit.ly/2Q98JRS ❤❤❤
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Sex in your area is here: ♥♥♥ http://bit.ly/2Q98JRS ♥♥♥
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Neuron and neurotransmitters

  1. 1. Neurons and Neurotransmitters RVS Chatianya Koppala Assistant Professor Lovely Professional University
  2. 2. Nervous System – Central nervous system (CNS): • Brain • Spinal cord – Peripheral nervous system (PNS): • Sensory neurons • Motor neurons (somatic and autonomic)
  3. 3. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Central Nervous System (CNS)Central Nervous System (CNS) BrainBrain Spinal CordSpinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Sensory NeuronsSensory NeuronsMotor NeuronsMotor Neurons Somatic Nervous System • voluntary movements via skeletal muscles Somatic Nervous System • voluntary movements via skeletal muscles Autonomic Nervous System • organs, smooth muscles Autonomic Nervous System • organs, smooth muscles Sympathetic - “Fight-or-Flight” responses Sympathetic - “Fight-or-Flight” responses Parasympathetic - maintenance Parasympathetic - maintenance The Nervous System The Nervous SystemThe Nervous System
  4. 4. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Divisions of the autonomic nervous system
  5. 5. The Nervous System • A physical organ system like any other • 2 main kinds of cells – Neurons – Glia
  6. 6.  Basic units of the nervous system  Receive, integrate, and transmit information  Operate through electrical impulses  Communicate with other neurons through chemical signals  More about neurons and neuronal anatomy later Neurons
  7. 7. Glial cells • 100 billion neurons • 10x more glial cells • Glial cells – Support neurons (literally, provide physical support, as well as nutrients) – Cover neurons with myelin – Clean up debris – “Housewives”
  8. 8. • Regulate external environment (ions, etc.) • Most abundant glial cell • May contribute to blood-brain barrier and to synapses Astrocytes
  9. 9. Three main types of neurons • Sensory Neurons • Interneurons • Motor Neurons
  10. 10. Sensory (Afferent) vs. Motor (Efferent)Sensory (Afferent) vs. Motor (Efferent) e.g., skin e.g., muscle Gray’s Anatomy 38 1999 sensory (afferent) nerve motor (efferent) nerve Neurons that send signals from the senses, skin, muscles, and internal organs to the CNS Neurons that transmit commands from the CNS to the muscles, glands, and organs
  11. 11. The Withdrawal Reflex
  12. 12. Neuron Anatomy and Neural Communication
  13. 13. Neurons Axon of another neuron Axon of another neuron Cell BodyCell BodyDendritesDendrites AxonAxon Myelin Sheath Myelin Sheath Dendrites of another neuron Dendrites of another neuron
  14. 14. Neural Anatomy  Dendrite  the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body  Axon  the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands
  15. 15. Neural Anatomy and communication  Synapse  junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron  tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft  Synapse movie
  16. 16. Specific Parts: The Neuron Structure
  17. 17. Specific Parts: The Neuron Function Neurons = 3 functions: Reception, Conduction, Transmission 1.3. 2.
  18. 18. Action Potential When dendrites stimulated, the delicate balance is altered Membrane breaks down Positively charged ions rush in (depolarization) Charge = less negative Causes release of chemicals from terminal buttons
  19. 19. W. W. Norton
  20. 20. Relay Race • Action Potential starts at dendrite – Through cell body – Down Axon – Axon Terminals • How does it get to the next cell’s dendrites? • Neurons don’t touch – Synapse = millionth inch gap – In synapse = vesicles w/ neurotransmitters » Chemical messengers that transmit info
  21. 21. Communication • Impulse releases neurotransmitter from vesicles • Neurotransmitter enters synaptic gap • Neurotransmitter binds to receptors on the receiving neuron
  22. 22. Myelin Sheath –Fatty material made by glial cells –Insulates the axon –Allows for rapid movement of electrical impulses along axon –Nodes of Ranvier: gaps in myelin sheath where action potentials are transmitted –Multiple sclerosis is a breakdown of myelin sheath –Speed of neural impulse Ranges from 2 – 200+ mph
  23. 23. Myelinization clip Myelin conduction clip
  24. 24. Neurotransmitters  chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons  when released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether it will generate a neural impulse
  25. 25. Neurotransmitters (>60) • Acetylcholine (ACh) – 1st substance identified as NT – Links motor neurons and muscles (contract or relax) • e.g. curare vs black widow spider – Also involved in memory, learning, sleep, dreaming (acetylcholine movie) • Endorphins (the brain’s own morphine) – 1973 injected rats with morphine – Bound like NTs – Brain had receptors for exogenous substance? • Brain must produce its own morphine • Released during pain and discomfort
  26. 26. More neurotransmitters Receptor binding movie
  27. 27. THANKYOU

×