Chapter 4: It's a Free Software World After All


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Chapter 4 summary of Curtis J. Bonk's book "The World is Open".

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Chapter 4: It's a Free Software World After All

  1. 1. HMID 6303 Current Trends & Issues in Instructional Technology Chapter 4: It’s a Free Software World After All From Curtis J. Bonk’s book entitled “The World is Open” Summarised by: Khoo Chiew Keen OUM-MIDT, February 2010 .
  2. 2. <ul><li>What does this word mean to you? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of any examples which are related to this word? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you offer something for nothing in return? </li></ul>Free
  3. 3. <ul><li>By offering FREE services of course! </li></ul><ul><li>They offer: </li></ul><ul><li>Free email accounts; </li></ul><ul><li>Unlimited storage space; </li></ul><ul><li>Free web searching. </li></ul>Do you know how Google and Yahoo generate their revenue in billions of dollars?
  4. 4. <ul><li>What about the word above? What does it mean? </li></ul><ul><li>How would the word “free” and “open” affect education today? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: You will find out as you browse the following slides…. </li></ul>Open
  5. 5. What about education? <ul><li>How has technology affected education today? </li></ul><ul><li>Read the article from the following links to get a brief idea on how technology has impacted education. </li></ul><ul><li>The development of the Internet and its significance for education: http:// </li></ul><ul><li>Milestones in education, 50 years of education: </li></ul>
  6. 6. Technology, Education and Resources <ul><li>The introduction of Web 2.0 applications. </li></ul><ul><li>The Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) movement. </li></ul><ul><li>The Free Software Foundation (FSF). </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Management System (LMS). </li></ul><ul><li>Open Educational Resources (OERs). </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Commons. </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is open source? <ul><li>It refers to any computer software program whose source code is free to use, modify, and redistribute – typically for its licensed users. </li></ul><ul><li>An open source product is: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Is a software designed by a community of users or a consortium of organizations and institutions with a joint interest in the resulting product” . </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of open source software: </li></ul><ul><li>“… openness of computing code created in distributed or peer-to-peer collaborative development” . </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) movement <ul><li>Encompasses two movements: free software movement and open source movement . </li></ul><ul><li>Free software movement focuses on the philosophical freedom it gives users . </li></ul><ul><li>Open source movement focuses on the economies of peer-to-peer collaboration . </li></ul><ul><li>Both movements adapt the ‘sharing’ culture as “nearly all software that is open source is free, and vice versa”. </li></ul><ul><li>Prominent persons in the FOSS movement: </li></ul><ul><li>Mitch Kapor </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Stallman </li></ul><ul><li>Linus Torvalds </li></ul><ul><li>Eric Raymond </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Dougiamas </li></ul>
  9. 9. Free Software Foundation (FSF) <ul><li>Develops free and compatible replacements for propriety software. </li></ul><ul><li>Vision : Dedicated to eliminating restrictions on copying, redistribution, understanding and modification of software… </li></ul><ul><li>Goal : Develop and then distribute software using a “General Public License” (GPL). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Free” = Freedom 0: The freedom to run the program as you wish. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom 1: The freedom to study the source code and </li></ul><ul><li>change it to do what you wish. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom 2: The freedom to make copies and redistribute </li></ul><ul><li>them to others. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom 3: The freedom to published modified versions. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Hacker Culture <ul><li>What is it and how does it affect the development of free and open source software? </li></ul><ul><li>Read more about hackers here: </li></ul><ul><li>This ‘culture’ had a firm belief in knowledge sharing and helping others , including the exploration of computer programming secrets and free access to computers and the availability of information about them. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mitchell David Kapor <ul><li>Former president of the Lotus Development Corporation. </li></ul><ul><li>President of the Open Source Applications Foundation. </li></ul><ul><li>Read more about Kapor and his contributions here: </li></ul>
  12. 12. Richard Stallman <ul><li>Founder of the Free Software Foundation. </li></ul><ul><li>Devoted to a vision of sharing. </li></ul><ul><li>According to him, software is “a manifestation of human creativity and expression … and represented a key artifact of a community … to solve problems together for the common good”. </li></ul><ul><li>Read more about Stallman and his contributions here: </li></ul>
  13. 13. Linus Torvalds <ul><li>Developer of the first open source software </li></ul><ul><li>program Linux 0.01. </li></ul><ul><li>What motivates him to develop open </li></ul><ul><li>source software: </li></ul><ul><li>“ A sense of fun in doing what he loves: programming and contributing to the Internet community with usable products others could enjoy”. </li></ul><ul><li>Read more about him and his contributions here: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sakai Project <ul><li>Courseware platform or system that enables individuals or institutions to place their courses on the Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Features: </li></ul><ul><li>Document distribution; </li></ul><ul><li>A grade book; </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion; </li></ul><ul><li>Live chat; </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment uploads; </li></ul><ul><li>Online testing; </li></ul><ul><li>Wiki; </li></ul><ul><li>RSS reader. </li></ul><ul><li>Read More about the Sakai project here: </li></ul>
  15. 15. Moodle <ul><li>Also known as M odular O bject- O riented D ynamic L earning E nvironment. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a free open source Learning Management System (LMS). </li></ul><ul><li>This LMS is created by Martin Dougiamas, a WebCT administrator at Curtin University, Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Moodle is designed to help educators create courses online focusing on interaction and collaboration (social constructivism). </li></ul><ul><li>Moodle supports many plug-ins such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Resource types </li></ul><ul><li>Question types </li></ul><ul><li>Data field types </li></ul><ul><li>Graphical themes </li></ul><ul><li>Authentication methods </li></ul><ul><li>Enrollment methods </li></ul><ul><li>Content filters </li></ul><ul><li>Wiki </li></ul><ul><li>Other third party plug-ins. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Questions to ponder … <ul><li>Both Sakai and Moodle seem to have similar features. Nevertheless, they are two distinct educational systems. Are you aware of the difference between Sakai and Moodle? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you identify the benefits of courseware platform like Sakai and learning management system like Moodle? What do both systems offer? </li></ul><ul><li>Activity : Do some research and readings on the Web and discuss these two questions in our Ning portal. </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking of Ning … </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Truth is … </li></ul><ul><li>Not everyone favours courses and pre-packaged content. It’s just plain boring for them … </li></ul><ul><li>People want to be more creative so as to decide what they want, create their own content and become contributors themselves. They also want interactivity. </li></ul><ul><li>But how? </li></ul>
  18. 18. The age of Drupal and Ning <ul><li>Drupal is an open source free content management system that enables a person to build his/her own personal and community homepages. </li></ul><ul><li>Ning is platform specially designed for social networking communities which allows developers to create OpenSocial gadgets and applications using technology developed by Google. </li></ul><ul><li>These applications have educational benefits and foster social interaction and knowledge sharing; for example Ning for Educators network binds the concept behind the WE-ALL-LEARN model. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Ideas in many forms are shared and disseminated through various tools on the Web i.e., Sakai, Moodle, Drupal, Ning etc… </li></ul><ul><li>So, where education is concerned, how can ideas be safe-guarded when online technologies are so advanced these days? The area of licensing and copyright of materials comes into focus now … and this is where Creative Commons come into the picture. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Creative Commons <ul><li>It is a non-profit organisation established by Dr. Larry Lessig in year 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>This organisation functions to expand access to online materials and also encourage creative use and remixing of these materials . </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Commons offer different copyright designations to various online materials from audio, image, video, text and other data. </li></ul><ul><li>These copyright designations help protect public and private universities as well as individuals from for-profit entities that may cheat their intellectual capital. </li></ul><ul><li>Read more about Creative Commons here: </li></ul>
  21. 21. Open source and free software <ul><li>The digital age is upon us. We need access to up-to-date information, share our ideas and collaborate to learn and expand our capabilities in the Web where everything is digitised. </li></ul><ul><li>With open source, free content and Creative Commons, more people will be encouraged to share their ideas and learn from each other. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, as the world becomes “smaller” and technologies customised to suit our needs, how would ethics evolve to ensure that the society remains rational? </li></ul><ul><li>This will be a good topic for discussion in our Ning portal. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Thank You.