Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

March to Sustainability 2011


Published on

March to Sustainability 2011 is a report for professionals working in the textile sector looking to keep themselves abreast with recent phenomena that are shaping the future of the textile industry: Sustainability actions across the supply chain. This edition of the report, looks at aspects of sustainability that concerns the textile supply chain from raw material all the way to the point that it is converted to finished product.

The focus of the report is on initiatives and targets being set by the brands and retailers for their supply chain:
. Materials usage
. Energy efficiency
. Greenhouse gases (GHG) and carbon emissions
. Water and chemical footprint
. Restricted chemicals usage
. Labor practices
. Sustainable logistics

In a global market with increasing regulation and consumer preferences for ‘sustainable products’, ensuring sustainable production is gaining increasing importance. Sustainability has meant looking at both environmental and social aspects.

The environmental facet which includes ensuring sustainable sources of raw material, optimal use of energy, minimal use of toxic chemicals, reducing waste and preserving land; has been receiving greater focus in recent times. This report delves more on this aspect.

The drivers for the increased focus on Sustainability are
(a) Brand reputation protection and risk management
(b) Increasing resource (water, energy, land) scarcity in the regions of production
(c) Compliance requirements both at a product level (which is drive mainly by the importing market like REACH in the EU) or compliance requirements at a process level (which are driven by the production region laws)
(d) Consumer pull, where there is increasing consumer preference in the EU and North America (which are the largest markets) for sustainable labels.

For textile manufacturers, this presents an opportunity to differentiate themselves; as well as generate operational savings. Indeed there are a number of emerging labels, certifications and standards that allow manufacturers interested in Sustainability to create differentiated products. The business case for investing in energy conservation, water conservation, reduced chemical usage and other sustainability measures are becoming more apparent.

In March to Sustainability 2011, we seek to update manufacturers on actions being taken and contemplated by the world’s leading brands and retailers, so that they may use it as an input for their near and long term plans.

The report covers 24 brands and retailers and also touches upon global initiatives and certifications that are becoming increasingly relevant.

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

March to Sustainability 2011

  1. 1. Brandix Casual Clothing located in Sri Lanka has reduced carbon emissions by 75% and energy use by 40% and water use by nearly 60% and is the first factory in the world to receive LEED platinum status. MAS Intimates Thurulie located near Colombo in Sri Lanka is green from the very ground up, from its construction of compressed earth bricks which require no kiln burning, to its rooftop of grass and medicinal plants, which cut down on the amount of heat entering the building. These ‘green’ factories use around half the energy and less than half the water required by traditional factories ‘Impahla Clothing’, in Capetown became the first carbon-neutral garment supplier on the African continent in 2009. Impalahs 2009 Sustainability Reports revealed a 40% increase in production, a doubling of its permanent staff, and a 10% drop in absenteeism while the companys bottom line improved through the cost savings gained. A supplier in Czech Republic has started the installation of a solar power plant to cover up to 50 percent of the factory’s electricity need, while a Slovenian supplier has installed biomass boilers that halved CO2 emissions compared to the old oil-fuelled system.Report produced by cKinetics is a sustainability accelerator providing strategy and operational consulting services. This report has been produced by the Supply Chain consulting team at cKinetics which has a presence in the US and in India.Supported by Sustainability Outlook creates online and offline interactions to drive conversations around the topic of resource management in the business operations of the firms and their extended value chains. With a focus on emerging markets, Sustainability Outlook brings together business, policy, consumer advocates and other stakeholders.For inquiries, please write to Report Excerpt
  2. 2. PrefacePietra Rivoli in her book ‘The travels of a t-shirt in the Global Economy’ took up the task of tracing thelife of a t-shirt in order to examine the economics and politics of the apparel industry. The protagonistof the book, a US$6 T-shirt, was used as a vehicle for telling the story about its entire life cycle rightfrom the cotton fields of Texas to its proud buyer and ultimately to the used market in Africa. Thetheme of the book was triggered by an anti-globalization protest questioning the origins of university t-shirts: "Who made your t-shirt? Was it a child in Vietnam, chained to a sewing machine without food orwater? Or a young girl from India earning 18 cents an hour and allowed to visit the bathroom only twicea day?"Modern consumers in Europe and North America are increasingly asking such questions. They areexpecting a lot out of the suppliers and retailers of the clothing and apparels that they buy. In additionto fit and fashion aspects of their purchases,, consumers also expect that the employees involved in theproduction of their clothing are provided with a higher standard of environ in their workplace. A recentsurvey commissioned by M&S demonstrated that nearly a third of shoppers placed clothes back on therails owing to their concerns about their origins. The survey also highlighted that 78% of shopperswanted more information as to how the clothes had been manufactured, the extent of use ofchemicals, as well as the conditions in the factories producing the goods. This evolution in consumeroutlook is influencing brands and retailers to think about their product supply chain (including activitiesoutside their organizations) and ways to better manage the same.In this report we discuss in detail about this recent phenomenon that is shaping the future of thetextile industry: Sustainability across the supply chain.Sustainability by its definition is about doing ‘more with less’, which means finding savings and creatingbusiness value in addition to having a positive impact on the environment. Furthermore, sustainability isabout producing goods which are safe for humans and the environment in all stages of its life cycle.March to Sustainability 2011 looks at aspects of sustainability that concerns the textile supply chainfrom raw material all the way to the point that it is converted to finished product. The focus of thereport is on the sustainability initiatives and targets set by progressive brands and retailers with regardsto materials usage, energy efficiency, GHG and carbon emissions, water and chemicals footprint,restricted chemicals usage, labor practices and logistics and supply chain enhancements.This year’s report builds upon the 20101 Report and reflects on the progress achieved by the variousinitiatives since the last year as also provides a preview into the newer initiatives expected to be rolledout over the next 12-24 months. Report Excerpt
  3. 3. ii Report Excerpt
  4. 4. ContentsPreface iSustainability and the textile industry 1Sustainability initiatives led by industry coalitions 6Snapshot of key brands with Sustainability initiatives in the supply chain 8Supply chain Sustainability initiatives by leading textile and apparel brands 11 adidas Group 12 C&A Group 16 Gap Inc 20 H&M: Hennes & Mauritz 23 Inditex Group 26 John Lewis Partnership 28 Levi Strauss & Company 30 Lindex 34 Mountain Equipment Co-op 36 New Balance 38 Nike Group 40 The Otto Group 44 Patagonia Group 46 Phillips-Van Heusen 48 Puma 50 Recreational Equipment Inc 54 Timberland 56 VF Corp 58Textile supply chain Sustainability initiatives by leading retailers 61 Carrefour Group 62 IKEA Group 64 Marks & Spencer 68 Tesco Group 70 Wal-Mart Group 72Specialized Sustainability firms 75 Continental Clothing Company 76 Specialized Sustainability brands 77Textile specific ecolabels and certifications 80Other ecolabels and certifications relevant to the textile and apparel sector 83Forecast and road ahead 86Index 88Endnotes 89 iii Report Excerpt
  5. 5. Sustainability and the textile industry The global textile and apparel industry 2 is predicted to grow to US$800 billion by 2015 3 as compared to roughly $700 billion today. As a sector, it not only has a large environmental footprint but is also the single largest contributor to industrial waste water and the largest user of pesticides. Some specific processes, like yarn production and dyeing, use large volumes of water and are copious consumers ofThe basic drivers for energy.the textile industry to In a global market with increasing regulation and consumer preferences for ‘sustainable products’,move towards eco- sustainable production is gaining increasing importance. Sustainability has typically meant looking atefficiency and both environmental and social aspects.sustainability exist. The environmental facets like sustainable sources of raw material, optimal use of energy, minimal useEnergy prices are high of toxic chemicals, waste reduction and preservation of land have been receiving greater focus in recent times. This report delves in detail on these aspects.and rising, water isgetting scarce, and The social aspects have been under scrutiny for a couple of decades, since the early 1990s. The industrycompliance has a huge requirement of cheap and skilled workforce but there continues to be a dearth of both.requirements across Workers are not available for the garment industry owing to poor pay and poor working conditions andthe globe on social the workforce lacks the adequate skill set. Hence while the industry holds a promise of creating an additional 12 million jobs by 2012, pressure is high to create better paying jobs with respectable workand environmental conditions.issues are increasing. The drivers for the increased focus on Sustainability are Compliance is inter-twined with risk (a) Brand reputation protection and risk management mitigation. As future legislation (b) Increasing resource (water, energy, land) scarcity in continues to develop in Europe and some of it is being planned in the regions of production US/Canada, brands and retailers are (c) Compliance requirements both at a product level looking to get an idea of their supply- (which is driven mainly by the importing market like chain risk and proactively managing REACH in the EU) or compliance requirements at a it. In addition, emerging countries themselves are working on looking at process level (which are driven by the production legislation on carbon emission and region laws) water usage. This impacts (d) Consumer pull i.e. increasing consumer preference in manufacturers (which are mainly based in emerging countries) as well the EU and in North America (which are the largest as brands and retailers. markets) for sustainable labels. One-upmanship On account of the above factors, Sustainability is now being looked at by the apparel and textile brands not as a mere CSR activity but more as a market differentiator and business enabler. The major brands and retailers across the globe have entered into a healthy competition in order to outdo the other andM&S aims to become entice the consumer towards them. Some of the path-breaking initiatives taken by the major brandsthe first major retailer recently are:to collect information As part of its Plan ‘A’ commitment to become the world’s most sustainable major retailer byfrom the extended 2015, Marks & Spencer (M&S) signed a deal with supply chain traceability specialist Historicsupply-chain, Futures 4 to develop a full ‘raw material to store’ traceability on every single clothing item 5. This would allow M&S to become the first major retailer to collect information from thedescribing where and extended supply-chain, describing where and how every product is made, including thehow every product is source of the raw materials such as cotton and wool. The full traceability will enable an evenmade, including the greater ability for M&S to differentiate its products. As an example, for its t-shirts, it will givesource of the raw information on where: cotton is grown; yarn is spun; fabric is produced; fabric is dyed; etc.materials such as Related to this, M&S has launched the ‘Look-Behind-the-Label’ campaign in a few of itscotton and wool stores, which informs shoppers as to the way the group sources its products. In 2010, Sportswear giant Puma became the first company to release an Environmental Profit and Loss (EP&L) statement, which measures the full economic impact of the brand on 1 Report Excerpt
  6. 6. ecological systems including water and air. The EP&L project is part of a larger environmental initiative by Puma’s parent company PPR Group 6- to move beyond conventional CSR and promote a new business paradigm: Sustainability as a driver of creativity and innovation; which in-turn would deliver financial, social and environmental returns. In the latter part of 2011 H&M plans to launch its first product line using ‘Better Cotton’, which would give H&M the early mover advantage amongst the pioneers in using Better Cotton. H&M also started selling the ‘Conscious Collection’ line of clothing which is not just organic cotton but showcases the creation of a fashion statement using eco-smarter materials like Tencel and recycled polyester. Levi Strauss & Co launched the ‘Water<Less’ denim collection which reduces water consumption by an average of 28% and saved 16 million liters of water in its spring collection. Recently Patagonia announced its web-initiative ‘The Footprint Chronicles’ which allows consumers to track social and environmental impact of specific garments. The Footprint Chronicles would help Patagonia in a big way to have all its clothes being fully recyclable. This initiative by Patagonia is in line with its reputation as being at the vanguard of sustainable clothing. Anvil Knitwear joined the Cotton made in Africa (CmiA) initiative, becoming the first U.S.- based apparel manufacturer to do so. Anvil knitwear also created a website called ‘Track My T’, which takes consumers through the journey that their t-shirt has taken (each tee has a tracking number). From just a cotton seed on the farm, through the cotton gin, yarn spinner, textile mill, cut and sew facility, distribution center and then onto the consumer, one can get an inside look across the process.These are just few of the initiatives, being taken by brands and retailers to create a competitive edgeusing sustainability and in this report we have covered actions undertaken by 24 brands and retailers.Advances in tracking SustainabilityIn our last report March to Sustainability 2010, we had outlined how sustainability was at the cusp ofbeing rolled out within the supply chain. In the time since the last report, we see that not only are anumber of initiatives in ‘execution mode’, but significant investments in systems are being made totrack Sustainability. Illustrative list of systems and efforts to coordinate sustainable sourcingLevi Strauss & Co In 2009 LS&Co started to collect water use data directly from the suppliers, as well as their own operations and to support this data collection exercise Levi’s started the new ‘Social and Environmental Sustainability Information Management System’ (SESIMS), which allows them to monitor detailed environmental performance at the supplier level.Nike Nike launched the Environmental Apparel Design Tool (EADT), which would help designers make real time decisions in reducing waste leading to an increased use of Environmentally Preferred Materials (EPM). Nike has kept the tool as an open source and encourages designers and other users to build upon the tool.Puma Puma in cooperation with the Global Reporting Initiative announced its intention to expand environmental considerations and improve working conditions throughout their strategic supplier network. The suppliers who are responsible for more than two- thirds of all Puma products will receive GRI certified training on transparent measurement and reporting on their Sustainability performance using the GRI G3 Guidelines – the world’s most widely-used framework for Sustainability reporting. This program is known as Global Action Network for Transparency in the Supply Chain (GANTSCh) and is conducted by GRI certified training partners and during the reporting process; the suppliers are scheduled to release their own Sustainability reports.GAP Gap introduced the ‘Environmental Footprint Assessment’ (EFA) to provide a detailed accounting of how their business affects the environment. The first phase of the EFA focused on regions and facilities where Gap controls the operations. The second phase of the EFA is will focus on the supply chain. 2 Report Excerpt
  7. 7. Sustainable Apparel Coalition Index The industry is quite cognizant of the fact that the proliferation of multiple standards and systems to track sustainability will be inefficient and expensive. To address that challenge a number of leading brands and retailers teamed up to form the Sustainable Apparel Coalition that will develop a Sustainable Apparel Index. The Index will enable companies to evaluate material types, products, facilities and processes based on a range of environmental and social practices and product design choices. The aim is to develop an industry-wide supply-chain index that measures water and energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, waste, and social labor practices, to name a few. The companies have committed to collect supply-chain information, work toward a standard level of best practices, and share information that may be helpful in improving supply chain sustainability. Rewiring the cotton supply chain Another significant development with regards to Sustainability and the textile industry has been the focus on sustainably sourced cotton. Cotton, the ‘white gold’ is the principal raw material for the textile industry and provides livelihood to millions of people both from the farming sector and the industry. adidas has provided a massive boost to sustainable cotton farming by announcing that all adidas apparel would use ‘better cotton’ sourced through the Better Cotton Initiative (BCI) by 2018. Similarly, IKEA wants all cotton used for its product range to come from Better Cotton Initiative (BCI) by 2015. In addition to players like Levi’s, H&M, M&S and Nike have come up with equally bold commitments inadidas has committed going for ‘better cotton’ and called all their cotton suppliers in Pakistan, Bangladesh, India and Turkey to apprise them of what is coming with Better Cotton Initiative (BCI).to have all its apparelbe ‘better cotton’ by To strengthen the implementation and success of Better2018; and Ikea wants Cotton Initiative (BCI), leading brands like adidas, H&M, Cotton is produced in more than 110 countries around the world, many ofall cotton used for its M&S, IKEA, and Levi Strauss & Co along with funders like which are already feeling the impact ofproducts to be ‘better ICCO, IDH, and Rabobank have founded the ‘Better Cotton climate change and as the temperatures Fast Track’ (BCFT) program. Under this program the group rise and water supplies fall, cotton faces acotton’ by 2015. risk of crop failure. Cotton production along with several implementation partners like uses 3.5% of world wide water use for Solidaridad and WWF will work together until 2015 to crop production and consumes 11,000 accelerate the implementation of BCI by building a liters to make 1 kg of cotton textile which demand for Better Cotton. The program has set a target of implies that 2,700 liters of water is used to make 1 T-shirt. producing 1 million tons of better cotton by 2015 and will invest in farmer projects around the world and initiate procurement of the Better Cotton that is produced. Outside of brands engaged with the BCI, brands like C&A have formed the Cotton Connect initiative along with the Shell Foundation. The Cotton Connect initiative is working on various community investment programs for C&A such as value chain coordination, mapping and supplier engagement and measuring various social and environmental impacts. Such initiatives by these major global brands is changing the way sustainable cotton is being looked at and gives a huge fillip to the farmers who are otherwise reluctant to adopt better cotton farming. Sustainability and labor Labor practices in the textile industry have been under scrutiny for a couple of decades now. Consequently the policies and systems in this area are the most mature. However, a few process and system innovations continue to happen in this space. Some of the most notable ones in the past couple of years are as follows: Nike has been working on a program called the ‘Lean and Human Resource Management’, through which Nike seeks to align factory Human Resource Management (HRM) with lean manufacturing concepts. The lean manufacturing alignment requires the factories to employ 3 Report Excerpt
  8. 8. higher- skilled and higher- paid workforce as the workers would be trained to perform multiple tasks. Consequently, gains in productivity, quality and profitability are expected, which would create a win-win scenario. With Nike’s goal of having 90% of its footwear“We are designing for coming from the lean sites by 2011, the Lean and HRM practice would result in reduced costthe sustainable of production and better wages for the workers. Till now 8 factories in Vietnam and 8 factories in China have taken part in this measure.economy of adidas continues to advocate for a better employer-employee relationships and has beentomorrow, and for us working on its Human Resources Management System (HRMS). As a part of the HRMS, adidasthat means using started the confidential reporting channels called ‘hotlines’ and through these hotlines itfewer resources, more would educate the workers about their rights and the way to protect themselves from thesustainable materials risks in the workplace. By end of 2010 workers from more than 400 suppliers had access toand renewable energy these produce new 2010 also saw global brands like Levi Strauss & Co. and H&M work together with the International Textile, Garment & Leather Workers’ Federation (ITGLWF) to impose a globalproducts.” ban on sandblasting- a process using crystalline silica to wear down denim 7. The process of- Mark Parker, sandblasting leads to silicosis, a fatal lung disease that caused the death of 40 garmentPresident & CEO, Nike workers in Turkey since 2005. Levi Strauss and H&M have been working to remove sandblasted products from their lines and along with ITGLWF aim towards placing government-mandated bans in countries throughout the world. This step would compel the developing countries where most of the supplier units are based, to impose a blanket-ban on sandblasted products and also discourage consumers across the globe from buying such products which are detrimental to the health of the workers. Such measures by the leading brands have gone a long way in setting standards for the implementation of better working conditions for the workers at the supplier sites. But the worry lies in the fact that despite steps taken by the global brands, the worker compensation remains abysmally low in countries like China, India, Bangladesh, Cambodia and Vietnam and since the government regulation on minimum wages differs from one country to another, it remains difficult for the brands to impose any floor value on compensation. Sustainability: from CSR to core business The big shift that is happening today is that Sustainability is moving from being a ‘nice-to-have’ to be a ‘must-have’. Most brands and retailers started testing the waters on Sustainability through their CSR initiatives. For some of these brands, Sustainability efforts are now moving out of CSR and becoming core to business operations. Nike’s President and CEO, Mark Parker sums it up well: “We are designing for the sustainable economy of tomorrow, and for us that means using fewer resources, more sustainable materials and renewable energy to produce new products.” Simultaneously, serious investments of capital and time are being made to make Sustainability core. Nike spent US$6 million in developing its Environmental Apparel Design Tool (EADT) tool which is now becoming a key component of the Sustainable Apparel Index (being rolled out by the Sustainable Apparel Coalition). Similarly, PPR, the parent company of Puma, has allocated an annual budget of €10 million for the PPR HOME initiative, which sets a new standard in sustainability and business practice in the Luxury, Sport & Lifestyle and Retail sectors. Marks & Spencer which committed £200 million in 2007 for its 5 year Plan ‘A’ program which focuses on Sustainability (although not on textiles alone) generated returns of over £70 million in 2010-11 (up from £50 million the prior year) 8. 4 Report Excerpt
  9. 9. Snapshot of key brands with Sustainability initiatives in the supply chainThe following is a snapshot of the nature of actions being undertaken by key brands profiled in this report. Major Sustainability policies and initiatives in place for the supply chain GHG/ Materials Energy Water Waste Chemicals Labor Logistics Carbon adidas C&A Gap Inc H&M Inditex John Lewis Levis Strauss & Co (LS&Co) Lindex MEC New Balance Nike The Otto Group Patagonia Phillips-Van Heusen Puma REI VF Corp Timberland Carrefour IKEA M&S Tesco Wal-MartLegend Supply chain initiatives in place for introducing Supply chain initiatives in place for waste management Sustainability in materials, manufacturing and and land use processes Supply chain initiatives in place for increasing energy Supply chain initiatives in place for increasing efficiency at supplier facilities Sustainability in reducing chemical usage and restricting use of harmful chemicals Supply chain initiatives in place for monitoring and Supply chain initiatives in place for tracking and reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions at factories improving labor practices. Supply chain initiatives in place for reducing water Supply chain initiatives in place for improving consumption in manufacturing and treatment of Sustainability in logistics. waste water 8 Report Excerpt
  10. 10. Indexadidas, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 52, 80, 86 Inditex, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 26, 27, 80Apparel and Footwear International RSL International Finance Corporation, 7 Management Working Group (AFIRM), 7, International Labor Organization, 7, 21, 23, 48 15, 18, 19, 22, 25, 33, 39, 42, 53, 59 International Textile, Garment & LeatherBetter Cotton, 2, 6, 9, 13, 23, 69, 86 Workers’ Federation, 4, 27Better Cotton Fast Track, 3, 6, 13, 15, 25, 33, Intertek, 66, 67 64, 67, 69 John Lewis, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 28, 29Better Cotton Initiative, 3, 6, 15, 23, 25, 30, 33, Lindex, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 34, 35, 80 35, 64, 67, 69 LS&Co, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 30, 31, 32, 33, 80Better Factories Cambodia, 24, 25, 48, 49 M&S, iii, 1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 68, 69, 89Better Work, 7, 14, 15, 22, 25, 27, 33, 39, 41, MADE-BY, 80, 82 42, 53, 69, 74 MEC, 6, 7, 8, 9, 36, 37, 39, 80BICEP, 20, 22, 30, 33, 57, 59 New Balance, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 38, 39, 80BSR, 22, 23, 25, 57, 66, 67 Nike, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 40, 41, 42, 52, 73,Business Social Compliance Initiative, 45, 89 80C&A, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 16, 17, 18, 19, 80, 89 NRDC, 20, 73Carbon Disclosure Project, 62, 63, 74 Oeko-Tex, 62, 76, 80Carbon Label, 84 Organic Cotton, 18, 34, 53, 69, 81Carrefour, 5, 6, 8, 10, 61, 62, 63, 80 Otto, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 44, 45, 80, 84CEO Water Mandate, 7, 25, 27, 30, 31, 33, 42 Outdoor Industry Association, 6, 37, 47, 54,Continental Clothing, 7, 76, 80, 81 55, 57Cotton Connect, 3, 18, 19 PAS 2050, 84Cotton made in Africa, 2, 44, 45, 52, 84 Patagonia, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 46, 47, 80DEFRA, 70, 84, 89 Plan ‘A’, 1, 4, 68, 69, 89EarthPositive, 76 Puma, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 50, 51, 52, 53,ecolabels, 80 80, 81Environmental Apparel Design Tool, 2, 4, 40, PVH, 48, 49 42 REI, 6, 8, 9, 54, 55, 87Environmental P&L, 50, 51, 53 SA8000, 45, 59Environmentally Preferred Materials, 2, 38, 39, Sedex, 7, 28, 29, 71, 87 40, 41 SEEP, 24, 25, 74Ethical Trading Initiative, 6, 21, 27, 70, 71 Source4Style, 77Fair Factories Clearinghouse, 14, 55, 57, 74 Suppliers Energy Efficiency Program, 74Fair Labor Association, 7, 15, 24, 25, 37, 39, Sustainable Apparel Coalition, 3, 4, 6, 12, 14, 42, 47, 48, 49, 53, 59 15, 19, 22, 25, 33, 37, 39, 42, 45, 47, 53, 54,Fairtrade, 69, 70 55, 57, 59, 69, 73, 74, 86, 87GANTSCh, 2, 51, 53 Sustainable Apparel Index, 3, 4Gap Inc, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 20, 21, 22 Tesco, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 61, 70, 71GHG Protocol, 27, 51, 62, 64 Textile Exchange, 7, 15, 18, 19, 22, 25, 27, 33,Global Compliance Principles, 57, 58, 59 34, 35, 37, 39, 42, 45, 47, 53, 55, 59, 69, 71,GOTS, 52, 76, 80, 81 74, 76, 80, 81GRI, 2, 27, 28, 36, 51 Timberland, 6, 8, 10, 56, 57, 58GSCP, 6, 10, 15, 19, 22, 49, 63, 66, 67, 69, 71, UN Global Compact, 7, 30 73, 74, 89 Verite, 6, 47H&M, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 23, 24, 25, 80, VF, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 57, 58, 59 86, 87, 89 Wal-Mart, 5, 6, 7, 8, 61, 72, 73, 74, 80, 87Historic Futures, 1, 9, 30, 82, 89 Worldwide Responsible Accredited Program,IKEA, 3, 6, 8, 10, 64, 65, 66, 67, 86 7, 58, 59 88
  11. 11. For more details and to download the complete report visit: Report Excerpt