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Literacy in the content areas


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Reading in the Content Area

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Literacy in the content areas

  1. 1. Methods of Teaching with a Workshop Approach Jeanne Tribuzzi Sara Behrendt Based on the work of Teachers’ College- Columbia University
  2. 2. Reader’s Workshop Structure  Offers time, choice, response, appropriate reading level and develops sense of community within a classroom  Whole Group to Begin (Mini lesson) 10 minutes  Reading Time 30 - 40 minutes  Gather as a Group-  Share Response to Reading-10 minutes
  3. 3. TheImpactof Reading Gallagher, K. 2003
  4. 4. Literacy Process Expectations Reading Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Best Practices Modeled Reading Shared Reading Guided Reading Independent Reading Read Alouds Think Alouds Modeled Fluency Whole Group Lit Circles Book Clubs Partner Reading Vocabulary Games Flexible Groups  Conferences Differentiatio n Reading Workshop Self- Selected Reading Free Reading
  5. 5. Text for Reading Instruction How much time should students be reading text that is…? Easy- (independent reading level) Instructional Challenging •Easy-Independent - 85% •Instructional Reading- 15% •Challenging- 0%
  6. 6. Making Your Teaching Stick Strategies to Increase Retention and Transfer
  7. 7. The Stickiness Principles “Humans learn through a start-and-stop process that frequently involves (partially) learning something and losing it and then- we hope-learning it again and trying to do it as an approximation, and maybe learning it again, until it finally sticks.” -Shanna Schwartz Our job as teachers is to provide the numerous opportunities needed for a lesson to stick, so that children move through the approximation period into solid comprehension and use of a new concept.
  8. 8. Principle 1: Children Learn What They Are Ready to Learn Kids don’t watch when they are stimulated and look away when they are bored. They watch when they understand and look away when they are confused. -Malcom Gladwell
  9. 9. Principle 1: Children Learn What They Are Ready to Learn- ZPD  Children are more attentive and learn more when they understand more.  As educators, we know this principle as Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development
  10. 10. When teaching does not take hold, it is often out of reach for students.  Problems arise when the content and skills we need to teach do not match what most children are ready to learn. We must assess children first and then fit the curriculum to their needs.
  11. 11.  A child who is ready to learn something will exhibit signs of this readiness by using but confusing the skill.  When children are using but confusing something, it usually means they are ready to learn more about the skill or strategy they are trying.  This phase of approximation can help us choose teaching that will be especially strong and sticky because it will meet students where they are. Zone of Proximal Development
  12. 12. Principle 2: Children Learn When They Are Engaged If you can hold the attention of children, you can educate them. – Malcolm Gladwell
  13. 13. Ways to engage students in learning: Use stories to draw in your learners “Children turn things into stories, and when they try to make sense of their lives they use the stories version of their experience as a basis for further reflection. If they don’t catch things in narrative structure, it doesn’t get remembered very well.” – Jerome Bruner
  14. 14. Ways to engage students in learning:  Gestures  When children participate in making a gesture, they make a movement and this solidifies what they have been taught.  Use gestures to:  Give students directions  Illustrate a teaching point  Give nonverbal prompts
  15. 15. Principle 3: Children Benefit from Physical Representations of Their Learning AKA: Anchor Charts “By physically putting our teaching in our children’s hands, we are sure to make it stick.” – Shanna Schwartz
  16. 16. Signs are artifacts of the teaching that we have done during mini-lessons Signs should: • Reference your teaching • Be simple • Include pictures • Include words They are displayed in the room to: • Remind students of what they • have learned • To answer questions they have • To help them out when they are • having difficulty
  17. 17. Charts should be simple  Display key words and catch phrases that were taught during the mini- lesson  The simplicity of repeating the same words from the lesson helps jar children’s memory just as familiar logos on billboards remind us of television commercials.
  18. 18. Including Pictures on Charts Will Make Them More Accessible to Students  If your students read mostly books that have pictures, then your charts should have pictures  If your children use pictures to help them write, then your charts need pictures too
  19. 19. Principle 4: Children Learn Through-and Love- Repetition “If you learn to do something, but you don’t do it over and over, chances are you will forget how to do it. We want our children to turn the strategies we teach into habits, but this won’t happen if they try a strategy once and then never try it again. That is why repetition is so important to our teaching.” – Shanna Schwartz
  20. 20. Use Repetition with a Predictable Structure  Mini-lessons help teaching stick because they go the same way every time.  The structure of a mini-lesson becomes the road map, helping children anticipate how teaching and learning will go.  The students know what to expect and also know what is expected of them. They can use all of their energy to learn the new content.
  21. 21. So now that we know the four factors that are essential to effective teaching, How do we make sure we are incorporating them into our instruction?
  22. 22. Teach your partner the stickiness principals Take turns naming and explaining the 4 principles Turn and Talk….
  23. 23. Architecture of a Mini-Lesson An effective mini-lesson consists of four parts: Connection Teaching Point / Demonstration Active Engagement Link
  24. 24. Connection Purpose: -Inspires and activates prior knowledge “We’ve been…” -Names teaching point “Today I am going to teach you…” -Contextualizes lesson “Because…”
  25. 25. Teaching Point / Demonstration: Purpose: Explicitly teach the skill and show students what it looks like. -Demonstrate the teaching point as if you were working independently “Let me show you how I…” -Think aloud about what you are doing “Hmmm…I’m thinking…” -Restate the teaching point “Did you see how I…”
  26. 26. Active Engagement: Purpose: Provide the students with guided practice with the new skill you’ve just taught them. “Now you are going to have a try. You are going to…” How you have the students practice the teaching point (TP) will depend on the strategy you are teaching. You may have the students: • turn and talk about the TP with a partner • examine a piece of text while they think about the TP • write their thinking about the TP on a sticky note
  27. 27. Link Purpose: Rename the teaching point and link it to future work. -”So today and everyday…” -”Anytime you are…you can…” -“From this point on….” -“You have many ways of doing this, now you have a new one” Send the students off to begin their independent work. -“Off you go!”
  28. 28. The architecture of mini-lessons allows for the teaching point to be repeated five times over the course of the lesson.  Today I want to teach you…  Watch me as I …  Did you notice how I…  Now it’s your turn to try this.  So readers, anytime you want to… Each of these phrases is followed by the repetition of the teaching point. These familiar phrases will act like labels on a map, helping children navigate their way through your teaching.
  29. 29. What Else Will You Need?
  30. 30. High School Interns
  31. 31. Classroom Libraries?
  32. 32. Classroom Libraries?
  33. 33. The Classroom Library Beth Newingham’s Website