Biosilica for Manufacturing and Applications ChK Group, Inc. Plano, Texas Rajan K. Vempati, Ph.D.Subbaraman Viswanathan, Ph.D.
Biosilica a Premium Additive in High Performance Concrete (HPC) Value Chain for Biosilica ChK ProcessRice Biosilica to BiosilicaCultivation HPC use ProductionProcessing in Power to the PowerRICE MILLS Grid Generation Currently ChK Process unique • No solid waste as Rice Hull is features: inorganic matter in sent to rice hull becomes • Biosilica Carbon landfills at a Biosilica content < 0.1% with cost NO graphitic carbon • Simple process easy to Black ash is • Zero crystallinity with operate and control not suited for HPC due no cristobalite • Zero CARBON to high • Produces process heat emissions and future carbon and power based on carbon CREDITS content site requirements
Zero Carbon – With Bio-Material Use(Produces Green Construction Material and Power) AtmosphereO2 CO2 CO2 O2Photosynthesis Steam & Power Rice Rice Fields Hulls Rice Milling Plants Rice Hull Generates Rice Hulls Biosilica Plant Biosilica
Biosilica Renewable Cementitious Material Rice Hull From Rice Mills Rice Field(Upland Cultivation)
Supply of Rice Hulls Agricultural Waste Generated by the Rice Milling Industry No Real Value: Most Uses Never Cover the Cost of Transportation Supply Potential Rice Hull Properties HHV Dry Basis 16.2 Silica Rice Bio Silica Fume MJ/Kg [6,965 BTU/LB] Actual Potential Actual Ton/Yr Ton/Yr Ton/Yr Moisture, W% 9.7% USA 10,500,000 378,000 60,000* Volatile, W% 66% Carbon, W% MF 40.2%GLOBAL 550,000,000 19,800,000 Ash, W% 18.2% Most of this silica fume is imported Ash Composition SiO2 –W% 89 to 95%; Al2O3 0.41 Fe2O3 0.25; CaO 0.75%; MgO 0.43 K2O 2.2% 5
Biosilica Properties• Silica content: > 90w%• Type: Amorphous silica• Carbon Wt%: < 0.1 W%• Cristobalite Wt%: Not Detected Crystalline Silica• Major Uses: – Pozzolan additive to concrete; replaces 10 to 20% of cement – Produces ZSM-5 zeolite by thermochemical methods WITHOUT an organic template – Filler in paints and plastics
BiosilicaHigh Performance Cement and In Architectural Cement Unground Ground .
High Performance Concrete (HPC)Use to Mitigate Severe Erosion in Dams Kinzua Dam in Pennsylvania HPC used to mitigate severe erosion due to abrasion with water flow DOING WELL AFTER HPC INSTALLATION IN 1983
Addition of Biosilica in HPC Results in SlowerCuring and Higher Strengths (Increase by 35%)
Bridges in FloridaCorrosion concerns – State Government Specifies Addition of 8 to 9% Silica Fume in Concrete that Stands in Salt Water or Gets Splashed Bridge in Florida in US – 1 HighwayOther applications for Biosilica in HPC• Parking lots in cold climates – subjected to severe chloride corrosion from salted roadways• High rise buildings that require HPC with high modulus of elasticity
The ChK Process For Biosilica Production Scrubber and Thermal Oxidizer to Stack 2 Energy 1 Stack Options Steam Boiler/ Turbine-Power 2 Pyrolysis oil 2 Refining to diesel.. Refinery Partial Upgrading Oxidation Drying Dried Pyrolysis andRice Hull 150 oC Rice Hull Gasification Biosilica < 700 oCNatural gas andRecycle fuel gas Water/ SteamCombustion Air
Pilot Scale Rotary Calciner for BioSilicaManufacture 6 in diameter tube 20 FT long 3-Zone temperature control
Large (Commercial Scale) Rotary Calciner (Illustrative) 6 FT diameter tube > 60 FT long Heat input with a string of natural gas burners
Future Plans• Biosilica and Energy Corporation (BsEC) formed to commercialize the ChK Process• Seeking investors to construct the first commercial plant• Plant payback in less than 5 years• Contacts: Rajan K. Vempati, Ph.D. President, ChK Group, Inc. Phone: (214) 704-4128; e-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Biosilica Use in ZSM-5 Production• ChK Process; patented – ChK has developed a process to minimize heating requirements without using any organic template• Synthesis conditions – Si/Al molar ratio of reaction mixture: 20 to 100 – Temperature 190 C (could use 200 LB steam for heat up) – Crystallization time 36 hours – Seeding with up to 1% ZSM 5 – Product is filtered washed and dried at 120 C. – For special applications, ZSM-5 could be calcined, as needed• Product ZSM-5 properties – Si/Al Molar ratios of 80 and above are easily obtained. – Carbon content of Rice Hull ash affects the type and quality of ZSM-5
Acknowledgements• Dr. Prasad Rangaraju - Clemson University, Clemson, SC• Dr. Harish, K.V. - Clemson University, Clemson, SC• Dr. Antonio Nanni - University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL• Dr. Ferraro, R. M. - University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL• Dr. Ramesh Borade• Dr. Arun Bonapati - Harper International, Inc., Lancaster, NY• NSF SBIR Phase II Award Number: 0724463