Technologies as Institutions
  Rethinking the role of technology
in media governance constellations




                  ...
Introduction
Introduction

      ‣ Governance as Background and Frame

      ‣ Technology as Blind Spot

      ‣ The „Politics of Infor...
“    [.…] a politics deeply embedded not just within the institutions
    that design and distribute technologies and serv...
Introduction

      ‣ Governance as Background and Frame

      ‣ Technology as Blind Spot

      ‣ The „Politics of Infor...
Governance
Governance as a Theoretical Frame

      ‣ Governance Frame: Regulation in a wider sense
                                 ...
Values
                                                                                     Norms
      Coordination
     ...
Governance in Communication Research

            ‣ From the "Golden-Age Nation State" to heterogenous
              regul...
Governance and Institutions

      ‣ Broad Concept of Governance:
        „Patterns to cope with interdependencies between...
“[Institutions are] symbolic and behavioral systems containing
representational, constitutive and normative rules together...
Governance and Institutions

      ‣ Broad Concept of Governance:
        „Patterns to cope with interdependencies between...
Technology in Media Governance

      ‣ Constructivist Turn in the 1980s: Focus on Domestication and
        Adoption

   ...
“   Indeed, the very design of the Internet seemed technologically
     proof against attempts to put the genie back in th...
Lessig 2007
Technology in Media Governance

      ‣ Constructivist Turn in the 1980s: Focus on Domestication and
        Adoption

   ...
Insights from the Sociology
 of Science and Technology

      ‣ Core Interest: Technology — Action — Socio-political Struc...
Picture: clemensfranz (CC By-SA 3.0)
Hints from the Sociology
 of Science and Technology

      ‣ Core Interest: Technology — Action — Socio-political Structur...
Hints from the Sociology
 of Science and Technology

      ‣ Core Interest: Technology — Action — Socio-political Structur...
Technologies as Institutions: Discussion

      ‣ Importance of detailed look at technological and policy decisions
      ...
Macro           Infrastructure / Policy



Meso    Shared Values / Communities of Usage



Micro                Interactio...
Content




                  Interconnection / Logics /
                         Standards


Net Neutrality


           ...
Copyright
Zero
Selected References

  ‣ Bijker, W. E. und Law, J. (Hrsg.). (1992). Shaping technology/building society : studies in
    s...
Technological Setting Analog – Copying as Exception
                          Legal Setting Fair Use
                     ...
Technological Setting Analog – Copying as Exception
                          Legal Setting Fair Use
                     ...
Technological Setting Digitally Networked – Copying = Usage
                          Legal Setting Fair Use???
          ...
Technologies as Institutions
Technologies as Institutions
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Technologies as Institutions

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Workshop “New Directions in Communication Policy Research”
ECREA Section “Communication Law and Policy”
Zürich, November 6-7, 2009.

Christian Katzenbach

Institute for Media and Communication Studies
Freie Universität Berlin, Germany

Icons by Melih Bilgil, http://www.picol.org/, under CC BY-SA

Published in: Technology, News & Politics
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Technologies as Institutions

  1. 1. Technologies as Institutions Rethinking the role of technology in media governance constellations Christian Katzenbach Institute for Media and Communication Studies Freie Universität Berlin, Germany Workshop “New Directions in Communication Policy Research” ECREA Section “Communication Law and Policy” Zürich, November 6-7, 2009.
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. Introduction ‣ Governance as Background and Frame ‣ Technology as Blind Spot ‣ The „Politics of Information and Communication Technologies“ Christian Katzenbach | Technologies as Institutions | ECREA-Workshop, November 2009, Zurich
  4. 4. “ [.…] a politics deeply embedded not just within the institutions that design and distribute technologies and services, but within the technology itself, as software products and information networks both prescribe and proscribe, configuring suppliers and users, containing and constraining behaviour, and embodying in their algorithms and their gateways both the normative and the seductive. Mansell /Silverstone, 1996
  5. 5. Introduction ‣ Governance as Background and Frame ‣ Technology as Blind Spot ‣ The „Politics of Information and Communication Technologies“ Goal: Foundations for the (re-)integration of technology and its interrelations in the governance discourse Christian Katzenbach | Technologies as Institutions | ECREA-Workshop, November 2009, Zurich
  6. 6. Governance
  7. 7. Governance as a Theoretical Frame ‣ Governance Frame: Regulation in a wider sense Focus on new sets of actors ‣ gained attention as analytical concept and practical approach ‣ Shift of focus in several dimensions: ‣ Actors: Vertical and Horizontal Extension of the traditional mode of rule-making through the nation-state ‣ Vertical: International Institutions ‣ Horizontal: Inclusion of private actors (self- and Co- Regulation) Christian Katzenbach | Technologies as Institutions | ECREA-Workshop, November 2009, Zurich
  8. 8. Values Norms Coordination Markets Discourse Focus on new mechanisms Competition Institutions Legitimation Expertise Legislation Knowledge Christian Katzenbach | Technologies as Institutions | ECREA-Workshop, November 2009, Zurich
  9. 9. Governance in Communication Research ‣ From the "Golden-Age Nation State" to heterogenous regulatory constellations ‣ Focus on new sets of actors, not on mechanisms Role of technology in media governance constellations? Christian Katzenbach | Technologies as Institutions | ECREA-Workshop, November 2009, Zurich
  10. 10. Governance and Institutions ‣ Broad Concept of Governance: „Patterns to cope with interdependencies between actors“ ‣ Schuppert: Structures of coordination, rather than regulation ‣ Institutions as analytical hinge Christian Katzenbach | Technologies as Institutions | ECREA-Workshop, November 2009, Zurich
  11. 11. “[Institutions are] symbolic and behavioral systems containing representational, constitutive and normative rules together with regulatory mechanisms that define a common meaning system and give rise to distinctive actors and action routines. Scott, 1994
  12. 12. Governance and Institutions ‣ Broad Concept of Governance: „Patterns to cope with interdependencies between actors“ ‣ Schuppert: Structures of coordination, rather than regulation ‣ Institutions as analytical hinge ‣ They are both outcome… ‣ … as well as instruments of regulation. Christian Katzenbach | Technologies as Institutions | ECREA-Workshop, November 2009, Zurich
  13. 13. Technology in Media Governance ‣ Constructivist Turn in the 1980s: Focus on Domestication and Adoption ‣ Disregard of the Politics of Technologies 1 Impacts of Technology on social behaviour and sectoral change ‣ Technology as form of (indirect) 2 Political and Social Construction of Technology ‣ Domestication and Adoption regulation ‣ Development of Standards ‣ Regulation of Emerging DANGER! Technologies Technological ‣ Case Studies Determinism! Technology does not follow its own teleological path Christian Katzenbach | Technologies as Institutions | ECREA-Workshop, November 2009, Zurich
  14. 14. “ Indeed, the very design of the Internet seemed technologically proof against attempts to put the genie back in the bottle. […] [It] treats censorship like damage and routes around it. Walker 2003
  15. 15. Lessig 2007
  16. 16. Technology in Media Governance ‣ Constructivist Turn in the 1980s: Focus on Domestication and Adoption ‣ Disregard of the Politics of Technologies 1 Impacts of Technology on social behaviour and sectoral change ‣ Technology as form of (indirect) 2 Political and Social Construction of Technology ‣ Domestication and Adoption regulation ‣ Development of Standards ‣ Regulation of Emerging DANGER! Technologies Technological ‣ Case Studies Determinism! ‣ Interplay and Interdependencies Christian Katzenbach | Technologies as Institutions | ECREA-Workshop, November 2009, Zurich
  17. 17. Insights from the Sociology of Science and Technology ‣ Core Interest: Technology — Action — Socio-political Structures 1 Impacts of Technology on social behaviour and sectoral change ‣ Technology as functional 2 Political and Social Construction of Technology ‣ Technology in Use equivalent ‣ Meaning and Usage are ‣ Durkheimʻs social facts ascribed, not determined ‣ Hardened social action and ‣ Domestication structured ‣ Technology Development ‣ Technology is Society made ‣ „Leitbilder“ durable ‣ Standardisation ‣ Regulation Christian Katzenbach | Technologies as Institutions | ECREA-Workshop, November 2009, Zurich
  18. 18. Picture: clemensfranz (CC By-SA 3.0)
  19. 19. Hints from the Sociology of Science and Technology ‣ Core Interest: Technology — Action — Socio-political Structures 1 Impacts of Technology on social behaviour and sectoral change ‣ Technology as functional 2 Political and Social Construction of Technology ‣ Technology in Use equivalent ‣ Meaning and Usage are ‣ Durkheimʻs social facts ascribed, not determined ‣ Hardened social action and ‣ Domestication structured ‣ Technology Development ‣ Technology is Society made ‣ „Leitbilder“ durable ‣ Standardisation ‣ Regulation Christian Katzenbach | Technologies as Institutions | ECREA-Workshop, November 2009, Zurich
  20. 20. Hints from the Sociology of Science and Technology ‣ Core Interest: Technology — Action — Socio-political Structures Resources Routines 1 Impacts of Technology on social behaviour and sectoral change ‣ Technology as functional 2 Political and Social Construction of Technology ‣ Technology in Use equivalent ‣ Meaning and Usage are ‣ Durkheimʻs social facts ascribed, not determined ‣ Hardened social action and ‣ Domestication structured ‣ Technology Development ‣ Technology is Society made ‣ „Leitbilder“ durable ‣ Standardisation ‣ Regulation Co-Evolution Christian Katzenbach | Technologies as Institutions | ECREA-Workshop, November 2009, Zurich
  21. 21. Technologies as Institutions: Discussion ‣ Importance of detailed look at technological and policy decisions ‣ Set the frame for communication and following decisions ‣ Time-lag ‣ Technologies are part of the institutional frame that individual action (communication) is embedded in ‣ Interaction of user adoption and technological affordances ‣ Interplay and Interdependencies Christian Katzenbach | Technologies as Institutions | ECREA-Workshop, November 2009, Zurich
  22. 22. Macro Infrastructure / Policy Meso Shared Values / Communities of Usage Micro Interactions
  23. 23. Content Interconnection / Logics / Standards Net Neutrality Infrastructure / Architecture
  24. 24. Copyright
  25. 25. Zero
  26. 26. Selected References ‣ Bijker, W. E. und Law, J. (Hrsg.). (1992). Shaping technology/building society : studies in sociotechnical change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ‣ Donges, Patrick. (2007). The New Institutionalism as a theoretical foundation of media governance. Communications, 32, 325-330. ‣ Latour, Bruno. (2007). Reassembling the social : an introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press. ‣ Latour, Bruno. (1991). Technology is Society made durable., in: John Law (Hrsg.), A Sociology of Monsters. London: Routledge. 103-131. ‣ Latzer, M., Just, N., Sauerwein, F., & Slowinski, P. (2003). Regulation Remixed: Institutional Change through Self and Co-Regulation in the Mediamatics Sector. Communications & Strategies, 50(2), 127-157. ‣ Lessig, Lawrence. (1999). Code and other laws of cyberspace. New York, NY: Basic Books. ‣ Mansell, R. & Silverstone, R. (Eds.). (1996). Communication by design: The politics of information and communication technologies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ‣ Schulz-Schaeffer, I. (2000). Sozialtheorie der Technik. Frankfurt am Main [u.a.]: Campus Verl. ‣ Schuppert, Gunnar Folke. (2008). Governance: Auf der Suche nach Konturen eines "anerkannt uneindeutigen Begriffs", in: Gunnar Folke Schuppert und Michael Zürn (Hrsg.), Governance in einer sich wandelnden Welt. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. 13-40. ‣ Walker, John. (2003). "The digital imprimatur: How big brother and big media can put the internet genie back in the bottle". Knowledge, Technology & Policy, 16(3), 24-77. ‣ Winner, Langdon. (1980). "Do Artifacts Have Politics?". Daedulus, 109, 121-136. Christian Katzenbach | Technologies as Institutions | ECREA-Workshop, November 2009, Zurich
  27. 27. Technological Setting Analog – Copying as Exception Legal Setting Fair Use Norms and Values Creators Paying for Music Consuming Music but not Paying
  28. 28. Technological Setting Analog – Copying as Exception Legal Setting Fair Use Norms and Values Creators Paying for Music Consuming Music but not Paying
  29. 29. Technological Setting Digitally Networked – Copying = Usage Legal Setting Fair Use??? Norms and Values Creators, but also: Rip, Mix, and Burn / Sharing Paying for Music Consuming Music but not Paying

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