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What Type of Type 1 Diabetes Do You Have?

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The number of children with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing worldwide, particularly in those under 5 years of age. T1D is conventionally classified as an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks insulin-producing cells within the pancreas. However, T1D in fact represents a diverse group of affected individuals. This diversity stems from several factors, including variation in the cause and course of immune system activation, in the ability of insulin-producing cells to survive this attack, and in the environment. There may be several subtypes of T1D. As a pediatric endocrinologist and diabetes research scientist, my ability to effectively treat a specific T1D individual may be limited by our understanding of these subtypes. My goal is to gain insight into why T1D develops in order to tailor effective treatment for each individual child that I see. In recent years, there have been enormous advances in the ability to gather genetic and metabolite information, as well as the ability to analyze and interpret these vast amounts of data. My intention is to bring these new technologies to our T1D patients and apply them in the clinical setting. The specific goal of our project is to build a comprehensive clinical database and biorepository of samples from T1D patients at Rady Children’s Hospital of San Diego, and then to apply innovative computational techniques in order to identify specific subtypes of diabetes. We want to learn “what type of Type 1 diabetes” each of our patients has so we can better target specific therapies for each child, improve our clinical practice, and develop novel approaches to preventing this disease.

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What Type of Type 1 Diabetes Do You Have?

  1. 1. What Type of Type 1 Diabetes Do You Have? Jane J. Kim, MD University of California, San Diego Rady Children’s Hospital of San Diego
  2. 2. 2 All children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) require insulin after insulin-producing cells in pancreas are attacked by the immune system. Pancreas makes little to no insulin Insulin treatment is required
  3. 3. Although everyone with T1D shares this background... …all children with T1D are not all the same
  4. 4. T1D represents a diverse group of individuals
  5. 5. There may be different subtypes of T1D. By knowing these subtypes, we can tailor specific therapy for each individual, making it easier for them to manage their diabetes.
  6. 6. Gut microbiome Metabolome Genome Clinical record My project goal is to create a clinical database and biorepository of samples from children with T1D
  7. 7. MetabolomeGenomeClinical record We have the ability to collect, store & analyze these data Gut microbiome Genome: the complete set of DNA, including your genes Metabolome: the complete set of small-molecule chemicals produced and consumed in your body Gut microbiome: the population of microbes within your intestine, containing over 3 million bacterial genes
  8. 8. We can then use innovative computational techniques to integrate all the data from these different platforms MetabolomeGenomeClinical record Gut microbiome
  9. 9. By using this strategy, we will be able to identify subtypes of T1D for each child and better understand the cause and progression of this disease This database and biorepository can ultimately be used industrywide to address broad research questions about T1D and to generate new treatment approaches
  10. 10. 10 Improve how diabetes doctors manage care for their patients Better target specific therapies for each child Continue to pursue new approaches to treat and prevent diabetes By learning “what type of Type 1 diabetes” each of our patients has, we can…
  11. 11. Thank you! Your generous support brings us a step closer to ending Type 1 diabetes!

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