Introduction to RF & Wireless - Part 2

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Part 2 covers RF system building blocks, RF system components and microwave circuits

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Introduction to RF & Wireless - Part 2

  1. 1. Introduction to RF & Wireless Two Day Seminar Module 2
  2. 2. Introduction to RF & Wireless Two Day Seminar Module 2
  3. 3. Course AgendaDay One • Morning (Module 1) – Introduction to RF • Afternoon (Module 2) – RF hardwareDay Two • Morning (Module 3) – Older systems & mobile telephony • Afternoon (Module 4) – Newer systems & the future
  4. 4. Module 2 - RF Hardware 1. Basic Building Blocks 2. Other Components 3. Circuits
  5. 5. Module 2 - RF Hardware 1. Basic Building Blocks 2. Other Components 3. Circuits
  6. 6. 1. Basic Building BlocksTransmitter/Receiver PreviewAntennas Amplifiers Filters Mixers Sources Transmitter/Receiver Review
  7. 7. 1. Basic Building BlocksTransmitter/Receiver PreviewAntennas Amplifiers Filters Mixers Sources Transmitter/Receiver Review
  8. 8. Transmitters & ReceiversRecall Basics Building Blocks - Transmitter/Receiver P
  9. 9. Transmitter Block Diagram
  10. 10. Receiver Block Diagram
  11. 11. 1. Basic Building BlocksTransmitter/Receiver PreviewAntennas Amplifiers Filters Mixers Sources Transmitter/Receiver Review
  12. 12. AntennasBasic Building Blocks - Antennas
  13. 13. AntennasFunction ♦ Turn current on a wire into airborne waves ♦ Vice versa • Most antennas work in both directions Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  14. 14. AntennasWhat ♦ Act as impedance matching circuits • From conductor (50 ohms) to free space (377 ohms) AntennaFree space Conductor 377 ohms 50 ohms
  15. 15. AntennasHow ♦ Conductors that are about ½ wavelength long begin to radiate RF energy as waves ½ Wavelength
  16. 16. Wavelength (meters) ApplicationWavelengths 5,000,000 Electrical wall outlet 152,500 The human voice 566 AM radio 5 VHF television 3 FM radio 0.3 Cellular phones 0.1 PCS phones 0.02 DirectTV™
  17. 17. AntennasCharacteristics ♦ Active: Requires a power supply ♦ Passive: Does not require a power supply ♦ Directional: Sends RF energy in one direction ♦ Omnidirctional: Sends RF energy in all directions ♦ Size: Depends on the wavelength ♦ Shape: Depends on the direction of the RF energy Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  18. 18. Antenna PatternWhat Is It? ♦ An engineering tool that shows a birds-eye view of the RF energy radiating out of an antenna Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  19. 19. Antenna PatternOmnidirectional Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  20. 20. Antenna PatternDirectional Beamwidth 20° Azimuth Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  21. 21. GainTwo Kinds ♦ Power gain • Comes from an amplifier • Increases the power ♦ Antenna gain • Directional gain • No increase in power Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  22. 22. Isotropic AntennaWhat Is It? ♦ A mythical "point" antenna • Antenna pattern is a sphere • Minimum power density Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  23. 23. Directional AntennaVisual Depiction ♦ Higher power density than isotropic Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  24. 24. Antenna GainDirectional Gain ♦ A gain in power density NOT power • Relative to an isotropic antenna ♦ Measured in dBiDefinition ♦ dBi = "dB greater than isotropic" Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  25. 25. Antenna GainFor Example An directional antenna with 10 dBi of antenna gain produces an RF signal with TEN TIMES the power density compared to an isotropic antenna Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  26. 26. Antenna Gain 10 dBi Output power = 30 dBmInput power = 30 dBm Effective Isotropic Radiated Power = 30 dBm + 10 dBi = 40 dBm Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  27. 27. Output power 40 dBm Free space loss 120 dB -80 dBm Absorption 10 dB -90 dBm S/N 30 dB Noise floor -120 dBm
  28. 28. Effective isotropicradiated power 40 dBm Free space loss 120 dB -80 dBm Absorption 10 dB -90 dBm S/N 30 dB Noise floor -120 dBm
  29. 29. Effective isotropicradiated power 40 dBm Free space loss 120 dB -80 dBm Absorption 10 dB Ant gain S/N 40 dB Noise floor -120 dBm
  30. 30. Antenna Gain30 dBm Antenna FSL Absorb Antenna -80 dBm 10 dBi -120 dB -10 dB 10 dBi S/N 40 dB Noise floor -120 dBm Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  31. 31. Antenna GainEven Omnidirectionals Have Gain ♦ 2 - 3 dBi Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  32. 32. Antenna TypesOmnidirectional ♦ Dipole: ½ wavelength long ♦ Monopole: ¼ wavelength longDirectional ♦ Dish ♦ Horn ♦ Patch ♦ Array
  33. 33. Array Antenna
  34. 34. PolarizationWhat Is It? ♦ The RF (sine) waves which emanate from an antenna have an orientation to them • Horizontal • Vertical
  35. 35. PolarizationHorizontal Vertical Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  36. 36. PolarizationSo What ♦ Otherwise identical RF signals can be made distinct by having different polarizations • Better use of scarce bandwidth • Polarization diversity Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  37. 37. Smart AntennasWhat Are They? ♦ Directional antennas in which the antenna beam moves Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  38. 38. Smart AntennasWhat Are They? ♦ Directional antennas in which the antenna beam moves Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  39. 39. Smart AntennasWhat Are They? ♦ Directional antennas in which the antenna beam moves Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  40. 40. Smart AntennasWhat Are They? ♦ Directional antennas in which the antenna beam moves Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  41. 41. Smart AntennasHow? ♦ Switched beam ♦ Electronically scannedWhy? ♦ More users per area ♦ Spatial division multiple access Basic Building Blocks - Antennas
  42. 42. 1. Basic Building BlocksTransmitter/Receiver PreviewAntennas Amplifiers Filters Mixers Sources Transmitter/Receiver Review
  43. 43. AmplifiersBasic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  44. 44. AmplifiersFunction ♦ Increase the power of RF signals • "Power gain" Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  45. 45. AmplifiersMain Types ♦ Low noise amplifier (LNA) • First one in a receiver ♦ High power amplifier (HPA) • Last one in a transmitter ♦ Other • Many different kinds • "Gain blocks" Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  46. 46. AmplifiersHPA LNA Other
  47. 47. Amplifier PropertiesLNA HPA ♦ Gain ♦ Gain ♦ Linearity ♦ Linearity ♦ Noise figure ♦ Output power Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  48. 48. GainPower Gain (Gp) ♦ Measured in dB 30 dB -90 dBm -60 dBm Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  49. 49. LinearityTransfer Curve One dB compression point
  50. 50. LinearityAnother Measure ♦ Third order intercept (Ip3) ♦ Intercept point • Measured in dB Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  51. 51. Output PowerDictates Amplifier Performance ♦ Suppose Psat = 40 dBm HPA 30 dB 20 dBm 50 dBm Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  52. 52. Output PowerDictates Amplifier Performance ♦ Suppose Psat = 40 dBm 30 dB 20 dBm 50 dBm Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  53. 53. Output PowerDictates Amplifier Performance ♦ Suppose Psat = 40 dBm 30 dB 20 dBm 40 dBm Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  54. 54. Output PowerDictates Amplifier Performance ♦ Suppose Psat = 40 dBm 30 dB 20 dB 20 dBm 40 dBm Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  55. 55. Noise FigureDefinition ♦ How much an amplifier decreases the S/N ratio • Measured in dB LNA S/N 40 dB S/N 37 dB NF=3dB Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  56. 56. A Special AmplifierVariable Gain Amplifier (VGA) ♦ Gain can be made to vary 15 dB Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  57. 57. A Special AmplifierVariable Gain Amplifier (VGA) ♦ Gain can be made to vary 30 dB Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  58. 58. 1. Basic Building BlocksTransmitter/Receiver PreviewAntennas Amplifiers Filters Mixers Sources Transmitter/Receiver Review
  59. 59. FiltersBasic Building Blocks - Filters
  60. 60. FiltersFunction ♦ Eliminate signals at unwanted frequencies Basic Building Blocks - Filters
  61. 61. FiltersBlock Diagrams Basic Building Blocks - Filters
  62. 62. FiltersFrequency Response ♦ Used to describe a filters behavior ♦ A graph of attenuation vs frequency
  63. 63. FiltersTypes ♦ Low pass • Only signals below a certain frequency can pass ♦ High pass • Only signals above a certain frequency can pass ♦ Band pass • Only signals between two frequencies can pass ♦ Band reject ("Notch") • Only signals outside two frequencies can pass
  64. 64. Low Pass FilterIdeal Frequency Response Stop band Pass band
  65. 65. Low Pass FilterReal Frequency Response Stop band Pass band
  66. 66. Low Pass FilterReal Frequency Response Ideal Out of band signals pass band
  67. 67. High Pass FilterFrequency Response
  68. 68. Band Pass FilterFrequency Response
  69. 69. Band Reject FilterFrequency Response
  70. 70. Special FiltersDuplexer ("Diplexer") ♦ Two band pass filters in one package
  71. 71. Special FiltersDuplexer Frequency Response
  72. 72. Special FiltersSAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) ♦ Converts RF signals into sound signals ♦ Used for low frequency applications • Typically less than 3 GHz ♦ Very small and low cost • Ideal for use in cell phones Basic Building Blocks - Filters
  73. 73. Special FiltersSuperconducting Filters ♦ Have zero insertion loss in the pass band ♦ Have a near-vertical frequency response ♦ Require cooling units • Used primarily in cellular base station receivers Basic Building Blocks - Filters
  74. 74. FiltersInteresting Things To Know ♦ All devices have a 1 dB compression point -even passive ones like filters • A function of input power ♦ IL of a passive device is its noise figure Basics Building Blocks - Filters
  75. 75. 1. Basic Building BlocksTransmitter/Receiver PreviewAntennas Amplifiers Filters Mixers Sources Transmitter/Receiver Review
  76. 76. MixersBasics Building Blocks - Mixers
  77. 77. MixersFunction ♦ To change the frequency of the RF signal Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  78. 78. MixersHow ♦ Mixers have two inputs and one output called ports Input 1 Output Input 2 Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  79. 79. MixersHow ♦ One RF signal goes into Input 1 ♦ One RF signal goes into Input 2 ♦ TWO RF signals come out of the Output Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  80. 80. MixersHow ♦ Output signal 1 • Frequency = sum of frequencies of input signals ♦ Output signal 2 • Frequency = difference of frequencies of input signals Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  81. 81. MixersExample One input signal to a mixer has a frequency of 400 MHz while the other has a frequency of 500 MHz. What is the frequency of the two output signals? Frequency (signal 1) = 400 MHz + 500 MHz = 900 MHz Frequency (signal 2) = 500 MHz - 400 MHz = 100 MHz Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  82. 82. MixersExample 100 MHz 500 MHz 900 MHz 400 MHz
  83. 83. MixersWhat ♦ Mixers can be used to raise OR lower the frequency of an RF signal • Raise: upconverter and its in a transmitter • Lower: downconverter and its in a receiver ♦ Only one output signal is used ♦ The other is eliminated with a filter Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  84. 84. MixersCharacteristics ♦ Noise figure ♦ Insertion loss called conversion loss (CL) ♦ One dB compression point ♦ Ports have designations Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  85. 85. MixersPort Designations RF IF LO Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  86. 86. MixersPort Designations ♦ LO is always one of the inputs • LO: Local Oscillator ♦ RF/IF can be input or output • IF: Intermediate Frequency • Upconverter (transmitter): RF is output • Downconverter (receiver): RF is input Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  87. 87. MixersHow Theyre Actually Used ♦ Upconverters/Downconverters • Change the frequency ♦ Phase modulators/demodulators • Impart or detect a phase shift Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  88. 88. Mixers Downconverter ♦ SuperheterodyneFrom Antenna To Demod RF Signal Baseband Signal 900 MHz IF Signal 64 KHz 70 MHz Basics Building Blocks - Mixers
  89. 89. 1. Basic Building BlocksTransmitter/Receiver PreviewAntennas Amplifiers Filters Mixers Sources Transmitter/Receiver Review
  90. 90. SourcesBasics Building Blocks - Sources
  91. 91. SourcesFunction ♦ To generate a perfect sine wave at a specified frequency • It is the "source" of the RF • It is also called an oscillator • It feeds the LO port of a mixer
  92. 92. SourcesHow ♦ Many materials produce a sine wave when excited with electrical energyWhat ♦ The objective is to produce the most perfect sine wave possible Basics Building Blocks - Sources
  93. 93. SourcesExamples Acronym Oscillator DRO Dielectric resonator XO Crystal YIG Yttrium Iron Garnet Basics Building Blocks - Sources
  94. 94. Special SourcesVoltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) ♦ The frequency of the sine wave can be made to vary by means of an external control Sine wave outControl voltage in Basics Building Blocks - Sources
  95. 95. Special SourcesSynthesizer ♦ "Sophisticated" oscillatorFrequency selector
  96. 96. RecapAntenna Airborne waves to currentAmplifer Makes signals bigger Filter Elliminates unwanted frequencies Mixer Changes a signal’s frequencySource Produces a perfect sine wave
  97. 97. 1. Basic Building BlocksTransmitter/Receiver PreviewAntennas Amplifiers Filters Mixers Sources Transmitter/Receiver Review
  98. 98. Transmitter Block Diagram
  99. 99. Transmitter Block Diagram 64 Kbps
  100. 100. Transmitter Block Diagram 64 KHz
  101. 101. Transmitter Block Diagram 64 KHz
  102. 102. Transmitter Block Diagram 70 MHz900 MHz
  103. 103. Transmitter Block Diagram 900 MHz
  104. 104. Transmitter Block Diagram 900 MHz
  105. 105. Transmitter Block Diagram 900 MHz
  106. 106. Receiver Block Diagram
  107. 107. Receiver Block DiagramSignals
  108. 108. Receiver Block Diagram Signals
  109. 109. Receiver Block Diagram Signals
  110. 110. Receiver Block Diagram 900 MHz
  111. 111. Receiver Block Diagram 70 MHz 64 KHz
  112. 112. Receiver Block Diagram 64 KHz
  113. 113. Receiver Block Diagram 64 KHz
  114. 114. Receiver Block Diagram 64 Kbps
  115. 115. Basic Building Blocks The end
  116. 116. Module 2 - RF Hardware 1. Basic Building Blocks 2. Other Components 3. Circuits
  117. 117. 2. Other ComponentsSwitches Attenuators Dividers/Combiners Couplers Circulators/Isolators Transformers Detectors Phase Shifters/Detectors
  118. 118. 2. Other ComponentsSwitches Attenuators Dividers/Combiners Couplers Circulators/Isolators Transformers Detectors Phase Shifters/Detectors
  119. 119. SwitchesFunction ♦ Switch an RF signals path Other Components - Switches
  120. 120. SwitchesFunction ♦ Change an RF signals path Other Components - Switches
  121. 121. SwitchesWhere Cell phone Other Components - Switches
  122. 122. SwitchesWhere Cell phone Other Components - Switches
  123. 123. Switch Types Switch Type Characterstics Solid state Fast Small InexpensiveElectromechanical Big Slow Low insertion loss Other Components - Switches
  124. 124. Insertion Loss vs IsolationInsertion Loss ♦ Loss in the closed path Insertion loss ≈ 1 dB Other Components - Switches
  125. 125. Insertion Loss vs IsolationIsolation ♦ Loss in the open path Isolation ≈ 30 dB Other Components - Switches
  126. 126. 2. Other ComponentsSwitches Attenuators Dividers/Combiners Couplers Circulators/Isolators Transformers Detectors Phase Shifters/Detectors
  127. 127. AttenuatorsFunction ♦ To make an RF signal smaller Heat Other Components - Attenuators
  128. 128. AttenuatorsBlock Diagrams Other Components - Attenuators
  129. 129. Attenuator TypesAttenuator Type Characterstics Fixed Insertion loss has a single valueVoltage Variable Insertion loss can take any value over a range Digital Insertion loss can only take certain values over a range Other Components - Attenuators
  130. 130. Digital Attenuator Other Components - Attenuators
  131. 131. RecallSaturated Power ♦ Suppose Psat = 40 dBm 30 dB 20 dBm 50 dBm Basic Building Blocks - Amplifiers
  132. 132. AttenuatorsWhere ♦ To prevent saturation Other Components - Attenuators
  133. 133. 2. Other ComponentsSwitches Attenuators Dividers/Combiners Couplers Circulators/Isolators Transformers Detectors Phase Shifters/Detectors
  134. 134. DividersFunction ♦ Break up an RF signal into 2 or more signals Other Components - Dividers
  135. 135. Dividers Function ♦ Break up an RF signal into 2 or more signals ? dBm 1 dB30 dBm ? dBm Other Components - Dividers
  136. 136. Dividers Function ♦ Break up an RF signal into 2 or more signals 26 dBm 1 dB30 dBm 26 dBm Other Components - Dividers
  137. 137. CombinersFunction ♦ Combine 2 or more RF signals into one Other Components - Combiners
  138. 138. 2. Other ComponentsSwitches Attenuators Dividers/Combiners Couplers Circulators/Isolators Transformers Detectors Phase Shifters/Detectors
  139. 139. Couplers Coupler Types Also Called Directional coupler CouplerBi-directional coupler Dual directional coupler Quad coupler Quadrature coupler Quadrature (Quad) hybrid Hybrid Lange coupler
  140. 140. Directional CouplersFunction ♦ To "sample" an RF signal Other Components - Couplers
  141. 141. Bi-Directional CouplersFunction ♦ To sample reflected power also
  142. 142. Quad CouplersFunction ♦ Splits a signal into 2 with a phase shift 90° Other Components - Couplers
  143. 143. Quad CouplersWhere ♦ Balanced amplifier Other Components - Couplers
  144. 144. 2. Other ComponentsSwitches Attenuators Dividers/Combiners Couplers Circulators/Isolators Transformers Detectors Phase Shifters/Detectors
  145. 145. CirculatorsFunction ♦ Reroutes RF signals Other Components - Circulators
  146. 146. CirculatorsFunction ♦ Reroutes RF signals Other Components - Circulators
  147. 147. CirculatorsFunction ♦ Reroutes RF signals Other Components - Circulators
  148. 148. CirculatorsWhere Cell phone Other Components - Circulators
  149. 149. IsolatorsFunction ♦ To protect something from reflected power Load Other Components - Isolators
  150. 150. IsolatorsWhere Base station Load Other Components - Isolators
  151. 151. 2. Other ComponentsSwitches Attenuators Dividers/Combiners Couplers Circulators/Isolators Transformers Detectors Phase Shifters/Detectors
  152. 152. TransformersFunction ♦ Impedance matching, coupling, and others RF in RF out Other Components - Transformers
  153. 153. Impedance matching circuit75 ohms 50 ohms Other Components - Transformers
  154. 154. 2. Other ComponentsSwitches Attenuators Dividers/Combiners Couplers Circulators/Isolators Transformers Detectors Phase Shifters/Detectors
  155. 155. DetectorsFunction ♦ To convert RF power to voltage RF in Voltage out Other Components - Detectors
  156. 156. 2. Other ComponentsSwitches Attenuators Dividers/Combiners Couplers Circulators/Isolators Transformers Detectors Phase Shifters/Detectors
  157. 157. Phase ShiftersFunction ♦ To phase shift the output relative to the input Phase shifted Input signal Φ output signal Other Components - Phase Shifters
  158. 158. BPSK Other Components - Phase Shifters
  159. 159. Phase ShiftersWhere ♦ In modulators Φ 180° Other Components - Phase Shifters
  160. 160. Phase DetectorsFunction ♦ To convert a phase difference to a voltageWhere ♦ In demodulators RF Input 1 Phase Voltage Output RF Input 2 Detector Other Components - Phase Detectors
  161. 161. Recap Switch Change an RF signals’ pathAntennuator Makes signals smaller Divider/ Splits a signal evenly Combiner Coupler Samples a signalQuad Coupler Splits a signal with phase shift
  162. 162. Recap Circulator/ Reroutes a signal IsolatorTransformer Impedance matching, coupling, etc Detector Converts an RF signal to a voltagePhase Shifter Imparts a phase shift on a signal Φ Phase Converts a phase diff to a voltage Phase Detector Detector
  163. 163. Other Components The end
  164. 164. 3. CircuitsSemiconductorsCircuit TechnologiesInterconnection
  165. 165. 3. CircuitsSemiconductorsCircuit TechnologiesInterconnection
  166. 166. Semiconductor Materials Material Comments Silicon Low cost (Si) Low frequency Gallium Aresenide Higher cost (GaAs) Higher frequency Silicon Germanium Low cost (SiGe) High effeciency Indium Phosphide Highest cost (InP) Highest frequency Circuits - Seminconductors
  167. 167. Semiconductor Building Blocks Component Usage Diode Switches, Attenuators Mixers, Detectors Transistor Amplifers, Switches Oscillators, Mixers Integrated Circuit Combine multiple components
  168. 168. DiodesMain Structures ♦ PIN • Power ♦ Schottky • Speed Circuits - Seminconductors
  169. 169. DiodesCircuits - Seminconductors
  170. 170. TransistorsMain Structures ♦ Bipolar Junction (BJT) • Low frequency • High power ♦ Field Effect (FET) • High frequency • Low noise Circuits - Seminconductors
  171. 171. Bipolar Junction TransistorsMaterials ♦ Silicon • "Bipolar" ♦ Gallium Arsenide • Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) Circuits - Seminconductors
  172. 172. Field Effect TransistorsMaterials ♦ Silicon • MOSFET • LDMOS ♦ Gallium Arsenide • MESFET • HEMT • PHEMT Circuits - Seminconductors
  173. 173. TransistorsCircuits - Seminconductors
  174. 174. Integrated CircuitsMMIC ♦ Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuit • Si, SiGe or GaAs • Transistors + other components – Amplifiers – Switches – Digital attenuators – Mixers Circuits - Seminconductors
  175. 175. Integrated Circuits Circuits - Seminconductors
  176. 176. RecapMaterials ♦ Silicon - Low frequency ♦ Gallium Arsenide - Higher frequency ♦ Silicon Germanium - High efficiency ♦ Indium Phosphide - Highest frequencyBuilding Blocks ♦ Diodes - PIN, Schottky ♦ Transistors - BJT, FET ♦ Integrated circuits - Combination
  177. 177. 3. CircuitsSemiconductorsCircuit TechnologiesInterconnection
  178. 178. Circuit DesignsTwo Types ♦ Lumped element ♦ DistributedDictated By ♦ Frequency Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  179. 179. Circuit DesignsLumped Element ♦ Uses discrete ("real") passive components • Inductors • Capacitors • Couplers • Transformers Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  180. 180. Circuit DesignsDistributed ♦ Uses metal traces as passive components • Inductors • Capacitors • Couplers • Transformers Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  181. 181. Circuit ConstructionFour Ways ♦ Discrete ♦ Hybrid ♦ MMIC ♦ CavityDictated By ♦ Cost ♦ Size ♦ Performance Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  182. 182. Circuit ConstructionDiscrete ♦ Packaged semiconductors ♦ Lumped passives ♦ Printed circuit board Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  183. 183. Circuit ConstructionHybrid ♦ Packaged or bare chip semiconductors ♦ Lumped or distributed passives ♦ Ceramic substrate Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  184. 184. Circuit ConstructionMMIC ♦ Semiconductors devices ♦ Distributed passives ♦ On a single piece of semiconductor Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  185. 185. Circuit ConstructionCavity ♦ A hollow container ♦ Signals move as waves inside ♦ Used for high power Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  186. 186. RecapCircuit Design ♦ Lumped - Low frequency ♦ Distributed - High frequencyCircuit Construction ♦ Discrete - High power, quick design time ♦ Hybrid - High frequency, best performance ♦ MMIC - Small size, high volume ♦ Cavity - Very high power Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  187. 187. 3. CircuitsSemiconductorsCircuit TechnologiesInterconnection
  188. 188. InterconnectionTransmission lines
  189. 189. InterconnectionTransmission Lines ♦ Should be 50 ohms (i.e. good match) ♦ Have insertion loss ♦ Effect system performance ♦ Can be made several different ways Circuits - Interconnection
  190. 190. Transmission LinesCan Be Made Using 1) Cables - box to box 2) Waveguides - high power box to box 3) Metal traces - low power, inside a box Circuits - Interconnection
  191. 191. Cables Coaxial Cables InsulatorInner conductor Outer shield Circuits - Interconnection
  192. 192. Cable AssembliesConsist Of ♦ Coaxial cable ♦ Connectors Circuits - Interconnection
  193. 193. CablesConnectors ♦ Many families • Price • Performance • Evolution ♦ Many types • Usage dependent Circuits - Interconnection
  194. 194. CablesHow To Interconnect Different Families ♦ Adapters Circuits - Interconnection
  195. 195. WaveguidesWhat ♦ Rectangular metal tubingHow ♦ Signals travel as wavesWhy ♦ Zero insertion loss Circuits - Interconnection
  196. 196. TracesWhere ♦ On printed circuit boards Circuits - Interconnection
  197. 197. TracesWhere ♦ In hybrids Circuits - Interconnection
  198. 198. TracesWhere ♦ As part of MMICs Circuits - Interconnection
  199. 199. TracesConstruction ♦ Stripline ♦ Microstrip ♦ Coplanar waveguide Metal Substrate Circuits - Interconnection
  200. 200. RecapTransmission Lines ♦ Coaxial cables ♦ Waveguide ♦ Traces Circuits - Circuit Technologies
  201. 201. Circuits The end
  202. 202. Module 2 -RF Hardware The end Dinner

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