Article Summaries and Critiques


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Article Summaries and Critiques

  1. 1. Crissy J. Turner FRIT 7235 Article Summaries and Critiques Article #1 Citation Kaser, L. (2005, August/September). A new spin on library media centers: the hub of the school with the help of technology. Library Media Connection, 24, 64 – 66. Identification The type of this article is a Professional Practice article. Summary Even though this article was written more than eight years ago, it still rings true today. The article, written by Linda Kaser, gives reasons on how the library media specialist can promote the positive aspects of technology. To begin with, Ms. Kaser suggests that in order for teachers use technology, they must embrace technology with hands-on practice and guided application. Collaborative teaching can gradually ease intimidated teachers into using technology. After compiling the lessons using the Internet and using professional resources, teachers need to use and modify the lessons that fit their needs. The library media specialist should guide the children through the technical portion of the lesson. Together, the media specialist and the classroom teacher assist children with the hands-on activity. Another way to ease technology intimidation is by scheduling computer sessions. Scheduling media center times as well as computer sessions for students is a great way to get teachers in practice of using technology. Using flexibility, make sure teachers choose times that are conducive to them. Being consistent with classroom management also aides students and teachers when going into the computer and media centers. Having volunteers to set up computers and help with coordinating the program is also essential. Communication is a very big tool between the classroom teacher and library media specialist.
  2. 2. Keeping teachers up-to-date about changes in scheduling is very helpful for classroom teachers. The role of the library media specialist is to keep the program flowing. He/she is the one who works out the kinks in situations that may be overwhelming teachers, substitutes, and other school personnel. The library media center is the hub of the school where reluctant technology users will feel more relaxed at using their own lessons after exploring what the entire media center has to offer. Critique Again, this article was written over eight years ago, but wow, didn’t it still have valid points that we as media specialists and classroom teachers still face today. I, for one, found value to this article because I know which teachers are going to check out iPads or iPods or cameras and which ones are not! Just the other day, I told a teacher, who is terrified of using the iPad, that unless she just throws down the iPad, there is no way she can tear it up. Well, I am sure there are ways, but I was trying to alleviate her stress. I agree with this article that states that library media specialists should collaborate with classroom teachers when writing lesson plans using technology. I also agree that media specialists could even assist the teachers who are intimidated with any use of technology. In my media center, we have a flexible schedule which allows teachers to sign up for times when it is most convenient for them. Times are not assigned. The computer lab is a fixed schedule that teachers have no say so when they use. However, it is used as a specials time, so teachers do not usually go with students when it is their turn in the computer lab. Teachers, no matter what or who they teach, must be consistent when it comes to classroom management skills. In my media center, we have special procedures when coming into the media center, when checking in books, when checking out books, etc. Most students follow the procedures, but there are still a few who are still learning. Communication is vital to
  3. 3. all stakeholders when participating in a program such as using the media center and/or computer lab. There have been many times where the computer lab teacher was absent and teachers didn’t find out until they took their students to specials. Had they known that she was absent, then maybe they would have been more prepared instead of just letting students go in and play games on the computers. As for volunteers, there is not that many anymore. Most people must work these days, and those who can help some days, can’t help other days. That can be very problematic, especially when you want a consistent program.
  4. 4. Crissy J. Turner FRIT 7235 Article Summaries and Critiques Article #2 Citation Hartle, L. &Berson, I. (2012, November). NAEYC’s technology and young children interest forum’s resources for teachers and families. Young Children, 67(5), 62-64. Identification The type of this article is a Professional Practice article. Summary The National Association for the Education of Young Children and the Fred Rogers Center for Early Learning and Children’s Media at Saint Vincent College have teamed up to make a statement concerning children from birth through age 8 concerning the use of interactive media. Together they agree that “When the integration of technology and interactive media in early childhood programs is built upon solid developmental foundations, and early childhood professionals are aware of both challenges and the opportunities, educators are positioned to improve program quality by intentionally leveraging the potential of technology and media for the benefit of every child.” They continue on to make statements concerning young children and interactive media. Technology and interactive media are here to stay. They are not going anywhere. The next statement is that there are concerns about whether young children should have access to technology and screen media in early childhood programs. Many groups say that childhood obesity and other types of concerns are because of the sedentary lifestyles that children have with interactive media. Therefore, educators should be fully aware of such problems that can occur with the use of screen time for young children. All screens are not created equal. Educators need to make informed decisions about how much time is spent in front
  5. 5. of digital technology. There is conflicting evidence on the value of technology in children’s development. The technology must be important and effective. The appeal of technology can lead to inappropriate uses in early childhood settings. Technology and its tool are only effective if they are used appropriately – not programs that are not educationally sound or developmentally appropriate. Issues of equity and access remain unresolved. It is up to educators to provide leadership so that all children have access to use the technology which in turn also has an effect on adults in that same role. The position of the NAEYC and the Fred Rogers Center is that technology and interactive media can be productive, but only if they are used correctly. The groups also go into sixteen principles to guide the appropriate use of technology. Technology should not harm children. Decisions about integrating technology should be developmentally appropriate. Professional judgment should be used when deciding on age appropriate technology. Developmentally appropriate teaching practices must guide the selection of any classroom material. Appropriate use of technology depends on the all aspects of the child. Effective uses of technology are active and hands-on and support a child’s learning. Technology and media can enhance a child’s cognitive and social abilities. Interactions with technology and media should be playful and support creativity. Technology tools can help educators make and strengthen home-school connections. Technology and media can enhance early childhood practice when integrated into the environment curriculum and daily routines. Technology tools can be effective for dual language learners by providing access to a family’s home language and culture while supporting English language learning. Digital literacy is essential in guiding early childhood educators and parents in the selection, use, integration, and evaluation of technology and interactive media. Critique
  6. 6. I feel that the paper had some valid points. It is very important for educators to make sure that the technology that they you is beneficial to the child. The media must be age appropriate and socially appropriate. Students also must have access to the technology in order for opportunities to be provided for students. Never, in any circumstances, should technology tools and interactive media harm children. The article was very useful. I think it could serve as a reminder or refresher for anyone who works with children ages birth to eight years old. I do not feel that there were problems with the paper. I am a media specialist at a school which serves third through fifth grades. With the purchase of 140 iPads, teachers are constantly bombarding me to buy apps for the iPads. I must first look at the app and make sure it is developmentally appropriate. I must also make sure that it covers the Georgia Performance Common Core Standards. Lastly, I must take into account the cost. Usually, the apps are free, but I must maintain my budget, so if it does cost, will it be useful for all of my students. This paper made me think back to my job as a teacher, but really now that I am the manager of my school’s technology, I must think about the whole child, not just will be “fun” for them to play.
  7. 7. Crissy J. Turner FRIT 7235 Article Summaries and Critiques Article #3 Citation International Reading Association.(2009, October).IRA updates position on new literacies. Reading Today, 27(2), 14. Identification The type of this article is a Professional Practice article. Summary The International Reading Association has taken a stand on what needs to be done in order to become literate in today’s 21st century world. Technology is vastly upon us, and educators must make adequate tries at effectively integrating new technologies into what they teach. First, educators must expand what they know as new literacies. Four elements apply to what new literacies are: The Internet and other information and communication technologies (ICTs) require new social practices, skills, and strategies, new literacies are central to a global world, they are rapidly changing, and they are looked at by multiple stakeholders in order to understand them. The Internet is in almost every classroom in the world. Therefore, steps need to be taken to ensure curriculum is appropriate. Access to ICTs is very important. Everyone should have an opportunity to access the internet despite financial stability. Because of new changes in technology, professional development is very important. Teachers in classrooms must be able to use the technology before they teach it. New teachers should also be prepared in their teacher education programs. More emphasis should be placed on technology because of the changes in the world.
  8. 8. Critique I enjoyed reading this article about ICTs. I, for one, am glad that the International Reading Association is backing teachers on the need for more staff development and increasing technology in teacher education programs. I also feel that there should be equity of access so that all children may have the same opportunities as everyone else around the world. The internet is here to stay. I personally feel as a media specialist that all children should have access to technology. I have five iPad carts which have 20 to 25 iPads in each cart. There have only been a handful of teachers who will even think about checking them out. The teachers who are a little older and not so technologically savvy are not comfortable using them. My conversation with one of them the other day ended this way, “You will not tear it up unless you drop it or throw it down on the floor.” I foresee several staff developments for me to teach in my future.
  9. 9. Crissy J. Turner FRIT 7235 Article Summaries and Critiques Article #4 Citation Rosin, H. (2013, April).The touch-screen generation.The Atlantic, 311(3), 56 – 65. Identification The type of this article isa Theory-In-Practice article. Summary How young is too young for children to use technology such as tablets, smart phones, or just watching television? In 2011, the American Academy of Pediatrics updated its policy on very young children and their use of media. Because of this, many parents and teachers are monitoring technology use more closely because of the lack of cognitive development. However, parents sometimes find themselves swaying back and forth. On one hand, parents and teachers want their children to be exposed to technology, but on the other hand teachers and parents fear too much digital media will hurt their child. Technology developers are gearing more to younger children. Educational and non-educational apps and media are built now more the younger children and the media are smaller and easier to use. Parents are also using this technology to pacify children. Many observers see this as harming the child because of the problem of children’s brain waves slowing down such as daydreaming. How do small children actually experience electronic media and what does this experience do to their development? Certain rules have been discovered that promote engagement such as the Nick Jr.’s Blue’s Clues where children actually are engaged and invested with what they are watching. Teachers also have the burden to ensure that the technology that their students are using in their classrooms, is
  10. 10. beneficial to the student and not just pacifying them. However, younger children are just simply not cognitively prepared for some of the electronic media that they come across. Critique This article was very interesting to read. I, for one, understand exactly what it is saying about some children being too young cognitively to use electronic media. I often worry that my child is exposed to too much electronic media. She models me, and she always wants to use my computer, my iPad, or my smartphone. The crazy thing is that she can use it better than some adults I know. I think that teachers and I, as a media specialist, have to be very careful when selecting apps or other types of technology for classroom lessons. Children must be cognitively prepared to use such technology and be able to use it correctly so that the lessons are understood. I also believe that parents, teachers, and media specialist, should limit technology to children simply because of the over stimulation that electronic technology may create.
  11. 11. Crissy J. Turner FRIT 7235 Article Summaries and Critiques Article #5 Citation Maloney, M.& Wells, V. (2012, November/December).iPads to enhance user engagement during reference interactions. Library Technology Reports, 48(8), 11-16. Identification The type of this article isa Research article. Summary The University of the Pacific Library’s iPad project is a pilot project that looked at how students respond to the use of tablets instead of computers. One aim of this project is for students to be more advanced in information literacy and critical thinking abilities so they leave any given reference interaction feeling more empowered than before. The study was completed at the University of the Pacific, which is located in Stockton, California. It is a private, comprehensive university that has presently 3,800 undergraduates, 750 graduate students, and 640 first-time professional degree seekers enrolled. The central location of the reference center is located in its library. Its staff maintains that even with the advances of technology, it still has about 70 percent of its researchers that meet person to person. With the introduction of Apple’s iPad 2 in the spring of 2011, librarians at this reference center began to brainstorm ideas to use iPads with referencing. With a grant, librarians began experimenting with the iPads. With the purchase of six iPads, four librarians, the Systems and Technology department, and the Health Sciences branch all received one. The other librarians would be trained one-on-one by the other librarians who received the iPads on how to help students with research using the iPads. To begin assessing students about the use of the iPads, a survey was created. The first question, “Did the
  12. 12. librarian assist you with finding useful information related to your question?”, all students responded with a 5 or strongly agree. The second question, “Did using the iPad help you find information for your paper or project?”, 45 percent rated it strongly agree, 40 percent a 4, and 5 percent prated it strongly disagree. From looking at comments, the use of the iPad was the culprit in not receiving higher scores. The third question, “Does the option to use an iPad at the reference desk make you more likely to return to the librarian for research assistance?”, it had answers similar to number 2. Librarians were also given a questionnaire. There were a few positives to the survey. Librarians could at least name one success story with using the iPad and librarians believed they received sufficient training. There were also a few mixed responses to questions. Some stated they would use the iPad again, but some also stated unless new reasons could be given to use it instead of the desktop computer, they would not. One even stated that the desktop was a better use. In conclusion, tablets will complement the desktop computer, but it will not take the place of it. Critique I believe that the iPad is a great tool to use because it is new and trendy. I also agree with the study that showed that in some instances, it is not the most useful tool. It is small and compact and easy to navigate which is one positive versus the desktop computer. However, the desktop computer can do everything an iPad can do. This research really hit home for me. The other day my principal and I were talking about how many iPads our school had versus how many laptops. The iPads (with a bundle of 10 rate) were $309. All-in-one desktop computers (refurbished of course) were $158 each. This is a win-win for desktop computers. I also stated that with the purchase of 55 of these all-in-one desktop computers, each classroom had up-to-date computers with five to six desktop computers each – another win. Another win for the desktop was that
  13. 13. they didn’t have to be checked out daily. They were already in the classrooms. However, we both came to the conclusion that because of the new trend of tablets and smartphones, the iPad would want to be used more than the desktop.
  14. 14. Crissy J. Turner FRIT 7235 Article Summaries and Critiques Article #6 Citation Salem, L., Cronin, B., & Bliss, L. (2012, November/December).Smarter together.Library Technology Reports, 48(8), 17-21. Identification The type of this article isa Research article. Summary This study was conducted at San Diego State University in 2011. A proposal was written by the university’s reference librarians for the use if iPads to develop their services. After orientation of the iPads, a group of librarians and other staff members met once a month to discuss the tablet and how to better use it. In each weekly meeting, also known as the Library Tablet user Community, librarians found themselves focusing on ways to connect benefits of the tablets back to the users of the tablets. When trying to form a library tablet community, it was quickly realized that through a study by EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research in 2011, most everyone had an iPad, iPod, smartphone, laptops, jump drives, etc. This caused the group to think more in terms of how they could use the iPads to benefit its users. What the group found was that librarians could teach the students more about the information that they find on the mobile devices and learning more about software to organize their information. These findings allowed the group to become more efficient in using the technology. However, it also found the group working at different levels of expertise therefore; no group work could be done because everyone was at a different level. The Library Tablet User Community at San Diego State succeeded on many levels. They worked on collaboration that encouraged participation, it
  15. 15. increased their skills and comfort levels working with the technology, and brought a new dialogue between group members. Their next steps were to provide this new technology to its users. They soon realized that not every student uses smartphones and iPads. So their suggestion was to implement an environment at school where students could learn certain skills. The group chose to implement innovative technology-based information services that would better serve the patrons of this university. Critique This study is prevalent to my school now. We are a “Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT)” school. Students are allowed to use any type of technology to school as long as they have a permission form filled out from their parents. We can talk about iPads all day long, but if students do not know how to use them, then they are not doing any good. That is why the BYOT is a great initiative. It allows students to use the technology they know, and then transfer that knowledge to the iPad. The school improvement specialist at my school and I had a discussion about teachers using technology. A teacher’s complaint was that if they are expected to use technology, then they should be shown how. Because of this complaint, we will start having “Technology Tuesdays” once a month in the computer lab for teachers to share what technology they know how to use and use, and for me to show them how to use other examples of technology. WOW! Why didn’t we begin this at the beginning of school? This would have been very beneficial to the teachers when we first began. This article would be great for all media specialists to read essentially because we sometimes forget that not everyone knows how to operate new technology. Adding technology classes for their staff members is an excellent way for media specialists like myself to help those who are not so knowledgeable with today’s technology learn how to use and then integrate it in their lessons.
  16. 16. Crissy J. Turner FRIT 7235 Article Summaries and Critiques Article #7 Citation Anderson, M. (2011, November/December). Everyday best practices. Library Media Connection, 30(3),48 – 50. Identification The type of this article is a Professional Practice article. Summary Just like in the classroom, the term Best Practices, is also very important in the media center. In the article, “Everyday Best Practices”, the author points out a lot of key strategies that will help the media specialist be successful. The first one is welcome everyone into the media center. Make is warm and inviting, making students and staff member want to come back again. Next, loosen up the rules and make yourself and resources more accessible. Add what you want to the center and remove things that you want to remove. Third, make sure people see you doing professional tasks. Give up jobs that don’t matter and mean much and interact with your visitors more often. Next, keep in touch with the latest standards and collaborate with teachers as much as you can. Work with teachers in areas they need help in. Embrace technology is the next best practice. Keep up-to-date with the newest technology and web 2.0 tools. Lead the way with real staff development. Have teachers complete an informal survey. Use the data collected from there and lead the way with hosting meetings that meet the needs of your teachers. Keep relationships with your teachers so they see advocacy on your part. Knowing you are there to help them makes them more comfortable and more apt to ask you questions. Use stories to support your message instead of just stating the facts. Reach out to families and the community
  17. 17. is the next piece of advice. Parents will support you and respect you. Extend program visibility into the community. It is positive PR for your media center. Last but not least, be the change. Change is ongoing and evident. Begin each day with a positive attitude and this will all help in the long run. Critique This is a great article for beginning media specialists, but a great refresher for veterans. This article is a great article because it narrows in on things that you must do in order to be effective. I especially like the part that stated that teachers should weed out from a previous librarian. Not only is it important, but it is very important for you to create your own media center. I also liked the part that spoke about technology. I think it is most important for media specialists to stay abreast of the newest technology. It should be a requirement. The school library media specialist is the go – to person when it comes to technology. He or she should be very knowledgeable when it comes to new tools and new gadgets. All-in-all, this article was very refreshing and enjoyable to read. I think that this is something I will keep and refer to in years to come.
  18. 18. Crissy J. Turner FRIT 7235 Article Summaries and Critiques Article #8 Citation Shin, N., Sutherland, L., Norris, C., &Soloway, E. (2012, July). Effects of game technology on elementary student learning in mathematics. British Journal of Educational Technology, (43)4, 540-560. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2011.01197.x Identification The type of this article is a Research article. Summary This is a report on two studies. The first study was conducted on 41 second graders from two classes which either used a technology-based game or a paper-based game for five weeks. The second study examined student learning in relations to characteristics such as their game performance, attitudes toward the game and mathematics, and gender and ethnicity. The students were in two different classes. For the next 13 weeks, students either played a technology-based game either two times a week or more than three times per week. The results were that technology made a huge impact on elementary students learning math regardless of ability level. The students who played technology-based games for practice out-performed those who played a paper-based game. The second study, which looked more at their attitudes, had a huge impact on the first study. Because of the positive impact of the technology-based games had on the children, arithmetic showed an increase in score. It was evident that the attitude from the technology-games was the basis of how well they did on learning mathematics. Based on these findings, the authors of the study suggested three important areas in which to continue studying the impact of game technology on student learning. For one, research needs to be
  19. 19. conducted to see how gaming could individualize a students learning. This in turn could possible improve cognitive learning. Secondly, identifying classroom variables is an important step when implementing games in classrooms. There are many different variables when it comes to classrooms. Teachers teach in different ways and students learn in different ways. Thirdly, researchers need to explore the effectiveness of technology-based games when it comes to higher order thinking skills. The game used in the study was mainly drill and practice. Designers of games need to incorporate more in depth lessons that engage students. Critique All-in-all, I thought this article was dead on. I am a proponent of using technology-based games in the classroom. It is new, exciting, and interesting. Students are excited about learning, they are engaged, and they are willing participants in these games. They have no idea that they are actually learning in the process. Paper games are used still today, but they are less effective when compared to technology-based games. As a teacher, I always loved using BrainPop when teaching different skills in social studies. We would watch a video, discuss parts of it (specifically the questions themselves), and then students would take the “easy” quiz, and fail it miserably. I was speechless. I had gone over the actual questions from the test, and they still failed it! The other day a fourth grade teacher was having problems with connection issues with her class while using the iPads. After working around the iPad and finding a different path to use, students began to listen to a BrainPop video about the government. Now keep in mind, out of the 24 students in her class, I had probably taught 6 of them. They all watch the videos and afterwards, took the test and emailed the score to their teacher. Amazingly, all but, a few made a 100. That was incredible to me. We had actually watched the video, discussed it, and discussed the questions, and I may have had 5 or 6 pass. Just by watching the video on iPads individually,
  20. 20. she had a much better success rate. Technology is a great asset for all who use it. If you are lucky enough to have the technology, I think this article is proof that it will benefit students as well as teachers.