Chapt12schizo

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Chapter 12 Schizophrenia

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Chapt12schizo

  1. 1. Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
  2. 2. Delusions<br />Rigid, bizarre, irrational beliefs<br />Hallucinations<br />Sensory experiences in the absence of actual stimuli<br />Disorganized speech<br />Jumbled speech or speech conveys <br />little information<br />Inappropriate affect<br />Showing emotions that do not suit a given situation<br />Catatonia<br />Unusual motor symptoms marked by severe restriction of movement or extreme excitability<br />Positive Symptoms<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
  3. 3. Alogia<br />Speaking very little to others<br />Avolition<br />Inability or unwillingness to engage in goal-directed activities<br />Anhedonia<br />Lack of pleasure or interest in life activities<br />Flat affect<br />Showing little emotion in different situations<br />Lack of insight<br />Poor awareness of one’s mental condition<br />Negative Symptoms<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
  4. 4. Psychotic<br />Disorganized<br />Negative<br />Possible Others<br />Degree to which one experiences positive symptoms of delusions and hallucinations<br />Degree to which one experiences reality distortions, fragmented speech, odd behavior, and inappropriate affect<br />Degree to which one experiences deficit behaviors such as flat affect, alogia, and avolition<br />Degree to which one experiences depressive, manic, and motor behaviors<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
  5. 5. Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />Paranoid<br />Disorganized<br />Catatonic<br />Undifferentiated<br />Residual <br />
  6. 6. Characteristic Symptoms of Schizophrenia<br />Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, negative symptoms.<br />Possible interference in daily functioning.<br />An episode of the disorder, including prodromal, active, and residual phases, lasts 1-6 months.<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
  7. 7. Characteristic Symptoms of Schizophrenia<br />(Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, negative symptoms) with a major depressive, manic, or mixed episode.<br />Delusions or hallucinations for at least 2 weeks without prominent symptoms of a mood disorder. <br />Symptoms of a mood disorder are present during a substantial portion of the active and residual phases of the psychotic disorder. <br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
  8. 8. Delusions that are not bizarre but last at least one month.<br />No characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia (delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, negative symptoms), though tactile or olfactory hallucinations may be present if they are related to the person’s delusion.<br />No significant interference in daily functioning and the person’s behavior is not obviously odd or bizarre.<br />If mood symptoms are present, they are brief compared to the delusional symptoms.<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
  9. 9. Delusions<br />Hallucinations<br />Disorganized speech<br />Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
  10. 10. Schizotypal<br />Paranoid<br />“Distorted reality”<br />“Delusional/paranoid”<br />Odd ideasEccentricityUnusual experiencesSuperstition, religiositySuspiciousnessReclusiveness<br />ParanoiaDistrustful natureDoubts loyaltyKeeps grudgesEasily offended<br />Negative symptoms of schizophrenia<br />Schizoid<br />“Social withdrawal”<br />AloofUninterested in othersSolitary, socially withdrawnUnaffected by praise and criticism<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
  11. 11. Genetics<br />Brain differences<br />Neurochemical differences<br />Cognitive defects<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
  12. 12. General Population<br />Half Siblings<br />Grandchildren<br />25% Overlap<br />Nephews and Nieces<br />50% Genetic Overlap<br />Uncles and Aunts<br />Siblings<br />Children<br />Parents<br />0<br />2<br />4<br />6<br />8<br />10<br />14<br />12<br />Prevalence Rate<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
  13. 13. Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
  14. 14. Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
  15. 15. Cognitive Deficits<br />Memory<br />Attention<br />Learning<br />Language<br />Executive functions<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
  16. 16. 1.15<br />1.10<br />First Admission<br />1.05<br />Readmissions<br />Observed Over Expected Ratio<br />1.00<br />0.95<br />0.90<br />0.85<br />Jan<br />Feb<br />Apr<br />May<br />Jun<br />Sep<br />Nov<br />Oct<br />Mar<br />Jul<br />Aug<br />Dec<br />Months<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
  17. 17. Biological vulnerabilities: Early viruses and infections, genetic contributions, pregnancy complications<br />Key brain and neurochemical differences: Enlarged ventricles, frontal and temporal lobe differences, excess dopamine<br />Psychological vulnerabilities: Cognitive deficits, academic and motor problems, comorbid substance abuse and depression<br />Stressful life events, increased life demands, lack of social support and intervention<br />Possible psychotic disorder<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
  18. 18. Sample Items from the Psychoticism Subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90-R<br />How much were you distressed by:<br />The idea that someone else can control your thoughts.<br />Hearing voices that other people do not hear.<br />Other people being aware of your private thoughts.<br />Having thoughts that are not your own.<br />The idea that you should be punished for your sins.<br />The idea that something serious is wrong with your body.<br />The idea that something is wrong with your mind.<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
  19. 19. Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
  20. 20. Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
  21. 21. 74% improve over time<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />

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