Ch9subsabuse2

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ch 9 substance abuse corrected

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  • Click here for a five-minute video highlighting how drug use can change the brain in ways that make it harder to quit
  • Ch9subsabuse2

    1. 1. Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
    2. 2. Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
    3. 3. Substance Abuse:<br />The repeated use of substances that lead to recurring problems<br />impairment of functioning video<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
    4. 4. Normal<br />Stable mood.<br />No concern about substance use.<br />Occasional but appropriate alcohol use or use of medication.<br />Emotions<br />Cognitions<br />Behaviors<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
    5. 5. Normal<br />Mild<br />Mild discomfort about the day, feeling a bit irritable or down.<br />Thoughts about the difficulty of the day. Worry that something will go wrong at work. <br />Drinking a bit more than usual; relying on medication to sleep.<br />Emotions<br />Cognitions<br />Behaviors<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
    6. 6. Normal<br />Mild<br />Moderate<br />Considerable stress and sadness (note that opposite<br />emotions occur when drug is used).<br />Dwelling on negative aspects of the day; worry about<br />threats to one’s job or marriage. Thoughts about ways<br />to hide substance abuse.<br />Drinking alcohol regularly at night; occasionally<br />missing work on Mondays; heavy use of medication.<br />Emotions<br />Cognitions<br />Behaviors<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
    7. 7. Normal<br />Mild<br />Moderate<br />Substance-Related Disorder – Less Severe<br />Intense stress, sadness, and feelings of emptiness;<br />agitation about not having access to a specific<br />drug or drugs.<br />Frequent thoughts about using substances and<br />worry about harm to personal health.<br />Regular intoxication such that many days are<br />missed from work; arguments with spouse about<br />substance use; arrests for impairment.<br />Emotions<br />Cognitions<br />Behaviors<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
    8. 8. Normal<br />Mild<br />Moderate<br />Substance-Related Disorder – Less Severe<br />Substance-Related Disorder – More Severe<br />Extreme stress, sadness, and feelings of emptiness.<br />Extreme agitation when drug is not available.<br />Thoughts focused almost exclusively on drug<br />use and self-destruction of one’s lifestyle.<br />Very frequent intoxication; loss of job or marriage;<br />physical addiction to a drug; seeking to secure<br />or use drugs most of the time.<br />Emotions<br />Cognitions<br />Behaviors<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
    9. 9. Substance Dependence<br />Substance Withdrawal<br />Tolerance<br />withdrawal video<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
    10. 10. Increaseslevels of GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) in the brain<br />Low levels: disinhibition<br />GABA inhibits the inhibitory brain systems<br />High levels: depressant<br />At high levels, GABA inhibits the excitatory brain systems<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br /> Alcohol<br />
    11. 11. Epicanthal folds<br />Underdeveloped upperpart of ear<br />Small palpebral fissures<br />Smoothphiltrum<br />Flat nasal bridge<br />Thin upper lip<br />Upturned nose<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
    12. 12. Prefrontal cortex<br />Nucleus accumbus<br />Ventricle tegmental area<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
    13. 13. Brain features<br />Prefrontal cortex also responsible for decision-making and impulse control<br />brain images and addiction<br />
    14. 14. Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
    15. 15. Proximal factors<br />Distal factors<br />Genetic predisposition, Impulsive personality, Deviant peers, Culture, Family conflict, Parental drug use, Drug/learning experiences<br />Activation of mesolimbic pathway, Daily stress and depression, Peer pressure, Positive expectancies about drug use, Availability of drugs<br />Substance-related disorder<br />Reinforcers<br />Punishers<br />Mood enhancement, Relief from stress, Belonging to a peer group, Avoidance of withdrawal symptoms<br />Ill physical effects, Legal problems, Cognitive decline, Divorce and loss of jobs, Tolerance<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
    16. 16. Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
    17. 17. Agonists<br />Antagonists<br />Partial agonists<br />Aversives<br />Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
    18. 18. Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />
    19. 19. Features and Epidemiology<br />Causes and Prevention<br />Assessment and Treatment<br />

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