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ap-phys-b-review-kinematics-and-newton-s-laws

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ap-phys-b-review-kinematics-and-newton-s-laws

  1. 1. AP Phys BAP Phys B Test ReviewTest Review Kinematics and Newton’s LawsKinematics and Newton’s Laws 4/28/20084/28/2008
  2. 2. OverviewOverview  Units and DimensionsUnits and Dimensions  Scalars and VectorsScalars and Vectors – 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D1-D, 2-D, and 3-D  Particle KinematicsParticle Kinematics  Newton’s Laws of MotionNewton’s Laws of Motion – GravityGravity – FrictionFriction
  3. 3. Units and DimensionsUnits and Dimensions  Metric SystemMetric System  ConversionsConversions  DimensionalDimensional AnalysisAnalysis  Order ofOrder of MagnitudeMagnitude EstimationsEstimations
  4. 4. Scalars and VectorsScalars and Vectors  Scalars: MagnitudeScalars: Magnitude onlyonly..  Vectors: MagnitudeVectors: Magnitude andand direction.direction. – Vectors componentsVectors components  Cartesian coordinatesCartesian coordinates  TrigonometryTrigonometry – Find the magnitude of aFind the magnitude of a vectorvector θ v vx vy
  5. 5. Scalars and VectorsScalars and Vectors  Vector Addition and SubtractionVector Addition and Subtraction – Graphical Representation “Head to tail”Graphical Representation “Head to tail” – Mathematical operationMathematical operation  Vector multiplicationVector multiplication – Dot ProductDot Product – Cross ProductCross Product
  6. 6. Particle KinematicsParticle Kinematics  Distance and DisplacementDistance and Displacement – Distance: lengthDistance: length – Displacement: length and directionDisplacement: length and direction  Speed and VelocitySpeed and Velocity – Speed: distance/timeSpeed: distance/time – Velocity: displacement/timeVelocity: displacement/time  AccelerationAcceleration – Change in speed (velocity)/timeChange in speed (velocity)/time
  7. 7. Particle KinematicsParticle Kinematics  GraphsGraphs – Distance vs. timeDistance vs. time graphs; slopegraphs; slope – Velocity vs. timeVelocity vs. time graphs; slope,graphs; slope, areaarea  Instantaneous vs.Instantaneous vs. average valuesaverage values
  8. 8. Particle KinematicsParticle Kinematics  Problem Solving StrategiesProblem Solving Strategies – Identify known quantitiesIdentify known quantities – Key words: at rest, constant speedKey words: at rest, constant speed  Free fall problemsFree fall problems – Acceleration due to gravity: 9.8 m/sAcceleration due to gravity: 9.8 m/s22  Use common sense!Use common sense!
  9. 9. Particle KinematicsParticle Kinematics  Equations of MotionEquations of Motion Vf Vi a t d x y atvv if += 2 2 1 attvd i += advv if 222 +=
  10. 10. Newton’s LawsNewton’s Laws  11stst law (Law of Inertia): An object atlaw (Law of Inertia): An object at rest stays at rest, and object in motionrest stays at rest, and object in motion stays in motion in a straight line at astays in motion in a straight line at a constant speed until acted on by anconstant speed until acted on by an outside force.outside force. – Inertia: Resistance of an object to changeInertia: Resistance of an object to change – Meaning: Things don’t speed up or slowMeaning: Things don’t speed up or slow down without a reason.down without a reason.
  11. 11. Newton’s LawsNewton’s Laws  22ndnd Law: The acceleration of an object isLaw: The acceleration of an object is proportional to the force on that object and isproportional to the force on that object and is inversely proportional to the mass of theinversely proportional to the mass of the object.object. – Meaning: The heavier something is, the more forceMeaning: The heavier something is, the more force it takes to achieve a certain acceleration.it takes to achieve a certain acceleration. m F a ∑=  
  12. 12. Newton’s LawsNewton’s Laws  33rdrd law: For every action, there is anlaw: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reactionequal and opposite reaction – All forces occur in pairs.All forces occur in pairs. – These forces cannot occur on the sameThese forces cannot occur on the same object.object.
  13. 13. Newton’s LawsNewton’s Laws  Balanced vs. Unbalanced forces;Balanced vs. Unbalanced forces; EquilibriumEquilibrium  Free-Body DiagramsFree-Body Diagrams – Determining accelerationDetermining acceleration – Normal ForceNormal Force – Tension (pulleys)Tension (pulleys) – Friction (static and kinetic)Friction (static and kinetic) – Inclined Plane ProblemsInclined Plane Problems
  14. 14. Newton’s LawsNewton’s Laws  Circular ForceCircular Force – Radial vs. tangentialRadial vs. tangential accelerationacceleration – Centripetal force: anCentripetal force: an unbalanced forceunbalanced force  Newton’s Law ofNewton’s Law of Universal GravitationUniversal Gravitation – Gives the gravitationalGives the gravitational force between twoforce between two objects.objects. r v ac 2 = 2 21 r MGM Fg =

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