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  1. 1. NUTRITIONNUTRITION By Dale M Forsyth Purdue University
  2. 2. Nutrition deals with providingNutrition deals with providing the right nutrients in the rightthe right nutrients in the right amounts in the diet.amounts in the diet. Definition – Deals with the nutrients needed, their metabolism, feeds that supply them, and feeding systems to provide them
  3. 3. NUTRIENTNUTRIENT DEFINED – A chemical or chemical compound that aids in the support of life, and is essential for the normal function, growth and reproduction of the animal.
  4. 4. CLASSES of NUTRIENTSCLASSES of NUTRIENTS There are 6 Classes of Nutrients – Water – Carbohydrates – Fats – Proteins – Vitamins – Minerals
  5. 5. ANALYSISANALYSIS Water Water Carbohydrates Crude Fiber NFE Fats Ether Extract Protein Crude Protein Minerals Ash Vitamins Too small to weigh
  6. 6. WATERWATER The most crucial nutrient. What % water loss is fatal to animals? ~12%
  7. 7. Unique properties of Water:Unique properties of Water: What happens to most substances as they are cooled? What happens when water freezes? What is the consequence of this?
  8. 8. 3 important properties of water3 important properties of water to animals are:to animals are: High Dielectric Constant – High polarity of the molecule – Water dissolves many things High Specific Heat – Takes a lot of heat to change temperature much – Helps maintain proper body temp
  9. 9. High Latent Heat of Vaporization – Takes a lot of energy to change water from liquid into vapor – Result is:  lots of heat is removed when sweat evaporates or  moisture-laden air is exhaled
  10. 10. 3 sources of water to animals3 sources of water to animals Drinking Water Water in Feed Metabolic Water – C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O – Impt to:  Hibernating animals  Water conserving animals
  11. 11. % Yield as Water% Yield as Water Glucose = 60 % Protein = 42 % Fat = 100 %
  12. 12. Functions of Water in AnimalsFunctions of Water in Animals Many many functions, which include: Movement of nutrients and metabolites Constant body temperature Media for chemical reactions Takes part in chemical reactions Special roles
  13. 13. Special Roles – Synovial fluid – lubricant – Cerebrospinal fluid – cushion – Sound transmission in ear – Light transmission in eye
  14. 14. Approximate WATERApproximate WATER CONSUMPTIONCONSUMPTION Species Liters/Day  Beef 26-66  Dairy 38-110  Horses 30-45  Swine 11-19  Sheep & Goats 4-15  Chickens .2-.4  Turkeys .4-.6
  15. 15. Factors Affecting HFactors Affecting H22O ReqmtO Reqmt  Species  Environmental temperature  Protein, salt and dry matter intake  Lactation  Age  Activity  Rate & composition of gain  Health
  16. 16. Effects of Water RestrictionEffects of Water Restriction ↓ Food Intake – and production Hemoconcentration ↑ Heart Rate ↑ Temperature ↑ Respiration Rate DEATH
  17. 17. Practical AspectPractical Aspect Make good, clean water liberally available at all times (EXCEPT certain conditions: Before or After HEAVY exercise)
  19. 19. ““The trouble with our food isThe trouble with our food is that it’s filled with all kinds ofthat it’s filled with all kinds of chemicalschemicals, like for example, like for example polyhydroxypolyhydroxy aldehydesaldehydes andand ketonesketones and theirand their anhydridesanhydrides.”.”
  20. 20. But THAT’S just a descriptionBut THAT’S just a description of CARBOHYDRATEof CARBOHYDRATE
  21. 21. ALL foods are CHEMICALSALL foods are CHEMICALS
  22. 22. CARBOHYDRATESCARBOHYDRATES  Carbohydrates are made of the elements: – Carbon – Hydrogen – Oxygen  H to O ration as in water (2:1)
  23. 23. Carbohydrates are made ofCarbohydrates are made of molecules called:molecules called: SUGARS (saccharides)
  24. 24. Function of carbohydrates:Function of carbohydrates: ENERGYENERGY
  25. 25. Forms of CarbohydratesForms of Carbohydrates soluble – – sugars – monosaccharides – disaccharides insoluble – polysaccharides
  26. 26. There are many monosaccharides. You are to know just a few
  27. 27. PENTOSES – Arabinose – Xylose – Ribose
  28. 28. HEXOSES – Glucose – Fructose – Galactose – Mannose
  29. 29. 2 simple sugars bond to form:2 simple sugars bond to form:  DISACCHARIDES – Sucrose – Maltose – Lactose – Cellobiose
  30. 30. DISACCHARIDESDISACCHARIDES Sucrose – table sugar Lactose – milk sugar  Maltose – repeating unit of starch Cellobiose – repeating unit of cellulose
  31. 31. DisaccharidesDisaccharides  Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose  Lactose = Glucose + Galactose  Maltose = Glucose + Glucose with α bond  Cellobiose = Glucose + Glucose β bond
  34. 34.  Glucose
  35. 35. Maltose = glucose + glucoseMaltose = glucose + glucose Connected by alpha bond
  36. 36. Cellobiose = glucose + glucoseCellobiose = glucose + glucose Connected by beta bond
  37. 37. POLYSACCHARIDESPOLYSACCHARIDES STARCH – Starch is made of repeating units of the disaccharide MALTOSE – so it is really all: GLUCOSE
  38. 38. KINDS OF STARCHKINDS OF STARCH AMYLOSE – Straight chain polymer AMYLOPECTIN – Branched chain polymer
  39. 39. More PolysaccharidesMore Polysaccharides Glycogen – Like amylopectin. Stored in animals (small amount) Cellulose
  40. 40. GlycogenGlycogen Storage CHO found in animals, but only in small amounts Readily available supply of energy
  41. 41. THE DIFFERENCETHE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STARCH ANDBETWEEN STARCH AND CELLULOSE IS:CELLULOSE IS: Starch is glucose connected with alpha bonds Cellulose is glucose connected with beta bonds
  42. 42. Animals do NOT make the enzyme that digests beta bonds. Only bacteria make cellulase
  43. 43. More about celluloseMore about cellulose Part of cell wall Analyzed in Crude Fiber, or better, NDF and ADF Only of value to ruminant animals because it takes bacteria to make cellulase to digest it. – (or bacteria in the cecum of nonruminant herbivores)
  44. 44. LIGNINLIGNIN LIGNIN IS NOT REALLY CARBOHYDRATE, but it is discussed here because it is in the fibrous part of the feed associated with cellulose, which is carbohydrate, and is analyized along with carbohydrate.
  45. 45. Bad things about ligninBad things about lignin Completely indigestible Binds to cellulose and decreases the digestibility (dramatically) of other feed components
  46. 46. Good things about ligninGood things about lignin Nutritionally – NONE For the plant – Helps insect resistance – Provides structural rigidity
  47. 47. Analysis of CHOAnalysis of CHO Crude Fiber NFE Better Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) – (more about those later in the course)
  48. 48. LIPIDSLIPIDS DEFINITION Lipids are substances that are soluble in ether (and other organic solvents).
  49. 49. LIPID CLASSIFICATIONLIPID CLASSIFICATION  Simple lipids - esters of fatty acids with alcohols – Fats, Oils, Waxes  Compound lipids - esters of fatty acids containing groups in addition to an alcohol and fatty acid. – Phospholipids, glycolipids, lipoproteins  Derived lipids  Sterols  Terpenes (includes Vitamin A)
  50. 50. Largest, most impt category isLargest, most impt category is Fats and OilsFats and Oils Fats contain 2.25 X as much energy as CHO – Fats = 9 Kcal / g – Proteins = 4 Kcal / g – CHO = 4 Kcal / g – 9 / 4 = 2.25
  51. 51. Fat compositionFat composition Lipids are composed of the elements Carbon, Hydrogen & Oxygen (just like CHO) Difference is Fats contain LITTLE Oxygen compared to H and C. – C & H are the real fuel, O can come from air.
  52. 52. Most fat is composed of GLYCEROL and FATTY ACIDS Triglycerides have 1 glycerol & 3 Fatty Acids Diglycerides have 1 glycerol & 2 Fatty Acids Monoglycerides have 1 glycerol & 1 Fatty Acid
  53. 53. GlycerolGlycerol OH-C-H2 | OH-C-H | OH-C-H2 A 3 carbon alcohol
  54. 54. Fatty AcidFatty Acid Example – 16 carbons = palmitic acid  CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2COOH
  55. 55. Saturated vs UnsaturatedSaturated vs Unsaturated SATURATED (has all the H it can have) CH3(CH2)16COOH UNSATURATED (contains double bonds) CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=(CH2)7COOH
  56. 56. Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA’s)Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA’s) 2 carbon atoms = acetic acid CH3COOH 3 carbon atoms = propionic acid CH3CH2COOH 4 carbon atoms = butyric acid CH3CH2CH2COOH
  57. 57. VFA’s ImportanceVFA’s Importance In Rumen Fermentation – VFA’s are the end product of the bacteria breaking down carbohydrate (because there is no oxygen in the rumen).
  58. 58. Medium Chain Fatty AcidsMedium Chain Fatty Acids C-6 to C-14 acids are not real abundant
  59. 59. Long Chain Fatty AcidsLong Chain Fatty Acids C DB FA 16 0 palmitic 18 0 stearic 18 1 oleic 18 2 linoleic "essential" 18 3 linolenic "essential" 20 4 arachidonic "essential"
  60. 60. Essential Fatty AcidsEssential Fatty Acids Essential because they can’t be formed by the animal and must be in the diet. – (actually many animals can convert linoleic to arachidonic acid, but we’ll call all 3 the EFA’s) Linoleic Acid Linolenic Acid Arachidonic Acid
  61. 61. Essential Fatty Acids -Essential Fatty Acids - SymptomsSymptoms Skin problems, scaly skin, necrosis Necrosis of the tail Growth failure Reproductive failure Edema Subcutaneous hemorrhage Poor feathering in chicks
  62. 62. EFA’s – Practical AspectsEFA’s – Practical Aspects You will NOT see deficiency on animals fed practical diets. You will NOT see deficiency in ruminant animals – (there is enough microbial synthesis in the rumen, even though microbes hydrogenate unsaturated fats).
  63. 63. Functions for Fat in DietsFunctions for Fat in Diets 1. Energy 2. Provide EFA’s  Also: – Dust control – ½ to 1% does a good job – Absorption of fat soluble vitamins – Improves palatability of some diets
  64. 64. Lipid CategoriesLipid Categories Glycerides - most common  Most important dietary fat  • ~~~~~~~~ • ~~~~~~~~~~ • ~~~~~~~~
  65. 65. Lipid CategoriesLipid Categories  Phospholipids  Usually glycerol + 2 Fatty Acids + P and something  • ~~~~~~~~  • ~~~~~~~~ • ~P~~~~~~~~~ Lecithins -P-choline Cephalins -P-cholamine (amino ethyl alcohol) Part of membranes Surface active (both hydrophilic & hydrophobic)
  66. 66. Lipid CategoriesLipid Categories  Glycolipids • ~ • ~ • ~~sugar   Important in grasses & clovers  Much of the dietary fat of ruminants (60%) is galactolipid.   Especially rich (95%) in linoleic acid
  67. 67. Lipid CategoriesLipid Categories  Cerebrosides  Nerve Tissue  FA - NH2 -sphingosine-hexose  Waxes  FA + monohydric alcohol  Steroids - hormones, includes cholesterol  Terpenes - includes Vitamin A
  68. 68. PROTEINSPROTEINS And Amino Acids
  69. 69. DefinitionsDefinitions Composed of elements C, H, O, N + S, P Composed of molecules: Amino Acids – Example
  70. 70. Peptides and PolypeptidesPeptides and Polypeptides Amino acids are connected in chains
  71. 71. ProteinsProteins Proteins are very complex – Order of every amino acid is important, just like letters in words, words in sentences, sentences in paragraphs, and paragraphs in chapters. – Proteins have primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure Differences in proteins are what make individuals unique
  72. 72. AnalysisAnalysis For feeds just determine N N x 6.25 = Crude Protein
  73. 73. 10 essential amino acids10 essential amino acids  Phenylalanine  Valine  Threonine  Tryptophan  Isoleucine  Methionine  Histidine  Arginine  Lysine  Leucine Most important to know: Lysine, Tryptophan, Methionine
  74. 74. Some non-essentail amino acidsSome non-essentail amino acids  Glycine  Serine  Glutamic Acid  Taurine  Cystine  Cysteine  Aspartic acid
  75. 75. Protein QualityProtein Quality Refers to the amount and balance of the essential amino acids in the protein. Important for nonruminant animals but not ruminants – For ruminants, quantity of CP is what’s impt.
  76. 76. ““IDEAL PROTEIN”IDEAL PROTEIN” An “ideal protein” would just exactly meet the essential amino acid needs of the animal, with none in excess, and with the right level of non-essential amino acids.
  77. 77. Amino AcidAmino Acid Availability/DigestibilityAvailability/Digestibility Not all the amino acids in feeds are available Digestibility is ‘confused’ by microbial synthesis in the Large Intestine Therefore, availability has to be determined at the end of the small intestine  More about this later
  78. 78. NPNNPN Non-Protein Nitrogen Ruminants can use NPN because the bacteria in the rumen can use it to build their own amino acids.
  79. 79. Functions of Dietary ProteinsFunctions of Dietary Proteins  Supply the needed amino acids for the body to make its own proteins.  If present in excess, supplies energy
  81. 81. Vitamin ClassificationVitamin Classification Fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, K Water soluble vitamins – Vitamin C – B-complex vitamins  Thiamine (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin, B6, B12, Folic Acid, Choline, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin
  82. 82. Vitamin AVitamin A 3 forms Retinol Retinal Retinoic acid Precursor: Carotene Functions: Protects epithelial tissues + ++
  83. 83. Vitamin A StructureVitamin A Structure
  84. 84. Vitamin AVitamin A  A.Introduction – 1.Chemically known as retinol – 2.It is an unsaturated monohydric alcohol with the shown structural formula:
  85. 85. – 3. It is a pale yellow crystalline solid, insoluble in water, but soluble in fats and various fat solvents. – 4. It is readily destroyed by oxidation on exposure to air and light. – 5. Vitamin A does not occur in plants but rather as its precursor, carotene, or carotenoid pigments.
  86. 86. Sources of Vitamin ASources of Vitamin A 1. Liver is a rich source of vitamin A. 2. Egg yolk and milk fat are generally rich sources. 4. Green forages, well-made hays and legume-grass silages are good sources. 5. Grains, except corn, are low or devoid of vitamin A activity. 6. Animal products are poor sources.
  87. 87. 1. Provitamins a. Includes α-, β- and γ- carotene and cryptoxanthin b. Most important is β-carotene a. red in color b. green feeds are excellent sources c. Conversion to vitamin A a. Occurs in intestinal wall and liver and possibly in the kidney and lung b. In theory one molecule of carotene should yield two molecules of A c. Efficiency is below the expected.
  88. 88. Vitamin A value is defined as – One I.U. of vitamin A = vitamin A activity of 0.300 ug of crystalline vitamin A alcohol
  89. 89. Efficiency of conversionEfficiency of conversion Species β-carotene Vit A, I.U. Rat 1000 1667 Poultry 1000 1667 Beef cattle 1000 400 Sheep 1000 480 Swine 1000 533 Dairy cattle 1000 400 Horses 1000 555 to 333 Dogs 1000 833
  90. 90. MetabolismMetabolism Vitamin A and vision – Rhodopson (visual purple), the pigment of the rod cells of the retina of the eye, is made of the vitamin plus a protein moiety. When exposed to light, the pigment breaks down into its constituents and these chemical changes are accompanied by stimulation of the optic nerves. Rhodopsin is regenerated in the dark.
  91. 91. – Ability to see in dim light depends on the rate of resynthesis of rhodopsin.  Rhodopsin formation is impaired where vitamin A is deficient
  92. 92. Other tissuesOther tissues Maintains mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, intestinal tract, urethra, kidney and eyes in a healthy condition – In absence of vitamin A, they become keratinized and susceptible to infection Role in bone formation
  93. 93. Vitamin A DeficienciesVitamin A Deficiencies Night Blindness Xeropthalmia Infertility, abortion, fetal abnormalities Metaplasia (change of cell type) Infections Dozens of other symptoms, as Vit A is involved all over the body
  94. 94. Deficiency symptomsDeficiency symptoms Adult cattle – A mild deficiency is associated with night blindness, roughened hair, scaly skin. – Prolonged deficiency – excessive watering, softening and cloudiness of the cornea and development of xeropthalmia characterized by a drying of the conjunctiva. – Constriction of the optic nerve canal in calves
  95. 95. Deficiency SymptomsDeficiency Symptoms (cont)(cont) Infertility in breeding animals Abortion or production of dead, weak or blind calves Increased susceptibility to infection- calves
  96. 96. Deficiency SymptomsDeficiency Symptoms (cont)(cont) Ewes – Night blindness – Weak or dead lambs Pigs – Eye disorders (xerophthalmia & blindness) – Blind, deformed litters – Impaired appetite and growth
  97. 97. Deficiency SymptomsDeficiency Symptoms (cont)(cont) Poultry – High mortality – Retarded growth, weakness, ruffled plumage and a staggering gait – Reduced egg production and hatchability
  98. 98. SupplementationSupplementation Feed a carotene rich diet Supplement by: – Add to water – Inject – Add to supplement or grain mix – Add to salt or mineral mix – Add to complete diet
  99. 99. ProblemProblem Ruminants – Deficiency may occur when pastures are poor or high cereal rations are used Swine – Some concentrate feeds are extremely poor sourses
  100. 100. Vitamin DVitamin D Necessary to use Ca & P Deficiency causes RICKETS Can be gotten from SUN on Skin Active form: 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol Form in plants is D2, in animals D3. – poultry, cats need D3
  101. 101. Vitamin D StructureVitamin D Structure Vitamin D2 Vitamin D3
  102. 102. Vitamin D as a HormoneVitamin D as a Hormone Vitamin D is activated by UV light from 7- dehyro-cholesterol in the skin, goes to liver In LIVER, is hydroxylated in the 1 position Goes to KIDNEY where it is hydroxylated in the 25 position, forming: 1,25 dihydroxy cholecalciferol, the active form
  103. 103. MetabolismMetabolism Facilitates deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bone Increases the absorption of Ca & P from the intestine
  104. 104. Deficiency SymptomsDeficiency Symptoms  Young animals – Rickets with weak, easily broken bones, bowed legs  Young cattle – Swollen knees and hocks and arching of back  Pigs – Enlarged joints, broken bones, stiffness of joints, occasional paralysis
  105. 105. Vit D Deficiency symptomsVit D Deficiency symptoms In older animals oesteomalacia (uncommon) Poultry – Soft rubbery bones and beak, retarded growth, bowed legs, reduced egg production
  106. 106. Units of vitamin DUnits of vitamin D One I.U. of vit D = 0.025 µg of pure crystalline irradiated 7- dehydrocfholesterol (D3)
  107. 107. ProblemsProblems Need is greater for pigs & poultry than cattle & sheep Animals housed indoors may need suppl. More Vit D may be helpful managing milk fever.
  108. 108. SourcesSources Most feeds for pigs & poultry are poor sources Cod and fish-liver oils are good sources Sun-cured hays are good sources Irradiated yeast is a good source of D2
  109. 109. Excessive Vitamin DExcessive Vitamin D High doses mobilize Ca & P from the tissues causing vitamin D rickets It may cause deposition of calcium salts in arteries, various organs and tissues
  110. 110. Vitamin EVitamin E Tocopherols (d-α-tocopherol mainly) Protects membranes Interacts with SELENIUM Prevents muscle, liver and blood vessel degeneration.
  111. 111. Deficiency SymptomsDeficiency Symptoms Liver (cells die) Stiff lamb disease White muscle disease (calves) Exudative diathesis (chickens)
  112. 112. Deficiency symptomsDeficiency symptoms Reproductive failure Calves and lambs - muscular degeneration – calves called ‘white muscle disease’ – lambs called ‘stiff lamb disease’ Chicks – nutritional encephalomalacia
  113. 113. E deficienciesE deficiencies Pigs – Severe liver damage – muscular weakness – heart muscle affected with sudden death
  114. 114. Vitamin E & SeleniumVitamin E & Selenium  1. Exact interrelationship is not known.  2. Most enzootic muscular dystrophies in sheep and cattle can be prevented by administering Se or vitamin E.  3. Necrotic liver degeneration in the rat and exudative diathesis in the chick can be prevented by either substance.  4. Nutritional encephalomalacia in chick or muscular dystrophy by E but not by selenium.
  115. 115. Units of vitamin EUnits of vitamin E 1 I.U. of vitamin E = one milligram of synthetic a-tocopheryl acetate
  116. 116. Sources of Vitamin ESources of Vitamin E Good – a. Wheat germ – b. Green forages – c. Soybean, peanut and cottonseed oils 2. Poor – a. Corn – b. Soybean, peanut and cottonseed meals
  117. 117. Vitamin KVitamin K Necessary for blood clotting Normally get enough by microbial synthesis Add menadione (Vit K source) to be safe
  118. 118. A number of compounds haveA number of compounds have vitamin K activityvitamin K activity phyloquinone, found in green plants Naturally occurring naphthoquinone is vitamin K2 Menadione (K3) is the most active synthetic compound
  119. 119. FunctionsFunctions Necessary for the formation of prothrombin – so necessary for blood clotting
  120. 120. Deficiency symptomsDeficiency symptoms Prolonged clotting time hemorrhage
  121. 121. ProblemsProblems Seldom really a problem Synthesis occurs by microbes, even in non-ruminants Practically, add to non-ruminant diets anyway Beware moldy sweet clover poisoning – coumerol converted to dicoumarol by mold
  122. 122. VITAMIN CVITAMIN C L - ascorbic acid
  123. 123. FunctionsFunctions  Important role in various oxidation- reduction mechanisms in living cells – ELECTRON TRANSPORT Impt for normal collagen metabolism – hydroxyproline from proline & hydroxylysine from lysine
  124. 124. Other rolesOther roles Co-substrate in certain mixed-function oxidations – dopamine to norepinephrine – reqd with ATP for plasma Fe into ferritin
  125. 125. Most Animals Make Their OwnMost Animals Make Their Own Vitamin C
  126. 126. Required by:Required by: Man other primates Guinea pigs A few other species, including: – Indian fruit bat, red-vented bulbul, flying fox, rainbow trout, coho salmon, 2 species of locust, silkworm
  127. 127. Not required by farm animalsNot required by farm animals EXCEPT under some specific conditions: – debilitated animals – possibly newborns – possibly pigs following weaning briefly – any time metabolism is so altered that synthesis fails to occur
  128. 128. Deficiency symptomsDeficiency symptoms  SCURVY – edema – weight loss – emaciation – diarrhea – structural defects in teeth, bone, cartilage, connective tissue, muscle – hemorrhages in muscles & gums – capillary fragility – fatty infiltration & necrosis of liver – enlarged adrenal gland – DELAYED WOUND HEALING
  129. 129. CONTROVERSYCONTROVERSY Linus Pauling – Vitamin C and the Common Cold
  130. 130. B-Complex VitaminsB-Complex Vitamins  Thiamine (B1)  Ribovlavin (B2)  Niacin  Pyridoxine (B6)  Pantothenic Acid  Folic Acid  Choline  Biotin  B12  Others?
  131. 131. ThiamineThiamine
  132. 132. Can form esters such as thiamin pyrophosphate, a cocarboxylase Coenzyme in oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid – Deficiency: accumulation of pyruvic acid and its reduction product lactic acid
  133. 133. B1 Deficiency SymptomsB1 Deficiency Symptoms BERI BERI in Humans Loss of appetite, emaciation, muscular weakness and progressive dysfunction of nervous system Pigs: appetite, growth, vomiting, respiratory problems Chicks: polyneuritis (nerve degeneration and paralysis)
  134. 134. Some feeds (bracken, raw fish) contain thiaminase which destroys thiamin.
  135. 135. B1B1 Widely distributed in foods – Particularly cereal grains – Therefore little problem, usually, for livestock
  136. 136. Riboflavin (B2)Riboflavin (B2)
  137. 137. B2B2 Part of FLAVOPROTEINS – transport of H (transfer of electrons) Oxidation-Reduction reactions Limited storage DO NEED to ADD to non-ruminant diets – Cereals are a poor source
  138. 138. B2 Deficiency SymptomsB2 Deficiency Symptoms Pigs – Poor appetite, slow growth, vomiting, skin and eye problems Chick – Curled toe paralysis (from nerve degeneration) Hen – Poor hatchability, embryonic abnormalities
  139. 139. Deficiency symptoms (cont)Deficiency symptoms (cont) Ectodermal tissues – Skin, eye, nervous system – Cataracts – Slow growth – REPRO – increased stillbirth Requirement proportional to Energy Intake
  140. 140. NiacinNiacin
  141. 141. Nicotinamide Nicotinic AcidNicotinamide Nicotinic Acid Can be formed from Tryptophan – (but not the reverse) – (not best to rely upon – cereals low in Try) Active group of 2 important coenzymes – NAD & NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and its phosphate)
  142. 142. Niacin DeficiencyNiacin Deficiency Pellegra in Humans “Black tongue” in dogs Pigs – poor growth, enteritis, dermititis
  143. 143. High corn diets are a problem because corn contains little niacin OR tryptophan
  144. 144. PellegraPellegra Diarrhoea, Dermatitis, Dementia Gastrointestinal problems, affected tongue (swollen, beefy), Anorexia Symmetrical appearing dermititis – Especially parts exposed to light or heat Mental symptoms
  145. 145. Mental symptomsMental symptoms Lassitude, apprehension, depression, and loss of memory. Disorientation, confusion, hysteria, sometimes maniacal outbursts It gets worse Encephalopathy – Stupor, delirium, uncontrolled reflexes
  146. 146. B6 PyridoxineB6 Pyridoxine Three forms: Pyridoxine (OH), Pyridoxal (CHO), Pyridoxamine (NH2)
  147. 147. B6 Main FunctionsB6 Main Functions Amino Acid Decarboxylation and Deamination C-COOH -- C COOH C-NH2 ----- C NH2
  148. 148. B6 DeficiencyB6 Deficiency Poor Growth, etc. ANEMIA Nervous symptoms – convulsions – Demyelinization of peripheral nerves – Other degenerative changes Reduced antibody response Needed for normal reproduction
  149. 149. Rqmt for humans increased during pregnancy and oral contraceptive use
  150. 150. Pantothenic AcidPantothenic Acid
  151. 151. Pantothenic AcidPantothenic Acid Component of Coenzyme A – Fatty Acid breakdown – CHO oxidation – Therefore – to use energy!!!
  152. 152. PA DeficiencyPA Deficiency Goose Stepping in pigs – Nervous incoordination Diarrhea Loss of hair, skin problems Poor growth, etc.
  153. 153. More, of course, but widely distributed in plants and not a serious problem
  154. 154. Folic AcidFolic Acid
  155. 155. FolacinsFolacins 3 associated compounds have activity Movement of 1 Carbon residues – COO- and CH3 – Synthesis of purines and amino acids – Related with B12
  156. 156. Folic DeficienciesFolic Deficiencies Anemia – like B12 but not cured w B12 Poor growth Poor feathering
  157. 157. Biggest problem is PEOPLE – Pregnancy – neural tube defects Only Poultry, Pregnant Women and Kids normally need it added
  158. 158. CholineCholine
  159. 159. CholineCholine Unlike the other vitamins – Actually used up – Can be replaced by other substances, like betaine and methionine Methyl Donor
  160. 160. Choline deficiencyCholine deficiency Slow Growth Fatty Liver PEROSIS (also Mn) Reduced litter size in pigs – Therefore add extra to sow’s diets
  161. 161. Add LARGE amounts when needed – Light and fluffy – NOT part of regular vitamin mix Add to Swine (sows) and Poultry diets – (adds ½ pig/litter for sows)
  162. 162. B12B12
  163. 163. B12 CyanocobalamineB12 Cyanocobalamine Contains COBALT APF – Original “Animal Protein Factor” Anti-pernicious anemia factor Discovered in 1949
  164. 164. B12 FunctionB12 Function Synthesis of RNA and DNA Chemistry of Methyl Groups
  165. 165. INTRINSIC FACTORINTRINSIC FACTOR In order to absorb B12, need Intrinsic Factor from the stomach.
  166. 166. B12 DeficiencyB12 Deficiency Pernicious Anemia – Pernicious means “leading to death” All the symptoms of starvation
  167. 167. BiotinBiotin
  168. 168. BiotinBiotin Role in Fat Synthesis Problems are skin problems – Dermatitis – Loss of hair Avidin (in raw egg white) inactivates it Widely Distributed
  169. 169. HYERVITAMINOSISHYERVITAMINOSIS Water Soluble Vitamins – Unusual, reach renal threshold – High enough doses can be pharmocologic Fat Soluble Vitamins – A & D – TOXIC
  170. 170. End of Vitamins View Vitamin Deficiency Slides
  171. 171. MINERALSMINERALS Following is only an overview
  172. 172. MineralsMinerals Macro Minerals – Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, S Trace Minerals – Fe, Cu, Zn, I, Mn, Cr, Mo, F Ultra Trace Minerals – maybe more
  173. 173. Macro MineralsMacro Minerals Calcium – bones, teeth, muscle Phosphorus – bones, soft tissue – Needs proper Ca:P ratio and Vitamin D Magnesium prevents Grass Tetany Na (sodium), K (potassium), Cl (chloride) – Osmotic balance, Na pump, muscle, nerve Sulfur – in proteins & other moleules
  174. 174. Trace MineralsTrace Minerals Iron (Fe) – prevents anemia Copper (Cu) – need it to use Fe, connective tissue formation Zinc (Zn) – prevents parakeratosis Iodine (I) – prevents goiter Manganese (Mn) need for proper bone, activates enzymes
  175. 175. Trace Minerals continuedTrace Minerals continued Need only tiny amounts of these, almost unmeasurable Chromium (Cr) – CHO metabolism Molybdenum (Mo) – toxic but essential Fluorine (F) – toxic but benefits teeth
  176. 176. Ultra Trace ElementsUltra Trace Elements Things in this category MAY be essential but that has not been proven (and accepted generally) Includes many elements, including: B, As, Ba, Ni, Sr, Va and others Text book (Church & Pond) accept some (Va) as essential that I do not