Research: Peer Editing “Several studies have found peer editing to be at least as effective as teacher editing”(Topping & Ehly 119) Peer assessment: …involves increased time on task: thinking, comparing, contrasting, and communicating” (Topping 254). “…makes available swifter feedback in greater quantity” (Topping 255).
Research: Cooperative Learning Cooperative Learning “The instructional use of small groups in which students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning”(Johnson & Johnson 73).
Cooperative Learning Three types: Formal Cooperative Learning Informal Cooperative Learning Cooperative Base Groups* *I use mainly cooperative base groups. Source: Johnson & Johnson
Cooperative Learning Things that make it work: Positive interdependence Individual accountability Face-to-face interaction promoting each other Appropriate use of social skills Periodic processing of how to improve group effectiveness Source: Johnson & Johnson
Objective: Expert Editors My goals: To create a way to actively engage my students in their peer editing groups Teach them to peer edit more effectively Help them become better self-editors in the process
Creating Expert Editors Some key elements to expert editing: Be familiar with the assignment content Focus on one thing at a time Keep track of “favorite errors” Look at a variety of versions Seek feedback from others
Facilitating Expert Editing Groups Stability – Group members should not change Group Size 3-5 students Group Roles Create specific roles and descriptions for each role Provide materials and resources to assist with roles Rotation of Roles Create a schedule that rotates the roles on a regular basis.
How It Works: Groups ENGL 3 & 5 Classes Currently: 16 students Number of Groups: 4 Members per Group: 4 Total number of Roles: 4 Type of Group: Cooperative Base Groups These groups are assigned in the beginning of the semester and will not change.
How It Works: Roles Current # of Roles: 4 Organization Guru Content Editor Flow Master Mechanic Adaptations: For groups of 3, unite Organization and Flow into one role. For groups of 5, split the mechanic’s role.
How It Works: Rotation During the semester, there are 4 major assignments. Each student is assigned/choses one role per assignment. The goal is to have performed each role by the end of the semester. Adaptations: Use Formal Cooperative Groups instead of Cooperative Base groups. You will have to determine the time period for which each student will perform each role.
How It Works: In Class First, an overview and explanation of each role’s task is given and the assignment is discussed. Then, students are assigned to each role’s task. Provide a handout with a “checklist” and list of resources for each role. In groups, students exchange papers and review their peer’s work from only their role’s perspective. They are also to perform their role for their own paper.
How It Works: Beyond Peer-editing may take place several times during the writing and revision process of a paper. Students are also encouraged to continue their roles using an online forum for peer editing.
How It Works: Assessment Students are graded individually for their papers, but they are required to turn in all drafts. This evidence of prewriting and revision is factored into the final grade (5%). Adaptations: Grade individual and group efforts (giving and receiving feedback). Test them on the roles.
Your Turn Prepare to be grouped, given an explanation of the assignmentand roles, assigned roles, and provided with samples of student writing to evaluate.
The Assignment The examples provided were drafts of an analytical essay about territorial behavior at Lehigh. The points were to be based/selected from an essay they were assigned to read Reading: “Territorial Behavior” by Desmond Morris. Purpose: to analyze Lehigh based on what the reading text explained. (The purpose is not to validate Morris’s thesis.)
Organization Guru to structure:The key question here relates Does the essay have a recognizable structure that is logically organized? Is there a recognizable introduction? Does the essay have a thesis? Are the body paragraphs organized in the order specified by the thesis? Do the sentences within the paragraphs have a logical arrangement? Is there a conclusion?
Content Editor Does the essay fulfill the prescribed requirements for that type of writing? Is it on topic? (Tip: Check the assignment.) I.E. If the assignment was to write an analysis, does it analyze something? If the assignment required you to do research and use references, are references included?
Content Editor (Cont.) Once you have determined that the essay is on topic, ask these questions: Does the introduction have a good hook and thesis? Are the body paragraphs limited to just one topic? Are there enough details in the body paragraphs? Does the author revisit the main points from the thesis in the conclusion?
Flow Master The main things to consider with flow or fluency are: Does the writer transition well between sentences, paragraphs and ideas? Do they use proper transition words where necessary? Can you read smoothly without having to stop or go back for clarification? Do they tie their ideas together smoothly?
Mechanic (in general) The key to this is knowing proper grammar and punctuation rules: Read sentence by sentence. Check individually for: Spelling, capitalization, punctuation, verb tenses, subject-verb agreement, parallelism, article use, pronoun references, ambiguous or incorrect word choice and word order (among other things) You will also be in charge of checking citations to see that they are done properly
Practice Time Please let me know if you have any questions.
References Johnson, David W. and Roger T. Johnson. “Making Cooperative Learning Work.” Theory into Practice 38.2 (1999): 67-73. JSTOR. Web. 5 March 2012.Topping, Keith J., and Steward W. Ehly. “Peer Assisted Learning: A Framework for Consultation.” Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation 12.2 (2001): 113-132. Google Scholar. Web. 6 March 2012.Topping, Keith. “Peer Assessment between Students in Colleges and Universities.” Review of Educational Research 68.3 (1998): 249-276. JSTOR. Web. 5 March 2012.
Presenter Information Candice Quiñones, ESL Lecturer at Lehigh University Email: email@example.com