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- 1. Calculator Use in the Mathematics Classroom By: Christina Jowell
- 2. <ul><li>Is the use of a calculator taking away from students learning the math? </li></ul><ul><li>Should calculators only be used in a secondary math classroom? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the use of calculators preparing our students for the future of math? </li></ul><ul><li>Are calculators enhancing or hindering learning? </li></ul>
- 3. Problem Statement <ul><li>The purpose of this research is to compare research to show calculator use in a mathematics classroom can enhance student learning and the benefits to our students learning to use a calculator. </li></ul>
- 4. The significance of this research <ul><li>To know the positive outcomes of using a calculator in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>To know effective strategies to using a calculator in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>To know the purposes of teaching students how to use a calculator </li></ul>
- 5. Calculators in the classroom over time <ul><li>First affordable basic calculators were widely used in classrooms </li></ul>First graphing calculators used in the classroom Basic hand-held calculator first used in a classroom 1970’s 1980’s 1985 The abacus was widely used before calculators came along More on the history of calculators
- 6. According to the National Council of Teaching Mathematics (NCTM) <ul><li>“the use of calculators along with the traditional paper-and-pencil instruction enhances the learning of basic skills.” </li></ul><ul><li>“the integration of the calculator into the school mathematics programs at all grade levels in class work, homework, and evaluation” is something the NCTM supports. </li></ul>
- 7. Benefits to using a calculator <ul><li>Allows students to focus on problem solving rather than the basic computations </li></ul><ul><li>Allows students to try new math concepts they may not have tried because of the computations involved </li></ul><ul><li>Makes students more confident in their abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Time - students can solve problems at a more reasonable time frame </li></ul><ul><li>Allows students to practice the skill being taught rather than the computations </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents silly mistakes in computation </li></ul><ul><li>Prepares them for the future whether introducing them to a calculator before high school or for a standardized test or for a profession </li></ul>
- 8. Evidence of the effectiveness of calculators in the math classroom <ul><li>Children who use calculators on tests have higher scores in both basic computation skills and problem solving. </li></ul><ul><li>Students who use calculators within a mix of instructional styles do not lose their paper and pencil skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculator use in the classroom improves the paper and pencil skills of students regardless of their ability levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who use calculators in class have better attitudes toward mathematics than children who do not use them. </li></ul><ul><li>- According to a 1986 study done in the Journal for Research in Mathematics Education </li></ul>
- 9. How does calculator use in the classroom translate to calculators in the adult world? <ul><li>According to SEDL, a website committed to researching to improve education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Even a part-time job at the corner fast-food chain requires the use of a calculator in some form. If schools do not teach students to use these devices from an early age, the rising generation will lack necessary work skills . Calculators are one tool almost every employer expects employees to use. Calculators are ubiquitous in the work world and as important for employees as voice mail and word processing.” </li></ul></ul>
- 10. <ul><li>According to www.xpmath.com </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are over 100 jobs that require calculators for basic mathematics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are over 40 jobs that require scientific calculators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click on the calculator for a list of jobs that require calculators </li></ul></ul>
- 11. Conclusion <ul><li>Though calculator use in the classroom is still under debate with many educators there are many benefits to their use. </li></ul><ul><li>A balance is needed of calculators and pencil-and-paper in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of calculators can enhance a math classroom and prepare students for the future. </li></ul>
- 12. Bibliography <ul><li>Collins, S. (n.d.). Calculators and Calculating Devices. Retrieved from http://www.math.wichita.edu/history/topics/calculators.html#top . </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower, S. (2011). Quick Takes: Calculators in the Classroom. Retrieved from http://www.sedl.org/scimath/quicktakes/qt9803.html . </li></ul><ul><li>Hui, T. (2001-2009). Basic Calculator Use. Retrieved from http:// www.xpmath.com/careers/topicsresult.php?subjectID =5&topicID=2 . </li></ul><ul><li>Hui, T. (2001-2009). Scientific Calculator Use. Retrieved from http:// www.xpmath.com/careers/topicsresult.php?subjectID =5&topicID=3 </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson, L. (2001, April). Middle School Math and the Calculator. Retrieved from http://www.iched.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=iched&item_id=math_calculator . </li></ul>
- 13. Continued Bibliography <ul><li>McCauliff, E. (n.d.). The Calculator in the Elementary Classroom: Making a Useful Tool Out of an Ineffective Crutch. Retrieved from http://www.publications.villanova.edu/Concept/2004/The%20Calculator%20in%20the%20Elementary%20Classroom.htm . </li></ul><ul><li>Starr, L. (2002). Educators Battle Over Calculator Use: Both Sides Claim Casualties. Retrieved from http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr072.shtml . </li></ul><ul><li>Stiff, L. (2001, April). Making Calculator Use Add Up. Retrieved from http:// www.nctm.org/about/content.aspx?id =1242 . </li></ul><ul><li>Tout, N. (2000-2011). Vintage Calculators Web Museum. Retrieved from http://www.vintagecalculators.com/html/hand-held_calculators.html . </li></ul><ul><li>Vanderbilt University (2008, August 20). Calculators Okay In Math Class, If Students Know The Facts First, Study Finds. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/080819160203.htm . </li></ul>

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