the attributes of a grand challenge
major impacts if solved
ambitious but achievable
compelling & intrinsically motivating
Goldilocks level of speciﬁcity
drive & harness innovation
fromTom Kalil,White House
Grand challenges in restoration: steps to build
1. Questions that restoration examines
2. Challenges to effective restoration
3. Matching of questions to challenges
4. Solution synthesis/general blueprint
1. How well does conservation biology and restoration ecology
support and enable one another?
2. Does fundamental ecological theory signiﬁcantly contribute to
restoration ecology or does most restoration begin with a ‘problem’
that needs a solution?
3. Is most restoration ecology manipulative? How are mensurative
experiments and observation leveraged in restoration ecology?
4. How inter-related are management and restoration in
their alignment of needs and research agendas?
5.Are there syntheses of the local-versus-regional drivers
that inﬂuence the outcome restoration efforts?
6. How commonly are the human factors included in restoration
efforts or in experiments?