Proposed Pre-departure Training for Peru Practicum

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Proposed Pre-departure Training for Peru Practicum

  1. 1. Cortney Copeland• Maritza Munzón Monterey Institute of International Studies IEM 8510 Design & Assessment• Dr. Meggan Madden PROGRAM DESIGN PROPOSAL 5/8/2014 Peru Practicum Intercultural & Team Competency Pre-Departure Training. This Proposal includes program context, theory of change model, logic model, and details of activities to be included in a pre- departure training for Peru practicum 2015 participants.
  2. 2. PROGRAM DESIGN PROPOSAL Page 1 Contents OVERVIEW........................................................................................................................... 2 Project Name..........................................................................................................................................2 Stakeholders..............................................................................................................................................2 Timeframe...............................................................................................................................................2 SCOPE OF WORK ................................................................................................................ 2 Program Timeline......................................................................................................................................3 Design and Assessment Timeline............................................................................................................4 PROGRAM MODELS ............................................................................................................ 5 The Modeling Process..............................................................................................................................5 Context ....................................................................................................................................................6 Goals........................................................................................................................................................6 Principals .................................................................................................................................................6 Sources of Information..........................................................................................................................6 Theory of Change Model........................................................................................................................7 Assumptions.............................................................................................................................................7 Program Logic Model..............................................................................................................................8 Testing the Models....................................................................................................................................9 Testing Principals ...................................................................................................................................9 Testing with Stakeholders.....................................................................................................................9 Testing with External Reviewers.......................................................................................................10 Revisions ...............................................................................................................................................11 STRATEGY AND ACTIVITY DETAILS .................................................................................. 11 Strategy 1: Cultural Sensitivity Training ...........................................................................................11 Theoretical Basis .................................................................................................................................11 Workshop Group Activities...............................................................................................................11 Individual Activities.............................................................................................................................12 Outputs .................................................................................................................................................12 Strategy 2: Team Building...................................................................................................................13 Theoretical Basis .................................................................................................................................13 Activity Details.....................................................................................................................................13 Outputs .................................................................................................................................................14 Strategy 3: Relevant Information.......................................................................................................14 Theoretical Basis .................................................................................................................................14 Activity Details.....................................................................................................................................14 Outputs .................................................................................................................................................15 Implementation Timeline.......................................................................................................................16 REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................... 17
  3. 3. PROGRAM DESIGN PROPOSAL Page 2 PROGRAM DESIGN PROPOSAL P E R U P R A C T I C U M I N T E R C U L T U R A L & T E A M C O M P E T E N C Y P R E - D E PA R T U R E T R A I N I N G . OVERVIEW Project Name Peru Practicum Intercultural Sensitivity and Teambuilding Pre-departure Training; International Immersive Learning Assessment Framework Stakeholders  Monterey Institute of International Studies: Development Practice and Policy program (MIIS DPP) o Primary contact: Dr. Jeff Dayton-Johnson  Andean Alliance for Sustainable Development (AASD) o Primary contact: Adam Stieglitz  MIIS Intercultural Competency Committee (MIIS ICC)  Potential practicum participants (DPP graduate students)  Practicum alumni  Program Steering Committee o Primary contact: Dr. Jeff Dayton-Johnson o Steering committee includes members from MIIS DPP, AASD, local officials in Calca and Lares Timeframe To be implemented beginning in Fall 2015 SCOPE OF WORK In January 2014 (J-term), MIIS DPP and AASD collaborated to offer a 3-week fieldwork practicum in Peru as the middle portion of an academic yearlong program, occurring between Fall and Spring policy analysis classes. Both parties plan to continue developing the yearlong model and its practicum component to provide field experience in development policy. The model may be expanded to include students participating in the El Salvador Practicum. Our contribution to this process was originally conceptualized as designing an improved orientation for practicum participants, and creating a framework for assessing the J-term practicum. However, our description of the scope of work has changed to better reflect stakeholder perspectives. The table below compares early ideas for the program design to their present iteration. The assessment mentioned is further addressed in the assessment proposal for this program.
  4. 4. PROGRAM DESIGN PROPOSAL Page 3 Initial Current Rationale for Change Project Name Assessment-based Improvement of Orientation and Evaluation processes for the MIIS/AASD Peru Practicum. Peru Practicum Intercultural and Team Competency Pre- Departure Training Team and Intercultural Competency Skills Assessment --Current name better fits AASD’s conception of project as one component of a larger pre- departure program. --2014 assessments still unavailable for review. Design instead based on stakeholder input. --2015 assessment design will focus on specific skills targeted in pre-departure training rather than on the general process Design Goal A more thorough orientation program. An interactive workshop- style program to build cultural awareness and team dynamics --Program addresses program constants rather than project-specific components that will change every year. --Cultural awareness and team dynamics program can stand alone or form part of larger orientation. --Will be applicable as projects change. Assessment Goal An assessment framework specifically applicable to Peru Practicum Model An assessment process applicable to specific skills potentially important across multiple MIIS immersive learning programs --MIIS does not have an assessment tool specifically designed for immersive learning experiences like the Peru Practicum. --An assessment that addresses learning outcomes through qualitative data and student work is adaptable to the research project. Program Timeline
  5. 5. PROGRAM DESIGN PROPOSAL Page 4 Design and Assessment Timeline The items included in the timeline below are expectations for this project. An implementation plan including specific and updated in September 2014. Compared to the present design proposal, the April plan will include tasks and responsibilities for stakeholders as well as project designers, and will determine the specific tasks to be accomplished by September, some of which have not been fully detailed in this proposal, specifically the creation of video materials. The September plan will make final decisions about which selection of the identified training materials, tools, and instruments to use, as well as the specific spaces and dates to be allocated. These decisions have not yet been made in order to allow stakeholders and program designers to customize the pre- departure training based on the composition of the participant group and the nature of their project. In addition to developing the plans, expectations for this project include actively communicating stakeholders. Communication is essential in the development staged and will therefore go beyond simple email exchanges; arrangements for in-person meetings with those present in Monterey, and Skype calls with those in Peru.
  6. 6. PROGRAM DESIGN PROPOSAL Page 5 PROGRAM MODELS The Modeling Process Modeling is used to identify the desired impact of a program, and plan the steps needed to get there. The process used in this design proposal is called the Logic Model Framework. It begins with identifying desired results, and then works backward to determine the intermediate outcomes, strategies, and tasks necessary to attain those results. There are two models in the following pages: the Theory of Change Model, which is an initial, basic model that captures the fundamental goals and strategies of the program. Next is a more detailed Program Logic Model, which moves through the strategies while tying specific activities to the tangible program outputs. The model then moves from the tangible program outputs to the outcomes that are less easily measured. It ultimately culminates in the desired full impact of the program, showing how each strategic activity contributes.
  7. 7. PROGRAM DESIGN PROPOSAL Page 6 Context ● Our program is part of a larger yearlong immersive learning model involving MIIS, AASD, and the local governments in the Sacred Valley region of Peru, all of which have representatives on a recently-formed steering committee and will be collaborating on future projects. ● 2014 was the first year in which the yearlong Peru Practicum model was implemented. As part of the experimentation with this model, our work designing a pre-departure training aims to help determine if such a model is feasible, effective, and ethical. ● While stakeholders are still in the process of developing a unified vision for the Peru Practicum, AASD has expressed a desire to create, in partnership with MIIS, a comprehensive fieldwork training program in coming years. Our pre-departure training is designed as a stand-alone program that can easily be included as a module in the future, more all-encompassing training. ● The MIIS ICC is considering making intercultural training a pre-departure requirement for all international immersive learning programs. This program can serve as an early and limited implementation upon which to build. Goals ● Pre-departure training addresses aspects of the practicum experience that can be improved from 2014. ● A Combination of strategies can work on its own but also fit into larger, more all-encompassing pre- departure program ● Model adaptable to different projects and different scales Principals ● Design with growth in mind to create a program amenable to incorporating within an all-encompassing fieldwork preparation program. ● Use activities with a learning philosophy similar to the hands-on approach of AASD. ● Collaborate with and involve AASD as much as possible in designing and building the program. ● Design for a diverse group of students with different skills, experience levels, and needs. Sources of Information ● First-hand experience: As alumni of the 2014 practicum, we have drawn on our experiences and the reflections shared in participant group discussions to prioritize areas where the student experience can be improved. These areas include preparation (weather, what to bring etc.), cultural awareness, and the ability to work in a team context. ● Stakeholder meetings: In a meeting with the MIIS DPP program chair, the AASD-MIIS student liaison, and two other practicum participants, we brainstormed goals for the new orientation. We created the theory of change model below based on this material. ● Stakeholder and external review: The model was first reviewed by an AASD stakeholder in Peru, and later was subjected to external review by an international education professional. Earlier models and markups can be found in the appendices. ● Research studies: Assumptions 2-5 (below), while not directly evidence based, are informed by research studies. Studies supporting these assumptions will be referenced in the next section of this document.
  8. 8. PROGRAM DESIGN PROPOSAL Page 7 Theory of Change Model Assumptions 1. The Peru Practicum will continue in January 2015 and will once again focus on development policy. 2. Increased attention to cultural awareness and team cohesion will reduce student stress and improve student psychological health while in the field. 3. Psychologically healthy students will be more engaged in their learning and do higher-quality work. 4. Narratives, visuals, and discussions with past participants will better portray life in Peru than previous protocol-type materials. 5. Students are more likely to retain information if it is presented in a vivid, engaging manner such as through narratives, visuals, and discussions. 6. A short orientation can contribute to cultural awareness and team-building skills.
  9. 9. PROGRAM DESIGN PROPOSAL Page 8 Program Logic Model
  10. 10. PROGRAM DESIGN PROPOSAL Page 9 Testing the Models Testing Principals Using the SMART and FIT principles to test our program logic model generated discussions about whether the goals of the pre-departure training are appropriate and feasible in the overall context of the practicum, and helped better articulate goals that are closely related enough to the training to be considered an outcome of it. Many of the questions posed by stakeholders addressed both sets of principles. Some examples of questions that arose during testing include: ● How much time is available for the training? ● What can we realistically achieve in that time? ● How do we prioritize and use our time to best prepare students for an experience that no training can prepare them for 100%? ● What activities, specifically, are we using to advance our strategies? The answers to these questions shape how many activities to include, which modules from the online cultural resources to select, and the reflections/assignments we ask students to complete. Additionally, such questions begin to address who we will have to collaborate with, including the people who run the orientation and MIIS facilities management. We will continue addressing them as we develop our training materials and plan to implement the training by the end of Fall 2014. Testing with Stakeholders Working with stakeholders early on and testing models multiple times has resulted in a series of changes as well as the list of principles (page 5) that will continue to guide our work. We have met with the head of MIIS DPP, the outgoing and incoming Peru Practicum student liaisons (also former participants), and a cofounder of AASD. Testing has enabled us to frame our project in its full context and therefore base our goals and principles on those shared by stakeholders. SMART Principles FIT Principles Specific Measurable Achievable Relevant Time-bound Frequency Intensity Time
  11. 11. PROGRAM DESIGN PROPOSAL Page 10 Stakeholder MIIS DPP AASD Student Liaisons Perspective Institutional and pedagogical perspective Growing nonprofit organization as education partner Program participants and alumni Contextual information contributed Practicum is unique in being available to first-year graduate students. The resultant participant group is uncommonly diverse in fieldwork experience levels, Spanish language abilities, and familiarity with developing regions. Describe the potential future development of the practicum model, encouraging us to think beyond the immediate project to the larger vision of an all- encompassing fieldwork preparation program. Expressed the array of student needs in regards to training and information, in addition to providing information about the resources and practices that have been used previously or could potentially be incorporated. Testing with External Reviewers Early testing with stakeholders allowed us to approach the external review process knowing our goals and principles, in addition to which resources and constraints will influence program implementation. The following is a summary of which contextual information allowed our reviewer to help move our program model toward being SMART and FIT. Contextual information Feedback given Principle met Yearlong learning model and its stakeholders Need to articulate desired results in a way that reflects a vision for the future rather than a reaction to the past Making outcomes/impact more relevant by better incorporating stakeholders’ visions Plans to use informal social mixers as a means to communicate information Suggestions for semi-structured activities such as pulling a discussion topic out of a hat Bringing the social mixer activity to the desired level of intensity. Time available: both during and after semester Need to clarify which activities happen throughout the semester and which happen on an assigned workshop day Planning the time and frequency of activities. We will design an assessment of the practicum in addition to designing a pre-departure training Can include open-ended and Likert-type surveys in addition to reflection and self-assessment in the training. Then repeat and compare after the practicum for assessment purposes. Making outcomes measurable through assessment-minded outputs.
  12. 12. PROGRAM DESIGN PROPOSAL Page 11 Revisions ● We reduced the number of strategies from 5 to 3, instead incorporating some ideas as other parts of the model. For example, “involve past participants and AASD” has moved from a strategy to a resource, and we have also established such involvement as a guiding principle in the project. ● We have changed the phrasing of our desired long-term outcome to incorporate the learning outcomes desired by stakeholders in addition to our own perception that participants need more preparation in intercultural competency and team dynamics. ● We have added more detail regarding the outputs of planned activities. For example, we will use a short survey as a tool for assessing participants’ thoughts and feelings about teamwork. Before testing the models, the output for teambuilding only included the actual construction of the teams and had no component to measure what participants actually knew or thought about team dynamics. STRATEGY AND ACTIVITY DETAILS Strategy 1: Cultural Sensitivity Training Theoretical Basis Kriegl (2000) lists “cultural sensitivity” as the skill rated highest in importance by current expatriates surveyed to rank skills necessary for success in working internationally, while Sprietzer, McCall & Mahoney (1997) include both “sensitivity to cultural differences” and “being culturally adventurous” as traits predictive of expatriate success. In terms of actually undergoing the process of cultural adjustment, Savicki, Cooley, and Donnelly (2008) find that “the ability to stay engaged, to focus on problematic situations rather than ignore them, and the ability to find the ‘silver lining’ were related to socio-cultural adjustment” for study abroad students (p. 16). Discussing critical incident cases and discussing cultural differences from a cultural learning perspective in the pre- departure training will cultivate this focus and engagement while hopefully sensitizing participants to characteristics of their own culture and the cultures they will encounter. Workshop Group Activities ICEBERG MODEL Culture has been compared to an iceberg, because some aspects of culture are directly observable on the surface while many others are “submerged,” and can only be imagined or intuited. Like an iceberg, the part of culture that is visible (observable behavior) is only a small part of a much bigger whole (which includes values, beliefs, and other such intangible sensibilities). Using the What’s Up with Culture template (Appendix D), students will work in small groups1 to identify features that can vary across cultures, and place such features on the visible or submerged parts of an iceberg diagram. Student groups will share their iceberg diagrams with the larger group to share and discuss their results. CRITICAL INCIDENT CASE EXAMPLE Small groups will each be given a brief written scenario of a critical incident (a situation in which cultural differences make interactions problematic or difficult to understand). Students will discuss which aspects of culture are at play in the incident and how to address them. Time permitting, student groups will role-play their 1 For all small group activities, students should be in the groups that they will be working with during the J-term project.
  13. 13. PROGRAM DESIGN PROPOSAL Page 12 scenario and potential ways to respond in those circumstances. This activity is designed to build upon the What’s Up with Culture exercise 1.3.2. “In the Mind of the Beholder,” which students will have completed individually before the pre-departure training. In this activity, students are presented with mini-scenarios and asked to consider how people from different cultures would interpret them. Examples of critical incidents and prompts from exercise 1.3.2. can be found in Appendices E and F. We will work with stakeholders to draft critical incident scenarios based on Peruvian culture. Individual Activities “NACIREMA” READING AND REFLECTION Students read a fictional article describing Nacirema (“American” written backwards) body-care rituals from the perspective of a foreign anthropologist. They then write and submit a brief (½ - 1 page) reflection on what it reveals about observing and interpreting culture SELECTED “WHATS UP WITH CULTURE” MODULES  Module 1.1.: “If You are Going Abroad Soon.” In this activity, students provide open-ended responses to questions about their expectations and concerns about going abroad.  Module 1.3.2.: “In the Mind of the Beholder.” In this two-part exercise, students first read descriptions of eight behaviors and write down their immediate response to or interpretation of that behavior in terms of their own cultural values, beliefs, or perceptions. In the second part of the activity, students are given descriptions of different cultural values and asked to imagine how the same eight behaviors would be perceived or interpreted by people with the values described.  Other modules or additional individual activities to be determined in Fall 2014, based on the composition of the participant group. We expect to ask students to complete four activities total on their own time during the course of the Fall 2014 semester. Outputs COMPLETION RATE OF INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITIES Students will be required to submit their responses to each of the assigned individual activities before the beginning of pre-departure training (likely to occur within several days of the last day of the Fall 2014 semester). WORKSHOP ATTENDANCE Attendance at the workshop activities will be recorded to verify that all participants attend KEY-TAKEAWAYS DOCUMENT During the pre-departure training workshop, students will be allocated time after each activity for discussion of both the topics that arose in the activity, and the usefulness of the activity itself. A Google Drive document will be used to record key takeaways throughout the course of the workshop day, and will be shared with all participating students.
  14. 14. PROGRAM DESIGN PROPOSAL Page 13 Strategy 2: Team Building Theoretical Basis The “Ability to bring out the best in people” has been identified as a trait that predicts effectiveness of expatriates working in management outside of their host culture (Spreitzer, McCall & Mahoney 1997). We are extrapolating this finding to assume that students who learn to emphasize the strengths of themselves and their team members are more likely to have a successful and positive fieldwork experience. Additionally, Kriegl (2000) lists both interpersonal skills and adaptive leadership in the top four qualities that contribute to success of people working abroad. Our activities are intended to facilitate discussion and decision making to help cultivate interpersonal skills. Activity Details Identifying Strengths The team-building strategy of our program will begin with individuals reflecting on what they believe are the strengths, skills, and qualities they can contribute to a group. They will create a list of their strengths and then take turns describing their strengths to the other members in their group. Students who have completed any of the aptitude or personality assessments offered through the Career Services office at MIIS will be encouraged ahead of time to bring in their results, though students who have not completed such an assessment are not required to do so. After discussing their strengths, students will then be guided in a reflection to consider how certain strengths may be useful in the context of their impending fieldwork project, sharing these reflections with the entire body of participants. MISSION STATEMENT ACTIVITY After each team member has established the individual strengths of its member they will collaborate on a shot mission statement for the group, one paragraph long. This statement should have a shared sense of why they are participating in the practicum, what they wish to accomplish and how. This activity will allow students to negotiate and establish the team’s purpose, establishing a social contract and allowing them to begin thinking about the work ahead as a common goal. ROLE-PLAYING Small groups will be given written-up scenarios of challenges that may arise while working in a fieldwork team abroad. They will discuss the scenario and plan a skit to act out how they might address and resolve it, presenting the skit to their peers. For example, students may be prompted to role-play a skit in which one member of a field team wishes to have more time away from his/her group mates to spend time interacting with people in the community, but the other team members wish to remain together to focus working on their research SICK-DAY SIMULATION Students will be given a group task comprised of smaller components that each individual will be in charge of completing given their respective role in the group. One person from each team however, will be asked to sit out of the exercise. Facilitators will strategically choose which person will sit out of each group, preferably no two teams will have the same ‘role’ missing. From the four teams the individual acting “sick” will leave the room if possible so they cannot assist their team members or be aware of what is going on. After, the remaining team members have completed the task the whole group will reconvene to reflect on the difficulties faced and how issues were resolved.
  15. 15. PROGRAM DESIGN PROPOSAL Page 14 Outputs SURVEY Students will complete a survey in which they express their levels of agreement or disagreement with statements about group work, with the aim of assessing whether they feel positive/confident or negative/uncertain about working in a group. Results from pre-practicum surveys will be compared to results collected following the practicum. REFLECTION Students’ expectations about what their team experience may be like will be included as a component in a brief self-assessment reflection paper students write after completing the pre-departure training Strategy 3: Relevant Information Theoretical Basis During the 2014 practicum, there were a number of situations in which participants claimed to have not been told something that had in fact been presented or included in orientation materials. We have inferred, therefore, that there was a low level of comprehension, and propose increasing comprehension through the use of stories and visuals. Storytelling or narrative has been shown to increase both reading and listening comprehension in a variety of contexts, including with adults of various literacy levels reading health information brochures (Michielutte et al. 1992), and in occupational safety training in the mining industry (Cullen 2008). As Cullen (2008) states, because listeners can vicariously experience the circumstances and emotions present in a story and place themselves into it, “storytellers can elicit the fear, confusion, or heightened awareness common to disaster stories without ever placing the learners in danger. This situation greatly increases the likelihood the listeners will remember both the story and the lessons it taught” (p. 4-5). Visuals as well have been found to increase comprehension in several studies of health education materials (Houts et al., 2006; Michielutte et al.1992; ) It is our hope that after learning from stories and visuals, practicum participants will better recall important information about preparing for and completing their practicum assignment in Peru, and additionally will have clear and realistic expectations regarding the conditions there. Knowing basic information about life in Peru and having an idea of what life there will be like may increase what Kim (2001) calls “functional fitness,” or the match between a person’s learned thoughts and behaviors and the thoughts and behaviors required by a new cultural context. According to Kim, “The psychological health of strangers is directly associated with their ability to communicate and their functional fitness in the host environment” (p. 63). We are therefore changing the mode of delivery of information to improve comprehension, thereby building a stronger foundation of knowledge that can contribute to participants’ functional fitness in the field environment. Activity Details REQUIRED INFORMATION SESSION A 1-hour session during the workshop day to review basic logistical information that all participants will need to know (this information should have been discussed to some degree during classroom hours over the course of the semester). Topics will include, but are not limited to: Trip duration and expected costs, logistics (where and when people meet in Peru or on the way there), schedule of the J-term project and when students are allowed to travel, documents needed prior to departure and how to fill them out, and an overview of academic and financial aid information specific to the trip.
  16. 16. PROGRAM DESIGN PROPOSAL Page 15 INFORMATION MEETING These meetings will be framed as social gatherings, such as mixers and happy hours, to create a space where participants can begin to get to know each other in a non-formal space and also have time to discuss topics beyond the scope of the basic information given during class. They will be structured through activities and/or facilitation.  Storytelling: Sharing of stories, either in person or written by past participants, with allocated time for Q & A.  Forums for sensitive topics: Optional small-group discussions to provide relevant information for diverse participants. For example, discussing concerns particularly relevant to women, LGBT students, or traveling parents. To be determined in Fall 2014 based on participant group needs.  Topic from a Hat: In the context of a happy hour/pizza night type event, 2015 participants will meet with the past participants from 2014 and pull pre-written discussion topics or questions from a hat to help facilitate conversation. These topics will be organized by the orientation leaders with input from the participants. For example, a topic could include “What medical care and assistance is available in the community where we’ll be staying?”  Trivia: This activity will be the final informal meeting and will include questions that will be intercultural, fun, and based on the all the information given prior. Questions can be provided in multimedia format (visual, audio, etc. depending on available facilities). Food and prizes provided as incentives to participate. INFORMATION SCAVENGER HUNT Students complete an internet scavenger hunt prior to the pre-departure workshop, which guides them through information about the AASD, the Sacred Valley, and the communities where students will be staying. Students will need to visit AASD’s website, the MIIS Team Peru webpage, and the Team Peru Facebook page. This activity can serve as a study guide for the functional fitness quiz. Additionally, participants will be asked to find two social initiatives or programs currently ongoing on Peru, and two relevant government policies. Other specific items on the scavenger hunt will be determined upon learning the specific nature of the 2015 J-term project. They will share their results during the workshop training. Outputs FUNCTIONAL FITNESS QUIZ At the end of the training workshop, students will have to complete a quiz (not for academic credit) on information related to basic functioning in Peru and the Sacred Valley. Such information includes: the local currency, exchange rate, food cost, what the weather may be like, what is the toilet situation, as well as some trip-specific logistics and information. After taking the quiz individually, students will go over the quiz together as a group with the orientation leaders to ensure that they all know the correct information. ATTENDANCE RATES AT OPTIONAL EVENTS Each of the optional informal events will have a sign-in sheet so that we can know how many students attended each one as well as how many students attended more than one. INFORMATION GUIDE As students discuss their information scavenger hunt results at the workshop, they will create a shared document with all of resources and important information they have found
  17. 17. PROGRAM DESIGN PROPOSAL Page 16 Implementation Timeline Spring 2014 •Design pre-departure orientation trainning •Design assesment tools to be used for pre-departure training •Institutional Rreview Board Proposal Summer 2014 •Create a 'next steps' plan for implementation orientation •Create Role-playing activities •Narratives and visuals will be gathered and sorted from past participants for the compilation of pre-departure information •Update AASD and Team Peru websites Fall 2014 •Establish deadline and requirement for practicum participation •Specify additional required online modules based on participating group •individual online assigments will be completed throughout fall class •Informational meeting will be scattered throughout the semster •Secure date and space for predeparture workshop (preferably end of November) •Establish meeting day and time in Cusco Peru Winter 2014 •Implement pre-departure worshop (immediatly after the semester ends) • Meet in Cusco Peru to begin practicum
  18. 18. PROGRAM DESIGN PROPOSAL Page 17 REFERENCES Cullen, E.T. (2008). Tell me a story: Using stories to improve occupational safety training. Professional Safety July 2008 57(3), 20-27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Office of Mine Safety and Health Research. Houts, P.S., Doak, C.C., Doak, L.G., & Loscalzo, M.J. (2006). The role of pictures in improving health communication: A review of research on attention, comprehension, recall, and adherence. Patient Education and Counseling 61, 173-190. Kim, Y.Y. (2001). The process of cross-cultural adaptation. In Becoming Intercultural, 45-70. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Kriegl, U. (2000). International hospitality management: Identifying important skills and effective training. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 64-71. Michielutte, R., Bahnson, J., Dignan, M.B., & Schroeder, E.M. (1992) The use of illustrations and narrative text style to improve readability of a health education brochure. Journal of Cancer Education 7(3), 251-260. Savicki, V., Cooley, E., & Donnelly, R. (2008). Acculturative stress, appraisal, coping, and intercultural adjustment. In Savicki (Ed.) Developing Intercultural Competency and Transformation, 173-192. Sterling: Stylus. Spreitzer, G.M., McCall, M.W., & Mahoney, J.D. (1997). Early identification of international executive potential. Journal of Applied Psychology 82, 6-29.

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