ConcussionsBy Brendan Jacgues and Chris Jackson
Key Points• What is a concussion?• What causes a concussion?• Who’s at risk?• What are the symptoms?• How are concussions treated?• What are the long-term effects?• How are concussions prevented?
What is a concussion?• When the brain collides with the skull causing bruising of brain, tearing of blood vessels and injuring of nerves• Temporary loss of normal brain function• Not life threatening
What causes a concussion?• Strong hit to the head • Fall • Car accident • Sport injury • Object
Risk Factors• High Contact Sports • Football • Ice hockey • Rugby• Age• Gender• Previous concussion
High School Sports• 41% of concussed athletes in 100 high schools across U.S. returned to play too soon• Neglect of American Academy of Neurology guidelines• 16% of high school football players who lost consciousness during a concussion returned to field the same day• SIS
Symptoms• Thinking and Remembering • Unclear thinking • Feeling slowed down • Not being able to concentrate • Not being able to remember new information
Physical• Headache• Fuzzy or blurry vision• Dizziness• Sensitivity to light or noise• Balance problems• Feeling tired
Emotional and mood• Easily upset or angered• Sad• Nervous• More emotional
Sleep• Sleeping more than usual• Sleeping less than usual• Having a hard time falling asleep
Treatment• Seek a doctors attention• Rest • No physically or mentally intensive activity • No alcohol or drugs • Avoiding loud noises and bright lights• Pain medication and ice packs• Follow up with doctor prior to resuming full activity
Long Term Risks• Studies still being done on the issue• Minor effects • Frequent headaches and dizziness • Difficulty sleeping• Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy • Depression • Dementia • Short term memory loss • Suicide
Prevention• Avoiding dangerous situations • i.e. walking/driving on ice, not wearing a seatbelt• Wearing helmets and mouth pieces during action sports • i.e. skateboarding, skiing, biking
NFL’s steps• League mandated testing • All players who are suspected of concussion • Done by independent physician • Prevents teams pressuring players to get back quicker• Personal player penalties • Monetary fines • Suspensions
Summary• Concussion are the result of brain trauma• Symptoms include: • Inability to remember new information, Headache, dizziness, sleep issues and emotional reactions• High contact sports present a greater risk• Concussions arent curable but are helped by rest• Multiple concussions can result in CTE• Near impossible to prevent but proper safety measures can reduce the risk
Refrences• "Concussion - WebMD: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. Nov. 2012. <http://www.webmd.com/brain/tc/traumatic-brain-injury-concussion- overview?page=3>.• Gregory, Sean. "Study: Kids Competing Too Soon After Concussions." Time. Time, 21 Jan. 2009. Web. Nov. 2012. <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1873131,00.html >.• Jaslow, Ryan. "Junior Seaus Death Raises Questions about Brain Trauma, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy." CBSNews. CBS Interactive, 3 May 2012. Web. Nov. 2012. <http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504763_162- 57427161-10391704/junior-seaus-death-raises-questions-about-brain- trauma-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy/>.• "Post-Concussion Syndrome: Symptoms, Treatments, Tests, Recovery, and More." WebMD. WebMD, 26 Jan. 2011. Web. Nov. 2012. <http://www.webmd.com/brain/post-concussion-syndrome>.• "TeensHealth-Concussions." Concussions. N.p., n.d. Web. Nov. 2012. <http://kidshealth.org/teen/safety/first_aid/concussions.html>.