Psychoanalytic Therapy Claris Villatoro Guidance Function in Education – SC 540
Psychoanalysis : An overview <ul><li>Developed by Sigmund Freud and his followers in 1890’s . </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoanalysis is : </li></ul><ul><li>A set of philosophical descriptions of human nature. </li></ul><ul><li>A method of psychotherapy development that focus on unconscious factors that motivate behavior and encourages the use of transference as a way for therapists to gain information and create connections between clients and themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>A theory of personality which is developed through different stages in life. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoanalysis asserts that the impact of early childhood sexuality and experiences, stored in the unconscious, can lead to the development of adult emotional problem s. </li></ul>
Sigmund Freud ( 1856-1939) <ul><li>Born in Vienna, Austria to a family of three boys. </li></ul><ul><li>Enrolled in medical school in 1873, earning a degree a medical degree at the age of twenty-four. </li></ul><ul><li>While doing his residency in a psychiatric hospital in Vienna, he became interested in the study of the behavior and the mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Freud furthered his studies at a neurological clinic in France. Here , Freud became interested in hysteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Together with Breuer he published Studies on Hysteria (1895). At the age of thirty-nine Freud first used the term "psychoanalysis," (a way to treat certain mental illnesses by exposing and discussing a patient's unconscious thoughts and feelings) and his major lifework was well under way. </li></ul>
Psychoanalysis : The nature of man <ul><li>Human nature is viewed as deterministic. </li></ul><ul><li>Life is about gaining pleasure and avoiding pain. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior is guided by irrational forces , unconscious motivations , and biological and instinctual drives . </li></ul><ul><li>These forces evolve through key psycho-sexual stages in the first 6 years of life. </li></ul>
Psychoanalysis: Consciousness and the Unconscious <ul><li>Unconsciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the mind that stores repressed memories. </li></ul><ul><li>Freud believed that the majority of what we experience in our lives, the underlying emotions, beliefs, feelings, and impulses are not available to us at a conscious level. He believed that most of what drives us is buried in our unconscious. </li></ul><ul><li>While buried there, however, they continue to impact us dramatically According to Freud. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Freud, unconscious impulses leak out in everyday life in forms of parapraxes: forgetting, slips of the tongue, accidents. ,wit: a “leak” occurring in a controlled manner and dreams: “the royal road to the unconscious” containing latent content . </li></ul>Freud's famous couch, in his London clinic (after he moved in 1938 to Maresfield Gardens to flee the Nazis).
Psychoanalysis: Consciousness and the Unconscious ( cont.) <ul><li>Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Freud believed that everything we are aware of is stored in our conscious. Our conscious makes up a very small part of who we are. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the aspect of our mental processing that we can think and talk about rationally. A part of this includes our memory, which is not always part of consciousness but can be retrieved easily at any time and brought into our awareness. </li></ul>
Psychoanalysis : Elements of Personality <ul><li>According to Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality, personality is composed of three elements. These three elements of personality--known as the id, the ego and the superego--work together to create complex human behaviors. All 3 components need to be well-balanced in order to have good amount of psychological energy available and to have reasonable mental health. </li></ul><ul><li>The dynamics of personality consist of the ways in which psychic energy is distributed to the id, ego and superego. Because the amount of energy is limited, one system gains control over the available energy at the expense of the other two system. Behavior is control by this energy. </li></ul>
Psychological Structures <ul><li>The Id </li></ul><ul><li>Biological component </li></ul><ul><li>Primary source of energy and seat of instincts. </li></ul><ul><li>The Ego </li></ul><ul><li>The executive that governs, controls and regulates the personality. </li></ul><ul><li>The Superego </li></ul><ul><li>The judicial branch of personality. </li></ul><ul><li>It includes a person’s moral codes , right or wrong. </li></ul>
Ego Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>The ego has a difficult time satisfying both the id and the superego. The ego has some tools it can use in its job as the mediator. When the ego has a difficult time making both the id and the superego happy, it will employ a mechanism of defense. </li></ul>
Psychoanalysis : Structure of Personality <ul><li>Freud believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages during which the libido, the psychosexual energy, is the driving force behind behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Early experiences play a large role in personality development and continue to influence behavior later in life. At particular points in the developmental process, he claimed, a single body part is particularly sensitive to sexual, erotic stimulation. These body parts are the mouth, the anus, and the genital region. If the stages are completed successfully, the result is a healthy personality. If certain issues are not resolved at the appropriate stage, fixation can occur. </li></ul>
Psychoanalysis: Stages of Personality Development Period of life Oral Stage First year of life Infants need to get basic nurturing, or later feeling of greediness and acquisitiveness may develop. The mouth is the sexual gratifying organ. Fixation on this stage will result in personality issues such as mistrust of others, love and fear of or inability to form intimate relationships. Anal Stage Ages 1-3 The anal zone becomes of major significance in form of personality. A child is learning independence , accepting personal power and learning to express negative feeling such as rage. Parental attitudes and discipline patterns have a significance impact on later personality development.
Psychoanalysis: Stages of Personality Development (cont) Period of Life Phallic Stage Ages 3-6 This stage differs in boys and girls. The male phallic stage is known as Oedipus complex, mother as love object. The female phallic stage is known as Electra complex, girl’s striving for father’s love and approval. Latency Stage Ages 6-12 Sexual interests are replaced by interest in school, sport, and a range of new activities. This is the time for socialization as a child begins to form relationships with others. Genital Stage Ages 12-18 Sexual urges are once again awakened. Through the lessons learned during the previous stages, adolescents direct their sexual urges onto opposite sex peers, with the primary focus of pleasure is the genitals.
Psychoanalysis: Primary techniques <ul><li>The primary goal of psychotherapy is to bring out unconscious material and make it conscious. This is accomplish by a well structure setting and an effective client – therapist relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The client is encouraged to say whatever comes to mind; This is referred as free association. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a clear commitment from the client to be part of an intensive and long therapeutic process. The client agreed to talk ; these verbal expressions might be signs of unconscious behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, the counselor assumed an anonymous and blank stance. Therapist engage in very little self disclosure and maintain a sense of neutrality to encourage a transference relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Transference is the unaware repetition of events or actions from the past into the present. </li></ul>
Psychoanalysis: The role of the Counselor <ul><li>The role of the counselor is to help clients acquire the following skills: </li></ul><ul><li>- the freedom to love, work and play </li></ul><ul><li>- achieve self -awareness </li></ul><ul><li>- gain control over irrational behavior </li></ul><ul><li>- deal with anxiety in a realistic way </li></ul><ul><li>These are accomplished by a series of well structure techniques and a strong client-therapist relationship. </li></ul>
Psychoanalysis: Conclusion <ul><li>The essence of psychoanalytic theory is that we should look into our past to understand behavior. Events from the past fall into the unconscious and they shape our behavior as they surface to conscious. Psychoanalysis also presents three elements of personality that work together to create complex behavior, the id (desire),ego(logic)and the superego( rightness). Personality is shaped by these elements as humans go through a series of stages driven by sexual energy. Our goal is avoiding pain and seeking pleasure. </li></ul>
Books and Essays by Sigmund Freud <ul><li>Sigmund Freud Published over 190 books and essays between late 1800’s and early 1900’s. </li></ul><ul><li>The Interpretation of Dreams(1899) </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology of everyday life (1901) </li></ul><ul><li>The Interpretations of Dreams (1911) </li></ul><ul><li>On Narcissism (1914 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920) </li></ul><ul><li>The Future of an Illusion(1927) </li></ul><ul><li>Civilization and Its Discontents </li></ul><ul><li>(1929) </li></ul>
Bibliography <ul><li>Gibson, R. & Mitchell, M. (2008). Introduction to counseling and guidance . (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Corey, Gerald ( 2009). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. (8 th ed.). Belmont, CA.: Thompson Higher Education. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/plaut- </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.freudfile.org/psychoanalysis/ </li></ul><ul><li>www.psychoanalysis.org/ </li></ul>