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Curtis_Distributed Generation_Report

  1. 1. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding:Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future Henry Curtis (June 2012) Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 1
  2. 2. Wayfinding ConclusionThe State of Hawai`i could and should generate 90% of its electricity fromdistributed renewable energy resources by 2030.DedicationThis Report is dedicated to the nearly 20,000 Americans who die each year fromfossil fuel air emissions and to the hundreds of millions of people worldwide thatclimate change will displaced.AcknowledgmentsI wish to thank Doc Berry, Peggy Lucas Bond, Kat Brady, Leighton Chong, ClintCowen, Cory Harden, Kim Coco Iwamoto, Bob King, Kal Kobayashi, Jim Lazar, DickMeyer, and Steve Morgan for their suggestions, and Sally Kaye for her thoughtfulinsight and superb editing of each draft of this Report.The AuthorHenry Curtis has been Executive Director of Life of the Land (LOL) since 1995. Hehas a B.A. in Economics from Queens College, City University of New York. He is ablogger1, community organizer, videographer, director, producer, peer reviewer,moot court judge, community facilitator, and provides expert testimony on oceanpower, biofuels, energy and externalities. He has represented LOL in over thirtyregulatory proceedings before the Public Utilities Commission (PUC). He serves onthe PUC Reliability Standards Working Group (RSWG) and the RSWG Minimum Load& Curtailment Subgroup. He is committed to Hawai`i’s energy self-­reliance andwell-­being and is motivated by the values of aloha `aina, malama `aina and hislove for Hawai`i nei.1 http://ililani-­ Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 2
  3. 3. PrefaceEnergy is the glue, the connector, the life blood of all that we do. Energy powersthe economy. Energy is required for agriculture, industry and transportation. TheFirst Industrial Revolution (c. 1750-­1850) was powered by energy fromhydroelectric sources, coal and steam. These sources also provided local power.The Second Industrial Revolution (c. 1870-­1914) benefitted from the discovery ofelectricity, the modern re-­discovery of petroleum, and the invention of the internalcombustion engine. Suddenly energy could be easily moved from place to place.Over the past hundred years fossil fuel byproducts have become part of our life:pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, paints, polymers (such as plastics), paraffin, petroleumjelly, detergents, ammonia, pesticides and fertilizers. The energy industry hasgrown into a $3 trillion/year mega-­industry.Costs / ImpactsExternalities refer to costs and impacts not reflected in the price of products. Thatis, they are costs shifted from producers to society at large. The biggest externalityof all is climate change. Another key externality is environmental justice, wherebyextraction and production facilities are often located in economically challengedcommunities, minority communities, and/or rural areas and then transported tolarge urban (and often more wealthy) communities to consume.Energy Disasters Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant melt-­down (March 10, 2011) BP Deepwater Horizon Explosion (April 20, 2010) Iraq Oil War (2003-­11) Borneo wildfires and peat soil fires set to clear land for biofuel plantations (1997-­98) Kuwaiti Oil Fires (January and February 1991) Persian Gulf Oil War (1990-­91) Exxon Valdez (March 24, 1989) Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 3
  4. 4. Cleaning Up after the Exxon Valdez: The ecological death toll included 500,000birds, 4,500 sea otters and fourteen whales.2 Chernobyl Nuclear Accident (April 26, 1986) Three Mile Island Nuclear Accident (March 28, 1979) Santa Barbara oil spill (January and February 1969) which led to the first Earth Day Texaco’s deliberate dumping of eighteen billion gallons of toxic oil waste products from the Lago Agrio oil field into the Ecuadorian Amazon Rainforest (1964-­90) Tea Pot Dome Oil Leasing Scandal (1922-­23) West Virginia Monongh Mine disaster (December 6, 1907)2 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 4
  5. 5. Egregious as they were, the total emissions from “big name” disasters pale whencompared with the continuous disposal of fossil fuel waste products in the air, thewater, and on the land.For example, the planet has 90,000 oil tankers, container ships and cruise shipsthat are mostly powered by bunker fuel, which has the consistency of mud andcontains sulfur levels 3,000 times that of gasoline.New ThreatsNew environmental disasters are occurring with the rapid rise in the use ofrenewable energy and telecommunication systems. These often involve extracting,separating and marketing trace (rare earth) minerals.The third greatest 20th century war (ranked by deaths) occurred in the DemocraticRepublic of Congo (DRC), a large African country, one quarter of the size of theUnited States. The Second Congo War (1998-­2003), also known as Africa’s “WorldWar,” involved armies of eight nations and over twenty armed groups fighting overrare minerals, especially coltan (colombo-­tantalite), a key element essential tomany electronic devices such as cell phones, play stations and wireless devices.Today, China is the world’s leading producer of photovoltaic panels and windturbines. Wind turbines require strong magnets. The most powerful commercialmagnets are made using a Neodymium-­Iron-­Boron alloy (Nd2Fe14B). WhileNeodymium has been used for some time in hard drives, lasers and hi-­fi speakers,its use has exploded due to increasing production of wind turbines and hybridvehicles. Mining Neodymium is often an extremely polluting activity. Acid is pouredover large quantities of extracted materials and the waste product is dumped onland and in waterways.Think Globally, Act LocallyEnergy policy is too important to be left to those with vested interests in short-­termprofit margins. We must all be engaged in energy policy at the local level where wecan shape policy to suit local needs. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 5
  6. 6. Table of Contents page1. Introduction 72. Energy Terminology 143. Conservation/Energy Efficiency 184. Continuous Energy Resources 275. Variable Energy Resources 426. Batteries/Storage 547. Moloka`i 608. Lana`i 699. Hawai`i 7510. Maui 8611. O`ahu 9812. Kaua`i 11313. Ni`ihau 11614. The Military 11815. The Future 121Acronyms 131Glossary 134References 150 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 6
  7. 7. CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTIONMost people past a certain age can recall the significant change the InternetRevolution (1990) made in our lives. Email, websites, and blogs are nowcenterpieces for our daily connectivity.We are now in the middle of a wireless technology revolution, featuring SmartPhones (iPhone, Android, Windows) and Slates (iPad, Kindle Fire, Nook Tablet).On the near horizon is the capacity to replace yesterday’s electric grid withtomorrow’s Smart Buildings, where conservation and energy efficiency will reducedemand, on-­site renewable energy facilities will provide energy for buildings andelectricity for vehicles, and small microgrids will be used within small communities.3This Report explores Distributed Generation (DG), which focuses on a decentralized,community-­based model of energy self-­sufficiency, utilizing local solutions.The language and nomenclature4 in this new cutting edge field evolved from olderterms like “on-­site generation,” “dispersed generation,” “embedded generation”,“decentralized generation,” and “decentralized energy.” Today, fully distributedgeneration, which some call the “greatest innovation,”5 defines itself practically asone which results in “zero-­energy buildings,”6 "energy-­plus buildings,”7 "freeingenergy from the grid,”8 “obsolete electric grids,”9 “No Grid,” 10 “Gridless 11” the“Wireless Smart Grid”12 and the “Un-­Grid.”13Is there a particular place that this revolution can or should start?3­grid-­solar-­frequently-­asked-­questions.html4 A list of names or terms;; the system of principles, procedures and terms related to naming.5 Michele Amoretti, Member, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).­amorettiEurocon09.pdf6 Also known as Zero Net Energy (ZNE) Building, Net-­Zero Energy Building (NZEB), or Net ZeroBuilding.7­energy_building8 Justin Hall-­Tipping,CEO at NanoHoldings “To Grid or Not to Grid, That is the Question”, by Dana Blankenhorn, January 20, 2011;;­grid-­or-­not-­to-­grid-­that-­is-­the-­question10­economics11 Pincas Jawetz (­future-­is-­gridless-­building-­a-­new-­grid-­for-­renewable-­energy-­is-­nothing-­less-­then-­having-­learned-­nothing-­from-­the-­concept-­of-­growth-­that-­grounded-­the-­fossil-­fuels-­based-­inefficient-­economy/12 “Tech Development for Sustainable Communities: A Conversation with iSchool Research FellowJanet Marsden (2011)”­development-­for-­sustainable-­communities-­a-­conversation-­with-­ischool-­research-­fellow-­janet-­marsden/13 Simon Bransfield-­Garth,­and-­the-­un-­grid.html Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 7
  8. 8. Some think that since Pacific atolls will be the first to disappear under the business-­as-­usual, greenhouse-­gas-­emitting, fossil-­fuel model, the transformation shouldstart on a Pacific Island most at risk.Common sense dictates that the most efficient place to start in any “energyrevolution” is the place with the most abundant and varied renewable energyportfolio, coupled with the most expensive cost of electricity – that is, Hawai`i.Within Hawai`i, Moloka`i is a perfect choice -­ many think that Moloka`i can leadthe world in grid-­less telecommunications and electricity independence.The VortexIn the summer of 2010, Kris Mayes, Chair of the Arizona Corporation Commission14(2009-­10) spoke about “cascading natural deregulation” at an Institute of Electricaland Electronics Engineers (IEEE) solar convention held at the Hawaii ConventionCenter.She explained that “cascading natural deregulation” means that as the cost ofrenewable systems trend downward and electric rates go up, those who can leavethe grid, will leave the grid, by building or installing on-­site generation. The fixedcosts associated with energy production, transmission and distribution will thenhave to be absorbed by the remaining (smaller) rate base. Thus, those who remainwill see their rates go up even more, causing more people to opt out of acentralized grid, driving the rates for those who remain even higher. Under thisscenario, companies such as HECO would be sucked down into a bottomless vortexand ultimately fail as a viable investor-­owned corporation.As the Rocky Mountain Institute noted:“The electric industry once again finds itself at a crossroads, confronting it withthree basic choices: the supply-­side path, the distributed path, or the status quo.[]Distributed generation poses four primary threats to the existing distribution utilitybusiness model. First, distributed generation results in the loss of revenue undertraditional tariff structures;; the customer simply is purchasing fewer kilowatt-­hoursor fewer distribution services. Second, more substantial market capture bydistributed generation can create a new class of stranded asset within thedistribution system-­grid capacity no longer needed. Third, the ability of distributedgeneration to enter more rapidly than centralized generation or transmissionupgrades can partially strand new capacity additions. Fourth, the combination ofthe first three threats can create a "death cycle" in which the higher prices toremaining customers induce more of them to leave this system, creating a self-­reinforcing cycle of ever-­increasing unit prices.[]14 The equivalent of the Hawaii Public Utilities Commission. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 8
  9. 9. There would be many winners from the distributed resource path. Society at largewould prosper because electric service could be provided at lower cost with higherreliability. [] The environment will benefit from lower air pollution more than itwould with centralized generation. [] Generation companies [] would suffer majorlosses, since the penetration of distributed resources acting as virtual peakers willsignificantly reduce peak power prices. [] It is the fear of these losses that createsresistance from the incumbent players to widespread adoption of distributedpower.”The Public Utilities Commission is located in the Kekuanaoa Building on the MakaiEwa corner of Punchbowl and King Street. (Photo by author)The Hawai`i VortexHawai`i not only has the highest utility rates in the nation, and has held that recordfor decades, but also has some of the nation’s better alternative renewable sourcesin solar, wind, wave and geothermal resources. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 9
  10. 10. HECO15 has already started to experience this decline and has to be acutely awarethat it could escalate. In the past few years the rate of solar installations withinHawai`i has doubled each year. The number of renewable energy developers whohave made proposals to the utility for large-­scale grid-­connected renewable energyprojects has gone up ten-­fold. The increasing use of various energy efficiencysystems is also driving down the demand for electricity. HECO, and its subsidiariesMaui Electric (MECO) and Hawaii Electric Light (HELCO), experienced peak energyuse in 2004. Since then the demand for electricity has been dropping.In anticipation of this dim future, the utility wrote the Hawai`i Clean EnergyInitiative (HCEI) in 2008. The document calls for the Legislature and the HawaiiPublic Utilities Commission (PUC) to adopt policies to shield HECO from thisimpending doomsday scenario. One such policy or concept is called “Decoupling.”This mechanism states that the utility is entitled to a certain level of revenue, andas sales drop they can automatically increase rates to keep their revenue on target.The PUC has already approved this mechanism.An additional centerpiece of the HCEI is the development of industrial scalerenewable power plants that would require extensive cabling to send large amountsof power to the primary load center, O`ahu.In February 2012 the parent company of HECO, MECO and HELCO, the HawaiianElectric Industries Inc. (HEI) included this in its annual 10-­K report with the U.S.Securities and Exchange Commission:“Increasing competition and technological advances could cause HEI’s businesses tolose customers or render their operations obsolete. ...HECO and its subsidiariesface competition from IPPs [Independent Power Producers] and customerelectricity will occur. New technological developments, such as the commercialdevelopment of energy storage, may render the operations of HEI’s electric utilitysubsidiaries less competitive or outdated.”16Climate Change – one more reason to leave the gridMoving away from fossil fuel use is not simply a matter of economics, but is vital toslowing the rate of climate change.As LOL’s Vice President for Social Justice, Kat Brady, testified to the PUC in 2009 inthe matter of HECO’s proposed power plant at Campbell Industrial Park: “Theplanet is in crisis. Global warming can no longer be ignored. The science is in and15 Hawaii Electric Industries (HEI) owns Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) and American SavingsBank (ASB). HECO owns MECO and HELCO.1617, 2012 for the year ending December 31, 2011, at 28. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 10
  11. 11. the data is conclusive that global warming and climate change is primarily due tothe burning of fossil fuels. We no longer have a choice. We must change or perish.The earth is in crisis and this proposed project does nothing to address the fact thatglobal warming is real -­ the planet is heating up faster than predicted and thefuture is uncertain.”17It is now a settled matter that ocean levels are rising because glaciers and othersnow and ice formations are melting. While melting ice bergs do not change thedepth of the water, the oceans expand unevenly with rising temperatures. Theoceans are also becoming more acidic. Low lying coastal areas are facing coastalerosion and salt water intrusions into drinking water aquifers. Pacific Atolls and low-­lying islands are particularly vulnerable.“The government of Tuvalu is in a quandary as salt water intrusion threatens theiraquifers and as they witness the loss of their shorelines and their food-­producinggardens to a rising sea. Tuvaluan officials have made arrangements with Aotearoa(New Zealand) to relocate their people. Tuvalu and its neighbor Kiribati arerumored to have bought land in Fiji in order to relocate their populations.But not all of the people want to leave. Some fear the loss of their culture andwould rather sink with the island than face the cultural genocide of assimilation.The issue for Tuvalu is how to slow the heating of the planet so that their culturewill thrive in its homeland. Tuvaluans have not caused the problem, but aresuffering the very real impacts. Global warming raises moral issues and healthissues as well as scientific and environmental issues.”18Health ImpactsContinued use of fossil fuel also contributes to health problems. A NationalAcademy of Science Study was conducted at the request of U.S. Congress. Thestudy analyzed costs not incorporated in the price of gasoline and electricity(“Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use,”192010). The report found that 20,000 people die prematurely each year from fossilfuel air pollution, and that health impacts in the U.S. ($120 billion/year) from theuse of coal and oil were nearly equal. The report also determined that renewablemotor fuel (corn-­based ethanol) was slightly worse than gasoline in itsenvironmental impact.17 Testimony of Kat Brady, Vice President for Social Justice, Life of the Land, Hawai`i Public UtilitiesCommission, Docket No. 2005-­0145, O`ahu Power Plant (“Brady LOL T-­1”).18 Brady LOL T-­1.19 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 11
  12. 12. The report did NOT analyze the health impacts associated with global warming;;burning oil for trains, ships and planes;; coal mining;; and coal byproducts dumpedinto streams and rivers.20Epidemiologists are studying links between pollen and the 61% increase in thediagnosis of asthma in the last generation,21 as pollen is an important trigger andpossible cause of asthma. Since higher temperatures and elevated atmosphericcarbon dioxide concentrations can promote the growth and earlier flowering ofpollen-­producing plant species, the length and intensity of the pollen seasonexpands along with its geographical range,22 and may increase/intensify allergicreactions.EcosystemsSea level rise in Hawai`i is anticipated to be one foot by 2050 and three feet by2100.23According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: “Conserving native species andecosystems is a challenging task that is destined to become progressively moredifficult as global climate change accelerates in the coming years. Temperature,rainfall patterns, sea level and ocean chemistry, to name but a few, will movebeyond the range of our experience [] Climate change presents Pacific Islands withunique challenges including rising temperatures, sea-­level rise, contamination offreshwater resources with saltwater, coastal erosion, an increase in extremeweather events, coral reef bleaching, and ocean acidification. [] In Hawai‘i, theseasonal and geographic distribution of rainfall and temperature has combined withsteep, mountainous terrain to produce a wide array of island-­scale climate regimes.These varying regimes in turn have supported the diversification and migrationupward of Hawai‘is native plants and animals. Increasing amounts of human-­caused greenhouse gases will likely alter the archipelago’s terrestrial and marineenvironments.”24The role that fossil fuel use by humans plays in contributing to climate change isabundantly clear.Proposed Solution20 New England journal of Medicine.;;­warming-­impacts-­public.pdf23 Sea-­Level Rise and Coastal Land Use in Hawai‘i: A Policy Tool Kit for State and Local Governmentsby the Center for Island Climate Adaptation and Policy (ICAP), University of Hawai‘i Sea Grant CollegeProgram­sealevelrisetoolkit_web-­1_2.pdf24;; Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 12
  13. 13. Some communities may focus on rapidly increasing the renewable energypenetration level on their grids. This can be done in conjunction with Smart Gridtechnology.Other communities may opt for increased renewable energy in combination with theimportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) a cheaper and cleaner fossil fuel.Still other communities could decide that, rather than waiting for the inevitableescalating rate hikes and for climate change to reach crisis levels, they should findways of leaving the grid now.In the transformation process, all of these communities can save money, increasethe amount of revenue that stays and circulates within their local communities,while creating local jobs, and decreasing the environmental, social and culturalimpacts associated with energy production, transmission and use.Since each island has different resources and different values it only makes soundsocial and economic sense to design each island system differently. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 13
  14. 14. CHAPTER 2. ENERGY TERMINOLOGYEnergy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can change forms. All energyoptions in the world are derived from three sources: the sun, the earth, and themoon. Sun energy includes solar, wind, biomass, biofuels, ocean thermal, coal,hydroelectric, oil, ocean waves, and natural gas. Earth sources includes geothermaland nuclear (uranium). The moon causes tides.Substation (Photo by author)Electricity is simply a useful form of energy, from whatever source derived, that canbe transmitted to customers via a transmission and distribution grid.Renewable energy can be either intermittent (solar, wind, ocean wave energy,biomass, hydro) or firm (ocean thermal, geothermal, garbage or waste to energy,biomass, hydro).Intermittent or variable sources are those that are available only part of the time,so when electricity is needed the fuel source may or may not be available toproduce it. For example, solar panels will produce a lot of electricity when the sun isoverhead, some electricity at dawn and dusk, and no electricity at night. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 14
  15. 15. Firm electric power, also called “baseload” power, is power that is always availablebecause the fuel source is always available to be converted to electricity. Firm fuelsources include coal, oil, gas, nuclear, geothermal, and ocean thermal energyconversion (OTEC).Note that both biomass and hydro can be intermittent or firm.Maintaining reliable grids requires mostly baseload energy. The exact percentagethat can be renewable depends on the characteristics of the grid, the intermittencyof the energy sources, and their interplay.25It is better to not need energy in the first place (conservation) but if it is used, touse less of it (energy efficiency). Sometimes “energy efficiency” is used to meanboth conservation and efficiency. Energy efficiency can also mean the production ofelectricity for local use, for example, solar electric panels used for householdconsumption.A solar (photovoltaic) panel converts sunlight into electricity. The efficiency ratingof a solar panel refers to the maximum percentage of sunlight converted intoelectricity. The capacity factor of the solar panel refers to the average percentageof sunlight converted into electricity. The capacity factor averages sunlightconversion at noon, dusk and night.25 Further analysis requires knowledge of advanced mathematics, physics and electronics. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 15
  16. 16. LoadTwo terms which are sometimes confused are watt and watt-­hours. Watt (a unitthat measures the rate of energy conversion) refers to the size of the system, thatis, what is the maximum amount of electricity that a system can produce. Watt-­hours refer to the actual amount of electricity produced. If a one-­watt system isalways turned on, it will produce 24 watt-­hours of electricity per day.A kilowatt equals 1,000 watts, and a megawatt equals one million watts.Rooftop solar energy systems are usually in the kilowatt (kW) and kilowatt-­hour(kWh) range, while utility scale renewable energy systems are usually in themegawatt (MW) and megawatt-­hour (MWh) range.Load is the average amount of electricity that is used over a period of time.Peak load is the maximum amount of electricity that is used, and minimum load isthe least amount of electricity that is used.The O`ahu grid currently has a minimum load of approximately 600 MW, amaximum load of approximately 1,300 MW, and an average load of approximately900 MW.When a utility company provides information about load, it almost always refers topeak load since that is what drives the need for additional generation andtransmission.Waikiki’s peak load in 1998 was 8%;; that is, Waikiki’s maximum load divided byO`ahu’s maximum load (which may not be on the same day but is in the sameyear) was 8% for 1998.Generation that is produced and used in the same general area is called DistributedGeneration (DG). Generation that is produced in one area, and is then sent ontransmission lines to another area, is called Central Generation (CG). CentralGeneration requires transmission lines to be built between where the electricity isproduced and where it is consumed. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 16
  17. 17. The charts below delineate system peak load by Company26 (MW), excludingKaua`i’s utility cooperative. The peaks on different islands occur at different times,so the total does not refer to the amount actually being generated at one specifictime.Utility 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004HECO 1186 1216 1266 1230 1281HELCO 198 203 201 197 195MECO 206 216 218 214 218Total 1590 1635 1685 1641 1694HECO Peak and Minimum Loads27Year Peak Demand (Net Minimum Load (Net MW) MW)2005 1230 5312004 1281 5382003 1242 5132002 1204 5022001 1191 5202000 1164 4961999 1120 5021998 1131 4871997 1176 4831996 1157 47526 HEI 2008 statistical supplement and utility forecast, p.19.http://phx.corporate-­ Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 17
  18. 18. CHAPTER 3. CONSERVATION & ENERGY EFFICIENCYBefore turning to island-­specific potentials for distributed renewable energy, a fewfacts about energy efficiency, the most cost-­effective means to lower costs for allislands, and a short discussion of firm and intermittent sources of energy, arenecessary.Energy efficiency simply means doing the same work with less energy.Hunter Lovins (co-­founder of Rocky Mountain Institute, TIME Magazines 2000Millennium Hero of the Planet & the European financial communitys 2008Sustainability Pioneer) discussed energy efficiency at the Sustainable HawaiiConference (1997), co-­sponsored by Maui Tomorrow and Mauis Grand WaileaResort.Full of energy and positive outlook, Lovins is driven by a need to reduce wastefulenergy consumption -­-­ "The key notion that makes getting off oil possible iscounter-­intuitive: the best and cheapest ‘source’ of energy is not in fact supply, butefficiency. Any effort in these directions will save money, increase America’snational security, and help protect the environment. ... In nearly every case,energy efficiency costs far less than the fuel or electricity it saves."28There is a financial cost to purchasing, installing and operating energy efficiencysystems.Averaged over the lifetime of the equipment, the cost to reduce consumption by1 kWh is 3-­4 cents. 29Compact Fluorescent Light Bulb Light Emitting Diode (LED) Traffic(CFL)30 Light3128 “Making it Last” by Hunter Lovins, August 10, 2004­we-­live-­without-­oil/1018.29 Conversation with Jim Lazar. Mr. Lazar is a Senior Advisory to the Regulatory Assistance Project(RAP), a global, non-­profit team of experts focused on the long-­term economic and environmentalsustainability of the power and natural gas sectors, providing assistance to government officials on abroad range of energy and environmental issues. For 3 decades he has maintained a consultingpractice in electric and natural gas utility ratemaking and resource planning. His clients have includedmunicipal and cooperative electric utilities, natural gas utilities, regulatory commissions, stateconsumer advocates and public interest organizations in Hawai`i, the United States, Canada, Ireland,New Zealand, and Australia.30­lights-­led.jpg Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 18
  19. 19. CFL’s should replace incandescent light bulbs. Toy ovens, powered by anincandescent light bulb cook the food because practically all of the energy emergingfrom the bulb is heat, not light. Buildings using incandescent lighting have toremove this heat from rooms by using air conditioning. But by switching to CFLs, noheat is created and the room does not need as much cooling.A light-­emitting diode (LED) is based on diode electronics. Currently they are moreexpensive and require specific heat management and current specifications. Theadvantages, however, include longer life, lower energy consumption and smallersize.Meters: Small devices can be installed between a plug and a wall outlet thatmeasure the flow to each device when the device is on. Phantom power loads refersto the electricity used by a device when it is “off.” Often devices use almost asmuch electricity in the off position, which is a "consumer" convenience allowingquick starts. The Energy Detective33 The Energy Detective (TED) costs between $200-­300 (depending on the features desired) plus the cost for an electrician to install it. TED sends real-­time data every 10The Plug-­in Energy Meter minutes to either a& Electricity Cost customers iGoogle gadgetCalculator32 or Google account.32­in-­Energy-­Meter-­and-­Electricity-­Cost-­Calculator/p.aspx33­content/uploads/2009/02/energy-­detective.jpg Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 19
  20. 20. Solar Water HeatersSolar Screen34 Solar Water Heater35 Solar Water Heater components36Solar water heating, or a solar hot water system, uses water heated by the sun’senergy. Solar heating systems are generally composed of solar thermal collectors,along with a fluid system to move the heat from the collector to its point of usage.The system may use electricity for pumping the fluid, and have a reservoir or tankfor heat storage and subsequent use. Since twenty to thirty percent of a home’stypical energy use is to heat water, a solar hot water system saves a proportionateamount both in displacing fossil fuel use and lowering monthly bills.DaylightingSkylights are horizontal domes or Allowing the sun to provide ambient lightrooftop windows37 for rooms can be done with skylights.3834­content/uploads/2009/10/solar-­water-­heater-­rooftop.jpg36 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 20
  21. 21. Rather than blocking off a building from its environment and then creating an off-­setting artificial interior lighting environment, daylighting allows an interactionbetween the two.Although most beneficial in large hotels and buildings found on more populousislands such as O`ahu and Maui, daylighting is a simple mechanism that can beappropriate for large as well as small structures.Solar Shelf Solar Tube Solar Light BulbLight shelves39 placed below Solar Tubes capture dispersed Solar tubeswindows can be used to reflect sunlight and through reflective generatesunlight upward to illuminate the material within the tube, diffuse light.41ceiling, creating general transfers that light intoillumination. rooms.40Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC)SWAC Diagram42 SWAC System4339­img/light_shelves.jpg40­tube/41 http://www.zulenet.com43­investors-­fund-­us-­10-­75-­m-­for-­honolulu-­seawater-­air-­conditioning.jpg Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 21
  22. 22. Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC) is a great energy-­efficient system. It involvestwo pipes, a U-­shaped ocean-­water pipe and a circular fresh-­water pipe, whichmeet at a heat exchanger. The water in each pipe does not cross into the otherpipe, rather the heat moves from the fresh-­water pipe to the ocean-­water pipe. Theocean water pipe pulls cold water from the lower depths and discharges warmerwater into a warmer layer of the ocean.The fresh-­water pipe brings cool water into buildings, where heat exchangers pullheat out of internal pipes within individual buildings. This alleviates the need forexpensive chillers to be located within each building, where forty percent of thecommercial load is for cooling.“Air conditioning systems are energy intensive and represent 35% to 45% ofenergy use in typical office and hotel buildings in Hawaii. ...SWAC is suitable forcoastal developments with large air conditioning demand and reasonable access todeep, cold seawater. Notable areas are southern Kauai, several areas of Oahu, andthe southern 60% or more of the Big Island. A number of studies have beenconducted to evaluate the potential of SWAC in Hawaii, and there is an operatingsystem at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority (NELHA) at KeaholePoint, Hawaii. These studies all show that there is significant potential for SWAC inHawaii. More recent studies show that combining SWAC with thermal energystorage and auxiliary chillers increases the cost effectiveness and applicability ofsuch systems. ...SWAC systems eliminate the need for cooling towers and, as aresult, reduce potable water use, toxic chemical use, and the production ofsewage.”44Cornell University studied this approach in a multi-­year environmental review,which was examined in depth by environmentalists and university researchers. TheUniversity found that the total yearly heat added, via pipe, to a lake located sixmiles from campus was equivalent to one hour of summer sunshine upon the lake’ssurface. That is, over the course of the year, the sun accounted for 99.9% of theheat entering the lake, less than one tenth of one percent would have been addedas a result of the SWAC system. The SWAC system at Cornell, as well as one inToronto, were installed by a Hawai`i company, Makai Ocean Engineering.Deep-­water air-­conditioning is appropriate for major cities located near the oceanor near deep lakes, as it has the advantages of low cost, and great savings on bothenergy and air conditioning chemicals. Utilizing the systems described above, deep-­water air-­conditioning is suitable for large, midsize and small communities, as wellas universities, hospitals or hotel resorts.Does pursuing Energy Efficiency create a Conflict of Interest for the utility?44 Testimony of Dr. David Rezachek in Hawai`i PUC Docket 2005-­145 re: Sea Water Air Conditioning.­2009-­plant/Rezachek.pdf Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 22
  23. 23. There is an inherent conflict of competing interests for a utility, designed tomaximize its profits by selling more electricity, if it is at the same time being paidwith ratepayer money to help customers reduce their energy bills through theinstallation of energy efficiency devices.Because of this conflict, the Hawai`i PUC removed energy efficiency programs fromHECO, MECO and HELCO control and assigned oversight of the programs to anindependent company.To further confuse a confused playing field, the utility nonetheless collects moneyfrom ratepayers through each monthly bill, and then transfers the money toanother entity that monitors the energy efficiency program. Currently ScienceApplications International Corporation administers “Hawaii Energy”, the ratepayer-­funded conservation and efficiency program, under a contract with the PUC.45The mission of Hawaii Energy is “to educate, encourage and incentivize theratepayers of Hawaii to invest in conservation behaviors and efficiency measures toreduce Hawaiis dependence on imported fuels.”46Residential incentives offered by Hawaii Energy include “solar water heating, highefficiency water heaters, heat pumps, compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), central airconditioning (AC) maintenance, ENERGY STAR® appliances, bounty program, wholehouse and solar attic fans.”47Hawaii Energy also provides commercial incentives for lighting, pumps, motors, airconditioners, window films, energy studies and sub-­metering (allowing a landlord,condominium or homeowner’s association with one meter to bill tenants and lesseesfor individually measured utility usage).48Sustainable SaundersSecond to only the military, the University of Hawai`i, Manoa campus, is the largestconsumer of electricity in the state.49 In the late 1990s the entire university systemwas connected to the HECO grid with only one meter, making it impossible for theUniversity to know which buildings on campus were wasting energy.In 2006 a group of students, led by dynamic coordinator Shanah Trevenna, formeda group called Help Us Bridge (HUB).50 In 2007 HUB surveyed the majority of theoccupants of Saunders Hall regarding their energy use and found that “90% of thebuilding’s energy was used for lighting and air conditioning, while the top two45­us;; Email:;;;; Facebook:;; Twitter: @MyHawaiiEnergy46­us47­us48 Id.49 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 23
  24. 24. complaints by residents were that the lights were too bright and the temperaturetoo cold.”51In an effort to make energy savings exciting, Trevenna wanted to have each floorcompete against one another, with part of the savings going to the winning floor,part to the building as a whole, and part to the university. At first the UniversityAdministration balked at creating financial arrangements, but then the energy pricespike of 2008 hit and the University’s HECO bill rose from $15M to $21M in a year.After Trevenna was able to get a local vendor to donate a micro wind system and asolar panel for installation on the roof of Saunders Hall, the University quicklyadopted an energy strategy,52 statistics were gathered on buildings that wastedenergy,53 and over 500 megawatt-­hours of savings was documented for particularprograms: AC Shutdown Project (411 MWh saved), Incandescent Bulb Elimination(42 MWh saved), and Delamping Project (107 MWh saved).In 2010 the Saunders Hall floor competition started: “For the first time, areducing energy consumption.”54 Saunders Hall’s annual energy bill has beenreduced by $150,000.55 Part of the savings was given to the department as areward.Maximum Achievable Potential Efficiency Savings56Building Type Potential SavingsResidential New Construction 36%Residential Retrofit 34%Commercial New Construction 30%Commercial Retrofit 19%51­Tipping%20Point%20Summary%20of%20sustainable%20saunders.pdf52­cap.pdf53­money-­to-­stay-­uncomfortable/;; See also: NREL/SR-­ 7A40-­52442, p. 8: “Maximum Achievable Potential Efficiency Case” as described inAssessment of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Potential, a 2004 report prepared by GlobalEnergy Partners for HECO. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 24
  25. 25. Hawai`i Energy Efficiency PenetrationHawaii Electricity Consumption: Total and Per Capita57HECO collected ratepayer money to finance energy efficiency programs from 1996-­2009. Thereafter HECO continued to collect, but the funds are spent by HawaiiEnergy, the independent energy efficiency utility noted earlier that is under contractwith the Hawai`i PUC.According to Hawaii Energy’s Annual Plan (2011),58 the penetration, or level ofachieved energy efficiency, has underperformed for two key reasons. First,consumer confidence has dropped significantly since the 2008 economic recession,which is reflected in a lack of willingness by consumers to participate in energyefficiency programs, such a purchasing new appliances. Second, in the early years57 DBEDT: Status and Progress of Clean Energy Initiatives and Analysis of the EnvironmentalResponse, Energy and Food Security Tax Report (January 3, 2012), Pursuant to Act 73, Session Lawsof Hawaii 2010.­reports/2012-­clean-­energy-­initiative.pdf58­07-­05v4FINAL.pdf Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 25
  26. 26. (1996-­2005) the consumers who were considered the easiest to reach wereenrolled in the program. Now the target is hard-­to-­reach (HTR) customers,including renters and small businesses. Thus, the program is seeing diminishedenergy savings returns for each incentive dollar invested.Efforts to reduce residential demand focus on two key areas: Solar Water Heaters(SWH) on residential roofs and Compact Florescent Lights (CFL). CFL’s account forapproximately 50% of total savings.Hawaii Energy’s 2011 Plan also notes that the energy efficiency implementationprogram is experiencing uneven penetration among the islands. Energy efficiency penetration (2009)59 Island Percent Oahu 9.3 Maui 9.3 Kauai 7.1 Big Island 6.2 Average 8.8A June 2012 report by the American Council for an Energy-­Efficient Economy(ACEEE) looks at large-­scale energy efficiencies.The report “A Defining Framework for Intelligent Efficiency”60 notes that about 22%of the U.S. energy consumption could be avoided by using "intelligent efficiency."This requires continuing the installation of individual energy efficiency devices, butalso going the next step, by looking at the efficiency of large complex systems suchas “entire cities, transportation systems, and other networks.” The energy savingsand productivity gains would add hundreds of billions of dollars to the economy.59 DBEDT Renewable Energy in Hawaii (June 2011).­studies/2011-­renewable-­energy.pdf60 Written y Neal Elliott, Maggie Molina and Dan Trombley, American Council for an Energy-­EfficientEconomy (ACEEE). Report Number E125 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 26
  27. 27. CHAPTER 4. CONTINUOUS ENERGY RESOURCESContinuous (baseload) or “firm” energy resources are available all of the time -­ theycan operate a system “24/7.” This is critical in Hawai`i since the peak loadoccurs after sunset.61 Baseload energy can also be used to firm up intermittentloads.Fossil FuelsThere are three types of fossil fuels: coal, petroleum oil and natural gas.Coal Delivery & Storage System at the AES 180 MW Coal Plant, Kalaeloa, O`ahu(Photo by author)Crude natural gas, often just called “gas,” exists in large underground deposits.Natural gas can be refined into various products including natural gas/methane(CH4), carbon dioxide, water vapor, and various other hydrocarbons.61 Conversation with Jim Lazar, a Senior Advisory to the Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP) Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 27
  28. 28. The cleanest of these “dirty” fuels is natural gas (CH4). It is the cleanest in termsof both its extraction and its use. Hawai`i relies on the “dirtier” types of fossilfuels, namely coal and oil.Natural gas and petroleum fuels provides an effective way to maintain steadyelectricity load (supply). That is, the output of gas turbines can change rapidly tooffset fluctuations in the electricity produced by intermittent renewable energy(solar and wind) generators.In 2004 the Hawaii Energy Policy Forum released a report on liquefied natural gas(LNG) that identified some of the complexities and issues surrounding its use inHawai`i:“LNG is natural gas that has been cooled to -­256 °F, at which point it liquefies andoccupies 1/600th the volume that it does in its gaseous state. LNG is notpressurized or flammable in its liquefied state. ...In recent years, [] the LNG market has undergone a dramatic transformation.Production costs have declined and the large number of new supply projects hastransformed the LNG market into a buyer’s market, where buyers have much moreflexibility in contract terms and prices are significantly lower. Of course, a change ofthis magnitude is likely to be disruptive to the existing energy infrastructure, butLNG clearly deserves a close look as Hawaii considers its future energy strategy. ...Looking forward to 2020, using LNG instead of maintaining current fuel planswould reduce the global warming potential of Oahu power generation byapproximately 25 percent[]. It should be noted, however, that LNG production andtransport consumes more energy than oil production and transport, so the truereduction is closer to 15 percent when the entire production chain is taken intoaccount.If Hawaii was developing its energy infrastructure from scratch, LNG wouldlikely be the ideal fuel, especially given the available options. It would allow theState to limit its dependence on oil, it is clean burning, and it could serve as auseful ‘bridge’ fuel ...Liquefied natural gas (LNG) consists almost entirely of methane, and it is thecleanest burning of all fossil fuels. The main byproducts of combustion of naturalgas are carbon dioxide and water vapor. At the other end of the spectrum, coal andfuel oil both emit relatively high quantities of pollutants, including nitrogen oxides(NOx) and sulfur dioxides (SO2). Combustion of these fuels may also releaseparticulate matter into the environment.” 6262 “On Evaluating Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Options for the State of Hawaii” (Final Report, January2004) Prepared by Dr. Fereidun Fesharaki (Principal Investigator);; Dr. Jeff Brown (ProjectCoordinator);; Mr. Shahriar Fesharaki;; Ms. Tomoko Hosoe;; Mr. Jon Shimabukuro, for the HawaiiEnergy Policy Project University of Hawai‘i at Manoa. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 28
  29. 29. Emission Levels from Combustion of Various Fossil Fuels (pounds per billion BTU of energy input) Pollutant Natural Gas Oil Coal Carbon Dioxide 117,000 164,000 208,000 Carbon Monoxide 40 33 208 Nitrogen Oxides 92 448 457 Sulfur Dioxide 1 1,122 2,591 Particulates 7 84 2,744 Mercury 0 0.007 0.016In 2007, the Energy Policy Forum released a second report:63“There is a large amount of “stranded” gas in the Asia-­Pacific region which couldsupply Hawaii, including domestic gas from Alaska. If Hawaii chooses to sign along-­term contract, it is essentially claiming proven gas reserves for its own use for20-­30 years, which is the typical time frame for a long-­term contract.”Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) offers another option for importing and usingNatural Gas within Hawai`i. However, for a given unit of energy, CNG takes upmore storage space than gasoline. Therefore it is not often used in long-­rangetransportation.Fuel Cells powered by Natural GasFuel cells powered by natural gas can be used to stabilize fluctuations in powergeneration by intermittent energy sources, and to provide additional baseloadpower.Fuel cells are now available to the public. Cutting edge technology is being rolledout by companies such as Clear Edge Power, United Technologies, and BloomEnergy, as new natural gas reserves are being discovered.64“Bloom Energy, a Silicon Valley based start-­up has created quite a stir in the energyindustry. It is about to launch its Bloom Box -­ a fuel cell-­based energy technologywhich will generate relatively affordable and clean energy. Top companies likeGoogle, eBay, Lockheed Martin, WalMart, and Bank of America are already testingthe device.”6563 Evaluating Natural Gas Import Options for the State of Hawaii (April 2007) Prepared for The HawaiiEnergy Policy Forum, The Hawaii Natural Energy Institute & The Office of Hawaiian Affairs by FACTSInc. Honolulu, Hawaii https://www.eere-­­Evaluating_Natural_Gas_Import_Options_for_Hawaii-­Revised.pdf64­cells65­box-­disruptive-­energy-­device-­by.html Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 29
  30. 30. Bloom Energy Servers are about as tall as an adult and can use virtually anyhydrocarbon fuel. Bloom Energy will revolutionize the power generation industry bycutting out the middle-­man (the grid).66The Gas Company has a gas grid in urban Honolulu, smaller grids in other urbanareas around the state, and a fleet of gas trucks to bring gas to individualcustomers. A similar infrastructure might be needed for Natural Gas.Natural Gas ImpactsThe use of Natural Gas, like all other energy options -­ both renewable and non-­renewable -­ has positive and negative economic, environmental, social, cultural andclimate impacts.For example, “fracking” or hydraulic fracturing, is increasingly used to extractNatural Gas. This involves sending pressurized water and chemicals into a bore holeto break up rocks, a technique that can contaminate a water table and causeearthquakes. Some natural gas extraction sites recover gas without fracking.Spending money on creating a Natural Gas infrastructure means not spending thatmoney on something else (avoided cost). The danger is that once Natural Gas isdesignated as a “bridging technology” and society learns to rely on its use as partof the energy solution, then it may become more difficult to consider otheralternatives.The Jones Act (Section 27 of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 that regulatesmaritime commerce) might prevent Hawai`i from being able to import natural gasat a reasonable price. The Jones Act requires that all goods transported by waterbetween American ports be shipped in American built, owned, operated andmanned vessels.On March 13, 2012 Nobel Laureate Joseph Stiglitz67 spoke at UH Manoa on man-­made barriers that restrict lower energy prices in Hawai`i: “There are three thatobviously seem to glare at an outsider as he looks around. One of them is the lackof competition on inter-­island transport [] The second is high electricity prices. []The third distortion that affects Hawaii a great deal is the Jones Act. [] This is thelaw that requires American ships to carry cargo between American ports. [] You66 Joseph Eugene Stiglitz is an American economist and a professor at Columbia University. He is arecipient of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (2001) and the John Bates Clark Medal(1979). He served in the Clinton Administration as the chair of the Presidents Council of EconomicAdvisors (1995 – 1997). At the World Bank, he served as Senior Vice President and Chief Economist(1997 – 2000), in the time when unprecedented protest against international economic organizationsstarted, most prominently with the Seattle WTO meeting of 1999. He was fired by the World Bank forexpressing dissent with its policies. He was a lead author for the Intergovernmental Panel on ClimateChange. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 30
  31. 31. can’t use trans-­shipment. You can’t go from Asia, drop off something in Hawai`i,pick up something in Hawaii and transmit it to the United States. And so it reallyincreases the cost of shipping. So while your advantage is your location, it’s alsoyour disadvantage. It imposes a disproportionate burden on Hawai`i. [] it is anoutrageous restriction on trade in a country that says it believes in free markets.”68Michael Hansen, President Hawaii Shippers Council, noted that, “The kind ofoceangoing ship required to carry natural gas is a highly-­specialized tanker knownas an LNG carrier, which carries the liquefied natural gas (LNG) at very coldtemperatures and at very high pressures. Large scale use of natural gas in Hawaii,such as to fire power plants, would require the use of large oceangoing LNG carriersto bring in the fuel. There are no Jones Act ships available to transport the LNGfrom the contiguous United States or Alaska to Hawaii. No deep draft LNG carrierhas been built in a U.S. shipyard for at least 30 years. [] In the mid-­2000’s, amajor California-­based natural gas distributer, Sempra LNG, investigated buildingJones Act LNG carriers in the U.S. to carry natural gas from Alaska to the U.S. WestCoast. They concluded that the major shipbuilding yards in the U.S. could not buildLNG carriers soon enough to meet their long term resource development schedule,and, if the ships were ever built in a U.S. yard, their capital cost would be so greatas to make the project unworkable. [] Alternatively, there are extensive newnatural gas fields being developed in offshore Western Australia and in Indonesia.[] There is a significant costing issue associated with this supply.”69GeothermalGeothermal70 (earth heat) has been known and used by people around the world forat least 10,000 years in many places, including areas currently known as Russia,Iceland, Hungary, New Zealand, the United States, and Italy. In many placesaround the globe reservoirs of steam and hot water are trapped near the surface inareas of past volcanic activity and are brought to the surface by geysers, steamvents and hot springs. National Parks such as Yellowstone have evolved aroundgeysers that draw millions of visitors annually. Hot Springs, Arkansas is named forspring-­fed geothermal baths.The first use of geothermal power for electricity occurred in Italy in the very earlyyears of the 20th century. Today Iceland receives most of its power fromgeothermal heat and electricity plants.68 (Time: 53:00-­1:04:04).69 “No Natural Gas for Hawaii with the Jones Act,” Hawaii Free Press, April 16, 2012.­Natural-­Gas-­for-­Hawaii-­with-­Jones-­Act-­Ships.aspx70 For additional information, See: Melody Kapilialoha MacKenzie,­1.htm;;;;;; Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 31
  32. 32. The siting of geothermal facilities can have major environmental impacts, as drillingwells can disturb underground geological formations. Open-­cycle geothermalfacilities emit waste gases into the air, while closed-­cycle geothermal facilities re-­inject the waste back into the earth via injection wells, making the extent of anydamage difficult to identify and/or analyze.The operation of closed-­cycle geothermal facilities usually has comparatively lowenvironmental and greenhouse gas impacts.Geothermal heat pump (GHP)technology exploits the nearlyconstant temperature of soil andgroundwater near the Earth’ssurface to provide highly efficientspace heating, space cooling, andwater heating services. Geothermal Heat Pumps71The Massachusetts Institute of Technology conducted an extensive study, releasedin 2006, that explored the future impacts of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)on the United States in the 21st Century.72 The study concluded that by almost anymeasure, “the accessible U.S. EGS resource base is enormous – greater than 13million quads or 130,000 times the current annual consumption of primary energyin the United States.”73 The study focused only on what exists within the top 10kilometers, while recognizing that drill bits today can dig down 30 kilometers.Geothermal ImpactsHistorically, the major impact from using open cycle geothermal is the emission ofwaste stream into the air. A potential, and major, impact today is the effort bygeothermal proponents to secure exemptions from the environmental reviewprocess and public notification requirements;; this is currently stirring up the “pot”of community resentment.71 http://home-­heating-­­heating-­system-­accessories-­1.jpg72 Id., pages 1-­15. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 32
  33. 33. Ocean Thermal Energy ConversionOTEC can be thought of as a reverse refrigerator. While refrigerators use electricityto create temperature differentials, OTEC systems use temperature differentials tocreate electricity. Both can use the same working fluid located within a closed semi-­circular piping system. Ocean Thermal Resources74Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems create usable energy throughthe differential in temperature between two ocean layers. Large temperaturedifferentials between layers of the ocean occur in the tropics in areas withoutcontinental shelves. There are only a few hundred sites around the world wherethere are sharp differences in temperature layers close to the coastline and nearelectric transmission grids. Most of these are islands, including Hawai`i.Professor Gerard Nihous, Department of Ocean and Resources Engineering, HawaiiNational Marine Renewable Energy Center, has estimated that 50,000 MW of OTECcan be installed worldwide without disturbing the ocean’s dynamic energy system. 7574 A Preliminary Assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Resources.­projects/otec-­thermal-­resource/See also­content/uploads/2010/01/Updated-­Extractable-­Ocean-­Thermal-­Resources-­2007.pdf Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 33
  34. 34. Closed Cycle OTEC7676 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 34
  35. 35. Concentrated Solar PowerAlthough usually considered an intermittent source of power, Concentrated SolarPower (CSP) systems can store heat and produce electricity hours after the sun hasset, making it a source of “firm” power. CSP systems are built using aluminum andglass, but not silicon, which is sometimes scarce and costly. Unlike the moretraditional flat photovoltaic panels, CSP systems use a parabolic mirror to capturethe rays of the sun and focus it on a pipe, heating its liquid contents into a gas tofire a gas turbine. One negative impact of using thermal storage is the amount ofwater needed for cooling purposes.The first commercial CSP plants were built in California in the mid to late 1980s.CSP dropped out of the picture as fossil fuel prices fell, but in the 21 st centuryrenewed interest has developed in Europe and the U.S.“CSP is being widely commercialized and the CSP market has seen about 740 MWof generating capacity added between 2007 and the end of 2010. [] A further 1.5GW of parabolic-­trough and power-­tower plants were under construction in the US,and contracts signed for at least another 6.2 GW. [] The global market has beendominated by parabolic-­trough plants, which account for 90 percent of CSPplants.”77Torresol Energy’s Gemasolar, located in Fuentes de Andalucia, Seville, Spain, is theworld’s first solar power plant that runs an uninterrupted 24 hours. It has amaximum output of 19.9 MW, and has 15 hours of thermal energy storage.Continued research, development, and commercialization of CSP systems may leadto a point at which CSP units can prove to be a cost-­effective replacement forNatural Gas.78Luz CSP Facility, California79 Gemasolar CSP Facility, Spain8077 International Energy Agency (IEA) Technology Roadmap Concentrating Solar Power (2010) Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 35
  36. 36. Micro-­CSPSOPOGY (SOlar POwer enerGY), a Honolulu-­based company founded in 2002,focuses on building small-­scale concentrated solar power systems. Sopogy offersrooftop CSP, with a trough that flips over to protect itself from adverse weatherconditions. The SopoHelios measures twelve by seven feet and weighs 168pounds.81 The system can be ground or roof-­mounted.The amount of electricity and thermal energy storage that can be produced on eachroof is highly dependent upon the available flat roof space and the strength of theroof. SopoHelios8279 This line-­concentrator power plant, with troughs built by Luz, is one of nine plants that have acombined output of 354 megawatts -­ the largest being 80 megawatts -­ operated by Kramer JunctionPower. It is located in the Mojave Desert in Kramer Junction, California, and was built in the 1980s.During operation, oil in the receiver tubes collects the concentrated solar energy as heat and ispumped to a power block located at the power plant for generating electricity.80­cw4e8863a4e96cd/gemasolar-­2011-­12.JPG81­sh-­111012.pdf82 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 36
  37. 37. CSP technology families83 Line Focus Collectors track the Point Focus Collectors track sun along a single axis. the sun along two axes and focus the solar energy at a single point receiver.Stationary Linear Fresnel Reflectors84 Towers85devicesare simpler toinstall andmaintainMobile Parabolic Troughs86 Parabolic Dishes87receivers andfocusingdevices moveto follow thesun.According to "Sustainable and Sensible Energy" by FRMethods (2011),“Hawaii’s abundant sunshine and the storage capabilities of Concentrated SolarPower (CSP) allow for a power source that behaves very close to a baseload (firm,not intermittent) power. [] The flexibility in design of a CSP system allows for afraction of the land use when compared with wind, and its application doesn’tirreparably damage the integrity of the land.Clean: Concentrated Solar Power is 100% renewable and emission free. Proven:Commercially used for over 25 years. Reliable: Abundant sunshine and storage83 International Energy Agency (IEA) Technology Roadmap Concentrating Solar Power (2010)­solartwo_barstow_2000_low.jpg86­content/uploads/skytrough1.jpg87­content/uploads/2D-­parabolic-­dish-­solar-­thermal-­plant1.jpg Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 37
  38. 38. allows technology to behave like baseload power. Footprint: Land use is 1/8th ofwhat is required for wind.”HydropowerThe most common forms of hydropower are Pumped Storage Hydro (PSH) and run-­of-­the-­stream / in-­line hydro (in which part of the stream is diverted into a pipewith a turbine at the downward end just before the water re-­enters the stream). In-­line hydro can be used anywhere there is water flowing through a pipe, includingstorm water pipes, sewage pipes, and drinking water pipes.In the early decades of the 20th century hydropower provided almost half of theelectricity produced in the U.S. Since then hydropower production has increased,while at the same time there has been an explosion in the use of oil, coal, naturalgas and nuclear power. Today hydropower accounts for 10% of the nation’s energyproduction.Commercial hydroelectric plants are based on two major technologies: reactionturbines (submerged wheels) and impulse turbines (surface buckets or blades).88The major advantage of hydroelectric power is its ability to quickly respond tochanges in load and to electric grid disturbances. Puueo Hydroelectric Plant, Hilo89The amount of electricity that can be generated by a hydroelectric plant is relatedto the height of the impounded water and the flow (volume) of water. (Photo byauthor)88 Photo by author. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 38
  39. 39. Water System Power PlantsStrange as it might sound, water in existing pipe systems can be converted intobaseload renewable electricity. As noted above, existing drinking water, wastewater and irrigation water systems can generate electricity without significantlyaffecting their operational characteristics,90 although there may be some minorimpacts for storm water and sewage water systems, and water accumulation andcontaminants must be analyzed.91In-­stream “Pressure Reduction” Turbine Power Plants convert excess pressure intoelectricity. They are common in Europe,92 and some exist within the U.S.93In-­stream “Water Flow” Turbine Power Plants can also convert water flows intoelectricity. Discarded water from toilets, sinks and showers, can hit turbine bladesas it falls down the pipes, powering a generator.94 Water flows as low as two gallonsper minute or drops as low as two feet can produce net electricity.All hydropower facilities in the U.S. are under the jurisdiction of the Federal EnergyRegulatory Commission (FERC). However, small (< 15 MW) hydropower systemsutilizing existing water pipes are exempt from federal oversight.The Honolulu Board of Water Supply (BWS) is the municipal water utility on O`ahu.The BWS system consists of ninety-­four active potable water sources, 170reservoirs, and over 2,000 miles of pipeline. The BWS system delivers 150 milliongallons of potable water a day to customers. It also operates a smaller, 7.5 milliongallons per day, recycled water system for irrigation and industrial purposes inEwa.95The Hawai‘i Island Department of Water Supply (DWS) operates twenty-­four watersystems from sixty-­seven sources. Except in South Hilo and Kona, the individualwater systems are not interconnected.9690 Drinking water hydropower systems require the use of stainless steel equipment and mineral oil asthe lubricant.91 Micropower Pros and Cons: http://www.alternative-­energy-­­hydro-­power-­pros-­and-­cons/;; Energy recovery in existing infrastructures with small hydropower plants: Multipurposeschemes – Overview and examples. European Small Hydropower Association (ESHA).;; Energy Systems and Design Ltd.:­content/uploads/2011/08/LH1000-­Manual2010.pdf92;; Utah:­prepares-­to-­tap-­water-­line-­hydro-­power.html;; Portland:­pipe-­hydropower-­deal-­for-­portland/94­Integration_of_small_hydro_turbines_into_existing_water_infrastructures.pdf;; HyDro Power: TurningToilet Wastewater Into Electricity by Maria Popova (2010). BWS Annual Report (2010 – 2011) pp. 1, 4.­%202011%20BWS%20Annual%20Report_PHOTOS.pdf96 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 39
  40. 40. The Maui Department of Water Supply (DWS) provides potable water in five areas:Central Maui, Upcountry Maui, West Maui, East Maui, and Moloka`i.97There are several potable drinking water systems on Moloka`i: the Maui CountyDepartment of Water Supply (DWS) in eastern Moloka`i;; the State Department ofHawaiian Home Lands (DHHL), and the Hawaii Department of Agriculture (DOA).98Molokai Ranch/Moloka`i Properties Limited (MPL) operates three PUC-­licensedwater companies in western Moloka`i: Waiola O Moloka`i, Moloka`i Public UtilitiesInc. (MPU), and Mosco.99The Lana`i Department of Water Supply (DWS) is a privately-­owned water utility,regulated by the PUC.100This is a potential and largely untapped hydro-­power-­generating resource withinHawai`i.BiofuelsWhile there are numerous types of renewable energy than can create electricity,there are only a few options for transportation.Ground transportation can be powered by gasoline, biofuel, hydrogen or electricity.Air transportation can be powered by jet fuel (fossil fuel) or biofuel. Marinetransportation can be powered by coal, oil, nuclear and biofuel. In the short termbiofuels should be used for all transportation needs. In the longer term electricitycan replace biofuels for ground and marine transportation, reserving biofuels foraviation.Using waste oil, such as used french-­fry grease, to generate biodiesel, is aneffective way of reusing a waste product. Having small fields of sustainably growncrops to produce biodiesel for limited local use is also an alternative to traditionalfossil fuel use. Both methods can produce small amounts of biodiesel that can beused in heavy machinery and heavy industrial transportation vehicles. Ideally, thecrops grown should be able to survive without irrigation (a major source of energyuse) and not grown with fossil fuel-­based fertilizers and pesticides;; nitrogenfertilizers are a very potent greenhouse gas.The leading biofuel producer in Hawai`i is Pacific Biodiesel. In 1996 PacificBiodiesel started operating the first modern commercial biodiesel plant in theUnited States. Pacific Biodiesel started by re-­using waste material at the centralMaui landfill. The company then began creating sustainable biodiesel facilities thatworked hand-­in-­hand with local farmers and local investors.97;; State agency bars plan to shut down Molokai utilities By Edwin Tanji, The Maui News. (June 7,2008): Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 40
  41. 41. Pacific Biodiesel’s newest facility is located in Keaau, on Hawai`i Island, has acapacity of 8,000 gallons per day and will utilize zero-­waste, super-­efficientprocessing technology. Pacific Biodiesel has recently been reorganized, and is nowcalled Pacific Biodiesel Technologies. The company currently manages biodieselplants in Hawaii, Oregon and Texas.Pacific Biodiesel believes that “a small environmental footprint is an essential aspectof a sustainable biodiesel facility.101 Pacific Biodiesel facilities “are designed to bethe most flexible in the industry, accepting multiple feedstocks, and providingmaximum scalability ... [and use] advanced waterless technologies.”102In 2006 Pacific Biodiesel’s co-­founder Kelly King, along with activist Annie Nelsonand actress/film maker Daryl Hannah, founded the Sustainable Biodiesel Alliance(SBA).103The Gas Company104 is developing a biofuel pilot plant in West O`ahu to produceone million gallons a year of renewable fuel from fish oil.105Crop Conversions106Crop Gallons/AcreAlgae 1500-­3000Palm Oil 500Coconut 230Soy 60-­100Sunflower 80Hemp 26101­content/uploads/2011/12/Renewable-­fuel-­project-­uses-­fish-­oil-­to-­make-­natural-­gas-­Hawaii-­News-­Honolulu-­Star-­Advertiser.pdf106 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 41
  42. 42. CHAPTER 5. VARIABLE ENERGY RESOURCESUnlike firm baseload power, variable (intermittent) resources are available some ofthe time but not all of the time. When they are available, over the course of a dayor year, the resource fluctuates in output from zero to its maximum.Ocean Wave EnergyWave Energy Systems should not be confused with waves crashing down alongreefs and the coastline. Rather, they get their energy from the wave action ofwater rising and falling in the open ocean. Waves are generally far more predictableand consistent than wind, or even sun, which can be blocked by clouds. Thus waveenergy systems are one of the most baseload or firm of the variable (intermittent)energy systems. A full scale wave energy system was built and tested off the coastof Australia in 2010 (although a powerful storm subsequently destroyed the unit).The system best-­suited for Hawaii is the Oceanlinx Oscillating Water Column, whichcan generate net energy from a six-­inch ocean swell, has only one moving part,located above the water line, and uses no oils or toxic fluids. The InternationalAcademy of Science chose the Oceanlinx system as one of the Top 10 MostOutstanding Technologies of 2006. In general, the Oceanlinx system has the lowestcost per energy output of any wave energy system. There are plans to deploy asmall Oceanlinx system off the coast of Maui.The Oceanlinx Blow-­Hole (Oscillating Water Column)Wave Energy System107 consists of a compartmentwith water at the bottom and air on top. When awave arrives, the water level rises and air orair/water is forced out of the blowhole. When thewave recedes, air is sucked back into the blowhole.A two-­way turbine spins in the same direction asthe air goes in and out, generating electricity.Oceanlinx and MECO have been in negotiation for years. The utility “talks the talk”on finding alternatives to fossil fuels, but has dragged out the negotiations. In 2009the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, which oversees all hydroelectricfacilities, issued a preliminary permit to Oceanlinx.108Wave Analysis (2012)According to the U.S. Department of Energy (January 27, 2012)109 in Tapping intoWave and Tidal Ocean Power: 15% Water Power by 2030, “The wave and tidalresource assessments, combined with preliminary results from ongoing DOE107 Star Advertiser, Feb 12, 2012.109 Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wace Energy Resource , EPRI TechnicalReport 2011 Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 42
  43. 43. assessments of ocean current, ocean thermal, and hydropower opportunities,indicate that water power can potentially provide 15% of our nation’s electricity by2030. The West Coast, including Alaska and Hawaii, has especially high potential forwave energy development.”110Waves are different in Hawai`i than along the U.S. mainland coastlines, since theHawai`i region experiences a greater variety of orientations and prevailing wavedirections.The total available wave energy resources along the U.S. outer continental shelf (atan offshore depth of 200 meters) is estimated to be 2,640 billion kWh/yr.;; close to130 billion kWh/yr. is located in and around Hawai`i. However, only part of theavailable wave energy is considered to be a recoverable resource (that is, it can becaptured for electricity use). The recoverable resources for the U.S. is about 1,170billion kWh/yr., of which 80 billion kWh/yr. are in Hawaii. This is eight times thestatewide energy demand of 10 billion kWh/yr.Wave Analysis (2004)According to EPRI’s Offshore Wave Power in the US: Environmental Issues(2004),111 “Like any electrical generating facility, a wave power plant will affect theenvironment in which it is installed and operates. [] We conclude that, given propercare in site planning and early dialogue with local stakeholders, offshore wavepower promises to be one of the most environmentally benign electrical generationtechnologies. We recommend that early demonstration and commercial offshorewave power plants include rigorous monitoring of the environmental effects ofplants and similarly rigorous monitoring of a nearby undeveloped site in its naturalstate (before and after controlled impact studies).112In the summer of 2007 HECO hosted several meetings on ocean energy. HECOwrote a Draft Report that rejected ocean energy. The Final Report was re-­written bythe group and included a preface written by LOLs Assistant Executive Director KatBrady. The Ocean Energy Development Guidelines113 (July 2007) were approved byall present except those who represented agencies and weren’t able to adopt aposition within the group.114110 Section 4: Results for Available Wave Energy Resource Table 4-­4 Hawaii Available Wave EnergyResource by Major Island, p. 4-­3­wave-­and-­tidal-­ocean-­power-­15-­water-­power-­2030111 Principal Investigator: George Hagerman. Contributors: Roger Bedard (EPRI) December 21, The EPRI 2004 Estimate for Hawaii of 300 TWh/yr and the current Estimate for the Outer Shelf of130 TWh/yr are not comparable. EPRIs 2004 estimate for Hawaii was along the northern boundary ofthe U.S. as far west as the Midway Islands. The present estimate extends only as far west as Kauai,and encompassed the entire circumference of the islands (not just their northern exposure).113­energy-­development-­guidelines-­final-­word.pdf114 The members of the group are list in Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 43
  44. 44. Ocean Energy Development Guidelines Preface: E Komo Mai (Welcome), Mahalo for considering Hawai`i as a site for your ocean energy project.As island people we are acutely aware of climate change and its impacts, as well as our responsibility to be good global citizens by reducing our carbon emissions andfootprint. Our people realize that to do this we must aggressively increase our use of local resources, such as our surrounding ocean, to produce energy. Our legislature just passed, and the Governor signed Act 234 – Hawai`i’s first bill regulating greenhouse gases.There are several things about Hawai`i that differentiate us from any other place on the planet. culture -­ Native Hawaiian rights are protected under the Hawai`i State Constitution -­ Our natural resources are protected under the Hawai`i State Constitution -­ All beaches in Hawai`i are public – meaning everyone has equal access -­ All submerged lands are held in trust for the people of Hawai`i -­ Native Hawaiians are the indigenous people of these islands -­ Our two official languages are Hawaiian and English -­ We are the most isolated archipelago on the planet -­ We are the most oil dependent state in the nation A broad cross-­section of our O`ahu community was convened to create a tool to help you better understand our communities, our relationship with the ocean, and the kinds of issues that are of interest to our people relating to ocean energy.We hope that you find our efforts helpful!WindThe sun heats different parts of the earth (water, land, forests, glaciers, cementpavements) at different times (day, night, summer, winter) and at different rates.When warm air rises, colder air moves in. A wind energy system transforms thekinetic energy of the wind’s movement into mechanical power (raising water,grinding grain, pushing a sail) or into electrical power. There are two basic designsof wind electric turbines: vertical-­axis (egg-­beater) style, and the horizontal-­axis(propeller-­style) machines. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 44
  45. 45. Wind power technology has been used for at least thirty-­five centuries. “At the endof the 19th century there were more than 30,000 windmills in Europe, usedprimarily for the milling of grain and water pumping.”115Horizontal and Vertical Wind Shanah Trevenna and the Saunders HallTurbines 116 (University of Hawaii, Manoa) Vertical Axis Wind System donated by Energy Management GroupIn 1991 the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) of the Department of Energy (DOE)estimated that of the wind power resource available in the United States, 9% of thelower forty-­eight states had "good" (class 4) or "excellent" (greater than class 4)wind resources, and the total amount of U.S. land with "excellent" windcharacteristics, with moderate exclusions, is just over one percent of total landarea. This would support approximately 3,500 gigawatts (GW) of wind capacity,with nearly eight megawatts (MW) of rated capacity per square kilometer. Therated (peak) wind capacity of 3,500 GW is about five times the 713 GW of 1999installed conventional utility and non-­utility generating capacity in the UnitedStates.117Installed conventional utility and non-­utility generating capacity in the UnitedStates has nearly doubled since 1991, to about 1200 GW.118The potential wind power resource of the U.S., or what could be developed withoutincurring undue nuisance noise, and adverse impacts to birds, visibility or health, isestimated to be between twice to ten times the entire electricity consumption of theU.S.119115 PNL, August, 1991. Report PNL-­7789;; Id. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 45
  46. 46. The use of only wind energy in conjunction with batteries (storage) could achieveenergy self-­sufficiency for all of our energy needs: i.e., heat, light, electricity andtransportation.Ironically, fossil fuel-­based utilities favor large central station wind systems becausethey require the utility to keep large amounts of spinning reserve or some otherform of energy storage, thereby perpetuating their existence and insuring arevenue stream.That is because utilities using fossil fuel must be ready to “ramp up” to match theload (demand) when there is a sudden drop in available wind supply. HECO isspending $2,400,000,000 ($2.4B) over a period of six years to upgrade itsgenerators, in part to handle wind fluctuations. The percentage of upgrades beingmade specifically to handle intermittent energy resources, out of the total cost, hasnot been publicly identified.Furthermore, these costs are not reflected in the price of purchasing wind fromindependent producers, but rather are hidden in rate cases. Thus ratepayers pay forboth wind and the fossil fuel used when the wind dies down. Utilities can appear tobe “talking the talk” (sounding green) while walking the same old walk: maintainingand enhancing fossil fuel use.HECO’s current plans to modernize its aging 19th century technology structurefocuses primarily, but not exclusively, on generation, transmission and distribution,so that its large scale central station distribution system can be maintained whileintegrating intermittent renewable energy systems into the utility’s grids.This costly upgrade excludes the so-­called “Big Wind” proposal to take 200MW eachof intermittent wind power from the islands of Moloka`i and Lana`i and send it viaa billion-­dollar undersea cable to the load center in O`ahu.Capital Expenditures Budget ($M) (2012-­15)120 HECO HELCO MECOTransmission & Distribution 536 133 145Generation 841 25 52OtherTotal 1,800 300 300Since as noted above, building large industrial wind facilities requires fossil fuelplants to be reconfigured to be able to match wind’s variability, some form of firmrenewable energy or storage will always be required (that is, there will always be120 HECO, MECO and HELCO Application, dated March 31, 2011, for Approval of Issuance of UnsecuredObligations and Guarantee. Docket 2011-­0068. Capital Expenditures Program, (2010-­2015). HECO:pdf page 53, MECO: pdf page 73, HELCO: pdf page 93. Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 46
  47. 47. windy days and still days), these larger facilities will also require greater manpowerand oversight.121Installing smaller wind facilities in different wind regimes may decrease the impactscaused by wind fluctuations. For Hawai`i this implies that small rooftop and stand-­alone wind systems might be more effective than industrial scale facilities: just aswind gains speed as it rises over mountains, so to it gains speed as it rises overbuildings. Small wind systems could be installed on 1,000s of rooftops.Small wind turbines A “Windsave” micro turbine Rooftop wind turbines on aon the roof of an installed on a rooftop in building in Bosnia1 (Veneko/office in London. 122 Scotland.123 Bergey Windpower)124Of course, rooftops could be used for multiple renewable energy systems: solarwater heaters, photovoltaic panels or concentrated solar power, and micro-­wind,thereby maximizing each building’s on-­site generation.The major determinants in the amount of wind energy that can be harnessed arethe average speed of the wind, the consistency of the wind, and the volume sweptby the turbine blades.125121 Whats Keeping Me Up at Night -­ The Political Economy of Wind, Chairman Travis Kavulla, MontanaPublic Service Commission (February 16, 2012). Monthly Essays. National Regulatory ResearchInstitute (NRRI).NRRI was founded by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in 1976.­essays-­detail;;jsessionid=64140F78E5A0DF35FE04CBDF8B32083D?p_p_id=33&p_p_lifecycle=0&p_p_col_id=column-­1&p_p_col_pos=1&p_p_col_count=2&_33_struts_action=%2Fblogs%2Fview_entry&_33_redirect=351516&_33_linkFullViewPage=351516&_33_linkListViewPage=351442&p_r_p_564233524_displayDateFrom=&p_r_p_564233524_displayDateTo=&_33_cur=&_33_entryId=357113122 Renewable Energy World. January / February 2007. http://www.thailand-­ Ibid.124 Ibid.125;; “Thekilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3), A is the swept rotor area in square meters (m2), V is the windspeed in meters per second (m/s) -­-­ gives us the power in the wind, the actual power that we canextract from the wind is significantly less than this figure suggests. The actual power will depend on Life of the Land’s Wayfinding: Navigating Hawai`is Energy Future p. 47