IN REPLY REFER TO:I f~ A ~  ~                                  I                  C ~ C CF     {~ILJLU                    ...
A Public Art Vision Plan for the  Honolulu Rail Transit Project        Art-in-Transit Program                      Novembe...
ART TRAINA Public Art Vision Plan for theHonolulu Rail Transit ProjectArt-in-Transit Program                              ...
ART TRAINTable of ContentsPROJECT OVERVIEW         3PLACE                    4STATIONS                 11ART-IN-TRANSIT PR...
ART TRAINProject OverviewThe City & County of Honolulu, Hawai‘i has thenation’s second highest metropolitan travel timedur...
ART TRAIN                                                           isolated islands. The 1780s and 1790s broughtPlace    ...
ART TRAINAncient Hawai‘i                                                        THE KAPU SYSTEM                           ...
ART TRAIN                                                        VOYAGING CANOES                                          ...
ART TRAIN                                                          Heiau exist throughout the Hawaiian Islands, but their ...
ART TRAINHULAHula is a dance form accompanied by oli (chant) ormele (song). The hula dramatizes or portrays the         TR...
ART TRAIN                                                           TATTOOS                                               ...
ART TRAINStoried LandscapeLAND DIVISIONS                                                         O‘ahu was divided into si...
ART TRAINStations                                                          Kamehameha Stations Design GroupCurrently, the ...
ART TRAINStation Standards                                                           The canopy design is standardized for...
ART TRAINStation CharacteristicsStations Characteristics are divided into threecategories:          Station Type          ...
ART TRAINWest O‘ahu Stations Design Group                                                          O‘ahu ali‘i, favoring ‘...
ART TRAINEast Kapolei Station                                                          Kapolei, now an unincorporated comm...
ART TRAINUH West O‘ahu Station                                                            In the ‘Ewa plains, there exists...
ART TRAINHo‘opili StationStation Type: Side Platform, No ConcourseStation Description: The Ho‘opili Station will besituate...
ART TRAINFarrington Stations Design GroupStationsThe three stations within the Farrington StationsDesign Group are:       ...
ART TRAINWest Loch Station                                                           The site was named for the daughter o...
ART TRAINWaipahu Transit Center StationStation Type: Side Platform with ConcourseStation Description: The Waipahu Transit ...
ART TRAINWaipahu means “bursting water”, which is derivedfrom wai, meaning “water”, and pahū, meaning“burst or gush forth”...
ART TRAINLeeward Community College StationStation Type: Center Platform with Concourse; At-Grade with Sunken PlazaStation ...
ART TRAINKamehameha Stations Design GroupStationsThe three stations within the Kamehameha StationsDesign Group are:       ...
ART TRAINPearl Highlands Station and ParkingStructureStation Type: Side Platform with Concourse                           ...
ART TRAINPearlridge StationStation Type: Side Platform with Concourse                                                     ...
ART TRAINAloha Stadium Station                                                           The boundaries of Leiwalo were Pa...
ART TRAINAirport Stations Design GroupStationsThe three stations in the Airport Station Design Groupare:           Pearl H...
ART TRAINPearl Harbor Naval Base Station                          who slept on the beach at Hālawa.                       ...
ART TRAINHonolulu International Airport Station                                                          In 1951, the word...
ART TRAINLagoon Drive Station                                                               After the battle of Nu‘uanu, K...
ART TRAINDillingham Stations Design GroupStationsThe three stations within the Dillingham StationsDesign Group are:       ...
ART TRAINMiddle Street Transit Center Station                                                         The cave led into th...
ART TRAINKalihi Station                                                          Kāne pushed his staff into the earth, and...
ART TRAINKapālama Station                                                            Once mating was accomplished, they we...
ART TRAINCity Center Stations Design GroupStationsThe three stations within the Center City StationsDesign Group are:     ...
ART TRAIN‘Iwilei   Station                                                           Kamehameha landed at Waikīkī to Wai‘a...
ART TRAINThere are said to be petroglyphs on the west bank ofthe Nu‘uanu stream, as well as on the rocks of asection of la...
ART TRAINChinatown Station                                            During the 19th century laborers were imported from ...
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The Art In Transit Program will decorate each of the 21 stations that make up the proposed Honolulu rail project.

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Art in transit program

  1. 1. IN REPLY REFER TO:I f~ A ~ ~ I C ~ C CF {~ILJLU PECERY~~I1-435O92RHONOLULU AUTHORITY for RAPID ~ p~4~ t L~. Z~ INTERIM EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR AND CEO ~EC2~n~T~r2Hamayasu,P.E. CITY COUUCLI HO~$OLULU~ ~~qQ~flD OF DIRECTORS December 2, 2011 Carrie K.S. Okinaga, Esq. CHAIR Ivan M. Lui-Kwan, Esq. VICE CHAIR Robert Bunda William Buzz” Hong Donald G. Homer Keslie W. K. Hui The Honorable ErnestY. Martin, Chair Damien T. K. Kim and Members Glenn M. Okimoto, Ph.D. David K. Tanoue Honolulu City Council Wayne Y. Yoshioka 530 South King Street, Room 202 Honolulu, Hawaii 96813-3065 Dear Chair Martin and Councilmembers: As requested in City Council Resolution 11~227,he Art in Transit Program is attached. The t established program will identify art opportunities at each of the 21 stations in the rail system, and provide for commissioning of artists for integration of artwork within the station entry structures and platforms. Sincerely, ~(ennethToru interim Executive Director and CEO Attachments cc: HART Board DEPT. COM. 774CITY AND COUNTY OF HONOLULU. AIII Place, Suite 1700, 1099 Alakea Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813Phone: (8O8)76&6159 Fax: (808)768.5110 w~v.honoIulutransit.org
  2. 2. A Public Art Vision Plan for the Honolulu Rail Transit Project Art-in-Transit Program November 2011 Prepared for: Honolulu Authority for Rapid Transportation
  3. 3. ART TRAINA Public Art Vision Plan for theHonolulu Rail Transit ProjectArt-in-Transit Program How to Use This Plan ART TRAIN sets forth a vision for an Art-in-Transit Program for the Honolulu Rail Transit Project (HRTP). In order to fully explain the Art-in-Transit Program vision, the plan includes an overview of the HRTP and the place that is Hawai‘i. A summary of each station along the guideway is included to provide a better understanding of station sites, architectural designs, and station area cultural and historic information. Finally, a vision for an Art-in-Transit program is presented. This vision is specific to place. It seeks to capture the history, culture, poetry and passions of the people of the islands. Sixteen art opportunities are included. These opportunities are considered a palette, and, like the entire plan, visions. An Art Program Manual, which defines the guidelines, policies and procedures for the HRTP’s Art-in-Transit Program, is included as an addendum to ART TRAIN.
  4. 4. ART TRAINTable of ContentsPROJECT OVERVIEW 3PLACE 4STATIONS 11ART-IN-TRANSIT PROGRAM 45 2
  5. 5. ART TRAINProject OverviewThe City & County of Honolulu, Hawai‘i has thenation’s second highest metropolitan travel timeduring peak commute hours, second only to Los thAngeles, and is ranked 4 for highest per-capita useof mass transit in the United States. Currently, thereis no urban rail system in Honolulu. The City andCounty of Honolulu is planning a 20-mile, transit linethat will connect Honolulu with outlying suburbanareas to the west of the city on the southwestern partof O‘ahu. The Honolulu Rail Transit Project (HRTP)will include construction and operation of a gradeseparated fixed guideway transit system betweenEast Kapolei and Ala Moana Center. All parts of theguideway will be elevated, except near LeewardCommunity College. There will be twenty-onestations along the guideway. The primary goals of theHRTP are to improve mobility for travelers, improvetransportation system reliability, provide accessibilityto new development in the ‘Ewa-Kapolei-Makakiloarea in support of the City’s policy to develop this as a“second city,” and improve transportation equity forall travelers. By 2030, about 116,300 trips perweekday are expected, thereby removing anestimated 40,000 vehicles from the roads eachweekday by the year 2030. Public Art will be anintegral component at each of the twenty-onestations. 3
  6. 6. ART TRAIN isolated islands. The 1780s and 1790s broughtPlace chiefdoms and battles for power.In the Hawaiian language, Hawai‘i means“homeland.” Hawai‘i became a state in 1959. It isthe newest of the 50 United States, and the only state Official claim to the land now called Honolulu came inmade up entirely of islands. Hawai‘i is the 1804 when King Kamehameha the Great conquerednortheastern most island group in Polynesia, O‘ahu in the Battle of Nu‘uanu Pali and moved hisoccupying most of an archipelago situated in the royal court from the island of Hawai‘i to Waikīkī. HisPacific Ocean approximately 2,000 miles southwest of court relocated to what is now downtown Honolulu inthe North American “mainland,” southeast of Japan, 1809 and, with the forced cession of the island ofand northeast of Australia. The state encompasses Kaua‘i in 1810, all inhabited islands were subjugatednearly the entire volcanic island chain, which under the house of Kamehameha, a dynasty thatcomprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 ruled the kingdom until 1872. Although the capital ofmiles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the Hawaiian Kingdom moved during the early part ofthe eight islands that make up the State of Hawai‘i the nineteenth century, in 1845 Kamehameha IIIare (from northeast to southeast) Ni‘ihau, Kaua‘i, declared Honolulu the permanent capital. He and theO‘ahu, Moloka‘i, Lāna‘i, Kaho‘olawe, Maui, and kings that followed him transformed Honolulu into aHawai‘i (called the “Big Island” so as not to confuse it modern city. Despite the turbulent history of the latewith the state name). Honolulu is the capital of th th 19 and early 20 centuries such as the overthrow ofHawai‘i. Honolulu means “sheltered bay” or “place of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893, Hawai‘i’sshelter.” subsequent annexation by the United States in 1898, followed by a large fire in 1900 and the JapaneseArtifacts and oral histories indicate that Polynesians attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, Honolulu remainedfrom the Marquesas and possibly the Society Islands the capital, largest city, and main airport and seaportmay have first settled on the islands between 300 and of the Hawaiian Islands. Today, Honolulu is a city of500 CE, followed by a second wave of migration from commerce, technological advancement, and tourism. thRaiatea, Bora Bora and possibly Tahiti in the 11 But despite its contemporary city image, Honolulucentury. The first recorded European contact with remains true to its native history, culture, traditions,the islands was in 1778 by British explorer James and language.Cook. Cook named the islands the “Sandwich Islands” thin honor of his sponsor John Montagu, 4 Earl ofSandwich. He published the islands’ location, wrotebooks about them, and reported the native name asOwyhee. Although Cook was killed trying to abductthe King of the Big Island of Hawai‘i, Kalani‘ōpu‘u, itwasn’t long before Europe’s presence increasedbringing visitors, explorers, traders, whalers,missionaries and, before long, disease to the once- 4
  7. 7. ART TRAINAncient Hawai‘i THE KAPU SYSTEM The social order of ancient Hawai‘i was defined by the kapu system. Strict societal rules prevailed and transgressors paid with their lives. Kapu offenses were considered threats to spiritual power, or theft of mana. Fishing out of season, stepping on a chief’s shadow, and eating bananas or pig, if you were a woman, were considered capital offenses. The ali‘i (royal class) ruled the islands and enforced the kapu system.THE LANDThe ancient Hawaiians felt a strong connection withthe land (‘āina) and its spiritual power (mana). They MYTHS AND LEGENDSbelieved that the forces that caused thunder and The direct relationship to nature was understood andlightning, or created sunshine and rainbows, were the orally transmitted through living, imaginative stories,same elemental forces that allowed them to stand, to myths, and legends. The traditional historywalk, and chant. These godly forces were so presented the world in such a way that values,powerfully alive that they were recognized as beings meaning, and morality were often of greaterand identified with names. The Hawaiians perceived importance than, or at least equal to, the physicala pantheon of gods, goddesses, and demigods as the events being chronicled. These legends imparted thesources of fire, water, and snow, and as dwelling in knowledge that physical objects were the result offish, animals, and plants. Pele (volcano goddess), Kū creative deeds, and that facts were the by-product of(the architect and maker of war), Kāne (the creator), godly activity. For instance, Pele, the volcanoPapa (the earth mother), Lono (god of fertility and goddess, is also credited with bringing the visual artrain), and Kanaloa (ruler of the oceans) are some of of image making to the islands, because of the infinitethe better-known gods and goddesses. possibilities of lava rock structures attributed to her. 5
  8. 8. ART TRAIN VOYAGING CANOES The sophisticated ancient Hawaiian voyaging canoes (wa‘a) consisted of two identical hulls connected by arched cross booms. Lashed on top of the arched cross booms were narrow wooden platforms (decks) called pola. Double-hull voyaging canoes were equipped with a uniquely Hawaiian form of oceanic spirit sail, called a “crab claw”. The sail material
for the crab claw was most often matting made of finelyFISHPONDS plaited lauhala leaves, also called pandanus.Fishing was one of the most important livelihoods ofthe ancient Hawaiians. Besides fishing along therugged shoreline and out at sea in carefullyengineered and crafted voyaging canoes, theydeveloped a very sophisticated aquaculture systemusing loko i‘a (fishponds). The island of O‘ahu hadmore fishponds than any other island because itsirregular coastline. At one time 200 ponds existed onO‘ahu. Ponds were usually built by enclosing anatural inlet or bay with coral or basalt rock walls,and sand or dirt fill. Most ponds were brackish, but HOUSESthere were also inland freshwater fishponds fed by Houses of many different construction types existedstreams or springs. Some of the most common fish in the Hawaiian Islands. Usually a commonerraised were moi (threadfish), ‘ama‘ama (mullet), constructed his house with the help of friends. Whenāholehole (sliver perch), and awa (milkfish), but a chief needed a house, however, his retainersponds were also home to shrimp, crab, and eel. assembled the materials and erected the structureAccording to legend, almost every water source, under the direction of an individual kahuna (priest)including fishponds, were guarded by mo‘o (water expert in the art of erecting a framework andspirits). applying thatch. Every step of the house building process, from the selection of the site to the final dedication, required careful religious supervision. Certain prescribed rules governed the houses location, method of construction, sleeping mat arrangement, and the move-in procedure. Blessings such as long life were expected to result from proper respect of these rules. 6
  9. 9. ART TRAIN Heiau exist throughout the Hawaiian Islands, but their use ceased with the destruction of the kapu (taboo) system in 1819.TAROTaro (kalo), and its sophisticated farming system, wasmore than a dietary staple. At the economic, politicaland spiritual center of Hawaiian agricultural society,the taro plant and its history grew to mythologicalproportions. In tales of taros origins, Taro is thestillborn first child of Wākea, the sky father, and hisdaughter Ho`ohokukalani (daughter to Papa, theearth mother). This child was buried near the houseand grew into a plant they named Hāloanaka, or longstalk trembling. The second son born to Wākea and SURFINGHo`ohokukalani, Hāloa, took human form. From him,the human race descended. The Ancient Hawaiians considered surfing a holistic art. They referred to this art as he‘e nalu, which translates into English as “wave sliding.” Prior to entering the water, the Hawaiians prayed to the gods for protection and strength to undertake the powerful mystifying ocean. If the ocean were tame, frustrated surfers would call upon the kahuna to deliver great surf. The priest would also aid the surfers in undertaking the spiritual ceremony ofTEMPLES constructing a surfboard. Once selected, the surfer would dig the tree out and place fish in the hole as anHeiau (ancient Hawaiian temples) were places of offering to the gods.worship that were central to Hawaiian religiousbeliefs. From the heiau, the kahuna communicatedwith the gods and advised the ali‘i. 7
  10. 10. ART TRAINHULAHula is a dance form accompanied by oli (chant) ormele (song). The hula dramatizes or portrays the TRAILSwords of the oli or mele in a visual dance form. Huladancing is a complex art form, and there are many Ancient trails facilitated trading between upland andhand motions used to represent the words in a song coastal villages, and communications betweenor chant. For example, hand movements can signify districts, ahupua`a (ancient land divisions), andaspects of nature, such as the basic coconut tree extended families. Ancient trails were usually narrow,motions, or a wave in the ocean. following the natural topography of the land, and sometimes paved with smooth, water-worn, steppingstones (`alā or pa`alā). There were strictCHANTING rules, punishable by death, governing access to theOther than petroglyphs, the ancient Hawaiian people precious resources of the mountains and ocean. Trailkept no written records. Other than the petroglyphs use restrictions were according to the laws of thethey knew no written language. Yet they lived with a chief ruling over the particular land division in whichsophisticated hierarchical system of land divisions, a the trail was located. However, the alaloa (long trails)complex classification in ranks from commoner to circumscribing the island, were open to all in times ofhighest chief, and a detailed genealogy. To keep track peace.of this vital knowledge, any transition that might beof importance, either to others or to futuregenerations, had to be memorized and passed on. Toaid with memorizing, a system of verses emergedwhich over the years developed into an ingenious artform. The verses were known as the oli (chants). 8
  11. 11. ART TRAIN TATTOOS The word “tattoo” originates from the Tahitian, ToTooTongan, and the Samoan word, tatau. When the Hawaiians migrated to the Hawaiian Islands, they adapted the name for their body art to kākau. Hawaiian tattoo practices were linked closely with ancient tradition and laws. Tattoos held great spiritual and social significance for ancient Hawaiians. The act of tattooing was highly ritualized and sacred, and only kahuna could apply them. Tattoos had the power to distinguish a persons place in the social hierarchy and to protect him from negative forces,PETROGLYPHS and some tattoos were believed to possess powers of their own.The ancient Hawaiians referred to petroglyphs as ki‘ipōhaku (ki‘i means “image,” and pōhaku means“stone”). Today, petroglyphs are virtually the only LEI MAKINGprehistoric art of the Hawaiian Islands not inmuseums, private collections, or hidden away in The history of lei making in Hawai‘i began with thecaves. Common subjects of Hawaiian petroglyphs are arrival of the Polynesians. Throughout the Southcanoes, paddles & sails, stick figures, supernatural Pacific, Polynesians honored their gods by twiningbeings with horns, bird heads or wings, dogs, turtles, greens into wreaths and adorning their own bodiesand chickens. Fish petroglyphs are rare. Common also with strings of flowers and vines. When they arrivedare cryptic symbols of curving lines, dots, and circles. in Hawai‘i, in addition to the useful plants they brought for food, medicine and building, they also brought ginger (‘awapuhi), a fragrant flower used for decoration and adornment. During the settlement period - roughly 750 AD through the 1300s - lei throughout Polynesia were very similar. Types included temporary fragrant lei such as maile and hala as well as non-perishable lei like lei niho palaoa (whale or walrus bone), lei pūpū (shell) and lei hulu manu (feather). After long ocean voyages ceased and Hawaiians entered a period of cultural isolation (1300s-1778), they developed a richer variety of lei. In a lifestyle that fused ritual and nature with every aspect of daily life, lei were a ubiquitous ornament worn during any type of work activity, celebration or rite, by maka`āinana (commoners) as well as ali`i. 9
  12. 12. ART TRAINStoried LandscapeLAND DIVISIONS O‘ahu was divided into six moku: Wai‘ānae, ‘Ewa,In ancient times, the islands were subdivided, the Kona, Ko‘olaupoko, Ko‘olauloa, and Waialua. Theland was equally divided, and a name given to each in land, or ‘āina, of each ahupua‘a has both shared andorder to identify it. An entire island, or mokupuni, unique histories. The guideway of the HRTP will passwas divided in smaller parts, down to a basic unit through two moku, ‘Ewa and Kona, and twentybelonging to a single family. Each mokupuni was ahupua‘a. To enhance understanding of thedivided into several moku, the largest units within agricultural and land history associated with stationeach island, usually wedge-shaped and running from sites, the moku and ahupua‘a in which each lies isthe mountain crest to shore. Each moku was divided identified and defined within the Stationinto ahupua‘a, narrower wedge-shaped land Characteristics section of this document.sections, that usually included uplands and coastalareas so that nature and people of these regionsmingled, and had access to the diversity of thedifferent climates and resources within their landarea.AHUPUA‘AThe special characteristics of an ahupua‘a defined itswahi pana (spirit of place), sometimes translated as“storied landscape”. The kahuna (priests) acceptedtheir creative skills and abilities to experience thequalitative or “beingness” of nature as an inheritancefrom the ‘aumākua (ancestral spirits) and the Ko‘olau(higher gods). Together with the ali‘i and thecommoners, they showed their gratitude andreverence by presenting offerings at shrines andheiau (temples), and by worshipping before sacredpōhaku (stones) and wooden ki‘i (images). The wordahupua‘a derives from ahu, meaning "heap" or"altar", and pua‘a, meaning “pig”. The boundarymarkers for ahupua‘a were traditionally heaps ofstones used to support offers to island chiefs, whichwere often pigs. According to Hawaiian mythology,Kāne and Kanaloa established each moku andahupua‘a boundary by throwing a stone. 10
  13. 13. ART TRAINStations Kamehameha Stations Design GroupCurrently, the twenty-one stations of the guideway 7. Pearl Highlands Stationare segmented into eight contract packages. Each 8. Pearlridge Center StationStation(s) Design Group has different award, design 9. Aloha Stadium Stationand construction schedules. Design of the initialsegment – Farrington Station(s) Design Group (whichis actually the second segment of the guideway) – Airport Stations Design Groupbegan in February 2011. Design initiation for all othersegments will be staggered. Construction of all 10. Pearl Harbor Naval Base Stationstations is anticipated to be complete the last quarter 11. Honolulu International Airport Stationof 2017 or first quarter of 2018. Station(s) Design 12. Lagoon Drive StationGroups and their respective stations are from ‘Ewa(west) to Diamond Head (east): Dillingham Stations Design Group 13. Middle Street Station 14. Kalihi Station 15. Kapālama Station City Center Stations Design Group 16. ‘Iwilei Station 17. Chinatown Station 18. Downtown Station Kaka‘ako Stations Design GroupWest O‘ahu Stations Design Group 19. Civic Center Station 1. East Kapolei Station 20. Kaka‘ako Station 2. UH West O‘ahu Station 3. Ho‘opili Station Ala Moana Center Station Design GroupFarrington Stations Design Group 21. Ala Moana Center Station 4. West Loch Station 5. Waipahu Transit Center Station 6. Leeward Community College Station 11
  14. 14. ART TRAINStation Standards The canopy design is standardized for allAlthough each station has its own individual character stations providing visual identity for theand design, they share standard design features, transit system. The cantilevered, stretchedamenities and requirements. To shorten and simplify fabric membrane canopy evokes a sail-likeindividual station descriptions, these standards are visual effect.listed below. Station entrance levels may include the Station entrance buildings are either two following amenities: plazas, ticket vending levels (entry, platform) or three levels machines, maps, trash receptacles, fare (entry, concourse, and platform). gates, signage, and support spaces for the maintenance and operation of the station. Most platform configurations have a side Some will have traction power substations. platform configuration (two platforms either side of the elevated guideway). Four Station platform levels will have seating, stations have center platforms. map cases, trash receptacles, and windscreens. Platforms are 240-feet long. Most stations will provide bus drop-off Most stations include entry-level plazas areas, park-and-ride facilities, kiss-and-ride with access via stairways, escalators or and taxi zones, and bicycle racks. elevators to a concourse level. All stations are ADA compliant. Platform level access is via stairways, escalators, or glass elevators. Floors and columns are cast-in-place concrete. Most station entrance buildings have high ceilings that span either two or three levels. All station facilities are designed to be open for view, airflow and sunlight to take advantage of the tropical weather conditions of the island of O‘ahu. Appropriate roof overhang and canopies are provided for inclement weather. 12
  15. 15. ART TRAINStation CharacteristicsStations Characteristics are divided into threecategories: Station Type Station Description Historic and Cultural SignificanceThe “Station Descriptions” contained in thisdocument are subject to change. 13
  16. 16. ART TRAINWest O‘ahu Stations Design Group O‘ahu ali‘i, favoring ‘Ewa’s beautiful, rolling landscape, chose to have their homes there. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, ‘Ewa was one of the largest population centers on the Island, with industry focused on sugar cane production. The ‘Ewa Mill was a major employer that set up residential villages. Sugarcane is no longer grown on the ‘Ewa Plain and the area is now one of O‘ahu’s suburban growth centers.StationsThe three stations within the West O‘ahu StationsDesign Group are: East Kapolei Station UH West O‘ahu Station Ho‘opili StationDistrict (Moku)All three stations in the West O‘ahu Stations DesignGroup are located in the ancient ‘Ewa District. In theHawaiian language, ‘Ewa means “unequal”. It is saidthat when Kāne and Kanaloa were surveying theisland of O‘ahu, they stood atop the Red Hill andlooked down upon the broad plains of what is now‘Ewa. When they saw the beautiful land below them,it was their thought to include as much of the flatlevel land as possible. They hurled the stone as far asthe Wai‘ānae range and it landed somewhere in theWaimānalo section. When they went to find it, theycould not locate the spot where it fell, so ‘Ewabecame known as “the stone that strayed”, or the“unequal” land. ‘Ewa is one of the largest districts onO‘ahu. ‘Ewa is located between Moanalua, Lihue,and Wai‘ānae and surrounds the Pearl River, orharbor. 14
  17. 17. ART TRAINEast Kapolei Station Kapolei, now an unincorporated community, isStation Type: Center Platform with Concourse considered Honolulu’s “second city”. The community takes its name from a volcanic cone, Pu‘u o Kapolei.Station Description: The East Kapolei Station is the In the Hawaiian language, pu‘u means hill and Kapoleiwest terminus of the alignment. The station will be means beloved Kapo. According to legend, Kapo wassituated adjacent and Diamond Head direction of sister to Pele. It is said that there is a noted hill calledNorth-South road. It will be one of four stations Pu‘u o Kapolei, which is one of the most famous ofalong the corridor that has a center platform ancient hills. The chant composed for games in theconfiguration. Station entrance structures are olden days began with the name of this hill and wentlocated on either side of North-South Road. The two on (with place names) all around the island. Theentrance buildings will be connected by an elevated chant was used for those who swung rope, playedpedestrian walkway spanning North-South Road at wooden ‘ūkēkē instruments, or those who juggledthe station concourse level. The site design includes with stones, noni fruit, or kukui nuts.landscaping at the plazas of each entrance building.While the station area is mostly rural today, land useis expected to change significantly in the future andwill include a mix of commercial and residentialdevelopments. These developments will include theUniversity of Hawai‘i West O‘ahu campus to belocated approximately one-half mile from the station.A variety of access modes are anticipated includingwalk, bicycle, local bus, park-and-ride, kiss-and-ride,Handi-van, and taxi zones.Historic and Cultural Significance: The East KapoleiStation site is located in what was once the Honouliuliahupua‘a. In the Hawaiian language, honouliulimeans “blue harbor”. While much of the agricultureof the ‘Ewa Plain at one time consisted of sugarcaneand pineapple fields, and later pumpkin andwatermelon fields, the area surrounding the stationsite is currently a grassy plan with low vegetation andlow brush. In ancient times, the ‘Ewa Plain was adense forest alive with plants, insects, and birds thatare now extinct. 15
  18. 18. ART TRAINUH West O‘ahu Station In the ‘Ewa plains, there exists a legend of two oldStation Type: Side Platform with Concourse women that turned to stone. It is said that if a traveler were to leave the city of gold, Honouliuli, andStation Description: The UH West O‘ahu Station will climb Pu‘u o Kapolei, ‘Ewa would be hidden frombe situated adjacent to North-South Road, next to the view. Down some small inclines, there was a plainKroc Center. Station entrance structures will be called Pūkaua, and, on the mauka side of the road, alocated on either side of North-South Road. The two large rock. According to legend, there were twoentrance buildings will be connected by an elevated peculiar women with strange powers. While theypedestrian walkway spanning North-South Road at were fishing at Kualakai one evening, they caughtthe station concourse level. The site design includes a‘ama crabs and pipi shellfish. As they returned tolandscaping at the plazas of each entrance building. the plain, they met a one-eyed person. They becameThe area is currently agricultural but will undergo frightened and began to run, leap, falling andmajor new development, including the new sprawling, rising up and running on, without thoughtUniversity of Hawai‘i campus and a mixed-use master of the a‘ama crabs and seaweeds that dropped onplan community. The UH West O‘ahu campus will be the way. At daylight one of the women said to thelocated approximately ¼ mile west of the station other, “Let us hide lest people see us,” and so theyentrances. As the land is developed, the street turned into the large rock of Pūkaua plain.network will be expanded. It is anticipated thataccess modes will include walk, bike, bus, kiss-and-ride, taxi, and private shuttle.Historic and Cultural Significance: Like the EastKapolei Station area, the West O‘ahu Station site willbe situated in what was once the Honouliuliahupua‘a. Coral plains, and large terraces filled withtaro plants, bananas and sugarcane grew inHonouliuli. Because of its mesic and wet forests,Honouliuli, through the efforts of the HonouliuliPreserve and The Nature Conservancy, is home toover 90 rare and endangered plant and animalspecies. In ancient times, the ‘Ewa Plain was a denseforest alive with plants, insects, and birds, such as the‘i‘iwi and ō‘ō, many of which are now extinct. 16
  19. 19. ART TRAINHo‘opili StationStation Type: Side Platform, No ConcourseStation Description: The Ho‘opili Station will besituated in the median of a future East-West roadDiamond Head of North-South Road. Stationentrance structures will be located on either side ofthe roadway. The site design includes landscaping atthe plazas of each entrance building. While thestation area is mostly rural today, land use isexpected to change significantly in the future and willinclude a mix of commercial and residentialdevelopments. The combination of mixed-usedevelopment and a pedestrian-friendly streetnetwork will provide maximum opportunities forTransit Oriented Development (TOD) near the station.A variety of access modes are anticipated includingwalk, bike, bus, kiss-and-ride, and Handi-Van.Historic and Cultural Significance: In the Hawaiianlanguage, ho‘opili means coming together. TheHo‘opili Station will serve a new-planned communitythat is envisioned to bring together families andresidents searching for a sustainable and lifestyle-enhanced quality of life. Like the East Kapolei Stationand the UH West O‘ahu Station, the Ho‘opili Stationsite is located in what was once the Honouliuliahupua‘a. The station will be situated adjacent to theplanned conservation site for the endangeredKo‘oloa‘ula, or Red ‘ilima (Abutilon menziesii), andthe species is known to grow in this area. 17
  20. 20. ART TRAINFarrington Stations Design GroupStationsThe three stations within the Farrington StationsDesign Group are: West Loch Station Waipahu Transit Center Station Leeward Community College StationPreliminary design is complete on The FarringtonStations. Representative renderings are included.District (Moku)All three stations are located in the ‘Ewa District ofO‘ahu. 18
  21. 21. ART TRAINWest Loch Station The site was named for the daughter of KonikoniaStation Type: Side Platform with Concourse and his wife Hina‘ai mālama. As legend goes, Kaihuopalaai saw a godly man by the name ofStation Description: The West Loch Station will be Kapapaapuhi standing by the fishpond where thesituated in the Farrington Highway street median at mullet were kept. When she fell in love with him, shethe intersection of Farrington Highway and was changed into the fishpond. West Loch is alsoLeo‘ole/Leoku Streets. At-grade station entrance sometimes remembered as the location of the Weststructures will be located on either side of Farrington Loch Disaster. 163 men were killed, and 396Highway. The two entrance buildings will be wounded, when a naval vessel, being loaded withconnected by an elevated pedestrian walkway ammunition and gas, accidentally exploded on Mayspanning Farrington Highway at the station concourse 21, 1944, sinking not only itself, but also several otherlevel. An off-street transit center, which also includes nearby Landing Ship Tank vessels.landscaping, will be situated on the makai side ofFarrington Highway adjacent to the makai StationEntrance Building. A large plaza, measuringapproximately 64 feet wide by 165 feet long, willwelcome users. The area surrounding the station is amix of commercial and low-density housing.Farrington Highway, a heavily travelled arterial, ischaracterized by strip commercial development andlarge commercial parking lots fronting the street. Avariety of access modes are anticipated with local busbeing most dominant followed by walk/bike, kiss-and-ride, and taxi.Historic and Cultural Significance: The West LochStation will be situated in what was once theHōa‘ea‘e ahupua‘a. In the Hawaiian language,hāa‘ea‘e is “a chant with lengthened vowels”. Thelowlands near West Loch were once filled withterraces where kalo (taro) and Breadfruit grew inabundance. The entire West Loch of Pearl Harborwas once called Kaihuopalaai. 19
  22. 22. ART TRAINWaipahu Transit Center StationStation Type: Side Platform with ConcourseStation Description: The Waipahu Transit CenterStation will be situated in the Farrington Highwaystreet median near Mokoula Street. The design ofthe Waipahu Station is reminiscent of the oldWaipahu Sugar Mill, for which the area is known.Station entry structures and plazas will be located oneither side of Farrington Highway. The entrybuildings will be connected by an elevated pedestrianwalkway spanning Farrington Highway at the stationconcourse level. The mauka entrance will have directaccess to the existing Waipahu (bus) Transit Centeron Hikimoe Street. The makai entrance will beoriented to Farrington Highway. A long linearentrance plaza to the side of the building breaks opento a smaller entry plaza, 55 feet by 45 feet, toencourage pedestrian-oriented redevelopmentconsistent with the vision of the WaipahuNeighborhood Oriented Development Plan. Thestation area is urban with a mix of commercial, lightindustrial and residential land uses. FarringtonHighway is a busy, heavily travelled street. It iscurrently a difficult environment for pedestrians andbicyclists. Buses and Handi-vans will use the existingWaipahu Transit Center. A kiss-and-ride zone isplanned. Historic and Cultural Significance: The place now called Waipahu was originally in the Waikele ahupua‘a. Waipahu was only a small place where a tapa anvil was said to have come out and drifted down the steam. In the flatland where the Kamehameha Highway once crossed the lower valley of Waikele Stream, there were terraces where bananas, beans, and sugarcane grew. 20
  23. 23. ART TRAINWaipahu means “bursting water”, which is derivedfrom wai, meaning “water”, and pahū, meaning“burst or gush forth”. It is said that MadamKa‘ahupāhau (a shark goddess) was known to bathein the fresh water of the gushing spring of Waipahu.Before Western civilization set foot in Hawai‘i, theHawaiians considered Waipahu to be the capital ofO‘ahu. Royalty in the Kingdom of Hawai‘i wouldoften gather to enjoy the fresh water from theWaipahu spring. Waipahu, situated along thenorthern shore of both Pearl Harbor’s Middle Lochand West Loch, was also known as a sugar plantationtown. The O‘ahu Sugar Company opened in 1897.Operations were shut down after the 1995 harvest.The Waipahu plantation stable area was once the siteof the former heiau at Waikele. In about 1650, theHeiau Po‘okanaka, was surprised during templeworship and slain with his priest and attendant chiefsby direction of the mō‘ī of O‘ahu. In 1973, the Cityand County of Honolulu and the State of Hawai‘ipurchased 40 acres opposite the Waipahu sugar millto establish the Waipahu Cultural and Garden Park.Today, the living history museum is known as Hawai‘iPlantation Village. 21
  24. 24. ART TRAINLeeward Community College StationStation Type: Center Platform with Concourse; At-Grade with Sunken PlazaStation Description: The Leeward CommunityCollege (LCC) Station will be the only at-grade station,and one of four stations with a center platformconfiguration. It will be situated at the northern edgeof the Leeward Community College campus. Thesingle station entrance will be situated on the makaiside of Ala‘ike Street near a surface parking lot. Anunderground pedestrian passageway will connect thepartially below-grade entrance structure to thestation platform. The site design includes parking lotredesign, a maintenance vehicle parking area, and alarger than average landscaped area adjacent to thestation. Consideration has been given to planting asalvaged native tree grove in this area. Other landuses in the station area include Waipahu High School Historic and Cultural Significance: The Leewardand single-family housing. Virtually all the demand at Community College Station is located on the easternthe station will involve walk and bicycle access from edge of the Middle Loch of Pearl Harbor in what wasLCC and the surrounding area. A Handi-van zone, and once the ancient ahupua‘a of Waiawa, which meanskiss-and-ride and taxi zones are planned. Facilities for “milkfish water”. Leeward Community College is alocal bus and park-and-ride will not be provided. public, commuter community college. The 49-acre campus also houses the temporary campus of the University of Hawai‘i – West O‘ahu. Fishponds and pineapple fields were once abundant in Waiawa. The area is also known for the Maika Playing Fields, smooth, level-hard packed tracks of ground, where the game, Maika was played. Maika was a game of precision, almost as distinctly Hawaiian as surf riding or sledding. In the game a three-inch diameter and inch and a half thick disc made of stone, called ‘ulu or ‘olohū, was tossed between sticks. 22
  25. 25. ART TRAINKamehameha Stations Design GroupStationsThe three stations within the Kamehameha StationsDesign Group are: Pearl Highlands Station and Parking Structure Pearlridge Station Aloha Stadium StationDistrict (Moku)All three stations are located in the ancient ‘EwaDistrict. 23
  26. 26. ART TRAINPearl Highlands Station and ParkingStructureStation Type: Side Platform with Concourse On the same kahua, or floor, men engaged in another game, which they called Maita or Uru Maita.Station Description: The Pearl Highlands Station and In the game, like in Maika, two sticks were stuck inParking Structure will be located on approximately 21 the ground only a few inches apart, at a distance ofacres between Kamehameha and Farrington thirty or forty yards, and between these, but withoutHighways at the interchange of H-1 and H-2. The striking either, the parties at play strove to throw,Pearl Highlands Station is projected to have the third- rather than roll (as in Maika) their stone. At otherhighest passenger volume of all stations in the system times, the only contention was who could throw orand will serve as the transfer point for all transit users bowl it furthest along the kahua.in central O‘ahu. Waiawa Stream, its associatedfloodway, and steep sloping terrain with large treesand shrub characterize the station site. In order tomitigate construction impact in the area, replantingof riparian and native species is planned. Theelevated guideway near the station has beendesigned to clear the post project 100-yearfloodwater surface level. The station area includesbusy roadways, a mix of light industrial, “big box”retail, and residential buildings. Convenient bridgeconnections will provide safe and easy access fromthe neighborhood and adjacent development. Accessmodes anticipated include bus, park-and-ride, kiss-and-ride, walk, bicycle, taxi, and Handi-Van.Historic and Cultural Significance: The PearlHighlands Station will be, like the LeewardCommunity College Station, located in what was oncethe Waiawa ahupua‘a. The station will serveresidents of Central O‘ahu, specifically Pearl City,Waikele, Crestview, and portions of Waipahu. PearlCity is situated along the northern shore of PearlHarbor, Waiawa was known for its Maika PlayingFields where men engaged in the game of Maika, agame of accuracy, as distinctly Hawaiian as surfing orsledding. 24
  27. 27. ART TRAINPearlridge StationStation Type: Side Platform with Concourse Many photographers took pictures of the battle from the hills in ‘Aiea. Today, ‘Aiea is an important suburbStation Description: The Pearlridge Station will be of Honolulu. The towns sugar history came to a closesituated in the Kamehameha Highway street median in 1996, when C&H Sugar closed the refinery. In 1998,in the ‘Aiea area of Honolulu. Station entrance the 99-year old sugar mill was torn down.structures will be located on both the makai andmauka sides of Kamehameha Highway. An elevatedwalkway will connect the station concourse level toboth entrance structures. The station area is highlyurbanized and includes strip malls, small independentstores, light industrial activities, and medium-riseresidential developments. Pearlridge ShoppingCenter, located within walking distance of the station,is the main commercial activity in the area. On-streetbus stops and a bus transit center are planned for thefuture. Pedestrian and bicycle access will be animportant component of the Pearlridge Station. Thenearby Pearl Harbor bicycle trail is very popular.Bicycle parking will be provided. There will not be apark-and-ride facility or kiss-and-ride and taxi zones.Historic and Cultural Significance: The PearlridgeStation site is located in what was once the ancientahupua‘a of Waimalu. Currently, the station willserve the ‘Aiea area of Honolulu. Waimalu means“sheltered water”. The extensive flats on the EastLoch of Pearl Harbor were formerly terraces irrigatedfrom Waimalu Stream, and Waipi Spring, east of theWaipahu Pond. In the early 1800s, the area’s lowcountry overflowed with sugar and bananaplantations. The many stone, wall-surrounded estatesin the area were graced with fishponds. ‘Aiea hasseveral miles of shoreline on Pearl Harbor. TheDecember 7, 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harborgreatly impacted the area. One damaged ship, theUSS Vestal, beached at ‘Aiea Bay to prevent sinking. 25
  28. 28. ART TRAINAloha Stadium Station The boundaries of Leiwalo were Papakōlea (guardedStation Type: Center Platform, No Concourse by a plover), Koleana (guarded by a big caterpillar), and Napehā (guarded by a lizard).Station Description: The Aloha Stadium Station willbe situated adjacent to Kamehameha Highway nearSalt Lake Boulevard. A station entrance structure willbe located directly below the station platforms. Landuse activities include a major sports facility, AlohaStadium, mauka and ‘Ewa of the station, and thePearl Harbor Visitors Center situated makai andDiamond Head of the station. The station area isdominated by auto-oriented land uses, includingsurface parking lots that serve the Stadium. A mix ofsingle-family housing and apartment buildings arelocated mauka of the station. A park-and-ride lot, off-street bus transit center, and Handi-Van, kiss-and-rideand taxi zones are planned. Due to the wide, busystreets in the area, there will be limited opportunitiesfor convenient pedestrian connections between thestation and surrounding neighborhoods.Historic and Cultural Significance: The AlohaStadium Station site is located in what was once theHālawa ahupua‘a. Hālawa is the eastern-most Located west of downtown Honolulu and two milesahupua‘a of the ‘Ewa District. According to ancient north of Honolulu International Airport, Alohalegend, there was place called Leilano, located at the Stadium was built in 1975 at a cost of $37 million. Itboundary between the ‘Ewa and Kona Districts, was intended as a replacement for the aging Honoluluwhich was said to be the opening (about two feet in Stadium on King Street, demolished in 1976.circumference) through which ghosts of people Currently Aloha Stadium is home to the University ofslipped through to enter eternal light. Through this Hawai‘i Warriors football team. It has also beenopening appeared the supernatural branches of the home to the National Football Leagues Pro Bowl andbreadfruit of Leiwalo. If a ghost who lacked the NCAAs Hula Bowl. Aloha Stadium hosts‘aumākua (ancestral spirits or personal gods) to save numerous high school football games during thehim climbed on a branch of the western side of the season, and serves as a venue for large concerts andbreadfruit tree, the branch withered at once and events. A swap meet in the stadiums parking lotbroke off, thus plunging the ghost down to the pit of every Wednesday, Saturday and Sunday draws largedarkness. crowds. 26
  29. 29. ART TRAINAirport Stations Design GroupStationsThe three stations in the Airport Station Design Groupare: Pearl Harbor Naval Base Station Honolulu International Airport Station Lagoon Drive StationDistrict (Moku)The Pearl Harbor Naval Base Station is located in the‘Ewa District. The Honolulu International Airport andLagoon Drive Stations are located in what was oncethe Kona District. In 1859, the Kona District wasofficially named Honolulu. Its boundaries weredescribed as: “from Maunalua to Moanalua inclusive,to be styled the Honolulu District”. In the RevisedLaws of Hawai‘i 1925 the district is described as:“from Makapu‘u Head in Maunalua to Moanaluainclusive, and the islands not included in any otherdistrict, to be styled the Honolulu District”. 27
  30. 30. ART TRAINPearl Harbor Naval Base Station who slept on the beach at Hālawa. On waking, Kamapua‘a urinated in the sea and that is why the fish of Pu‘uloa have such a strong odor.Station Type: Side Platform with Concourse Kunana Pond was situated at the base of the Hālawa Stream and was once connected with Kūāhua Island.Station Description: The Pearl Harbor Naval Base The name is from the mother of Ka‘ahupahau whoStation will be situated in the Kamehameha Highway often fished there. Her name was Kuanana, child ofstreet median near Radford Drive at the Mākalapa Nana.Gate entrance to the naval base. A station entrancestructure will be situated on the mauka side of theroadway and will include an elevated pedestrianwalkway spanning Kamehameha Highway at thestation concourse level. A large pedestrian plaza willprovide a transition between the street and stationentrance. The Station site plan includes protectingthe site’s existing Banyan, Earpod, and TropicalAlmond trees. The attack on Pearl Harbor by theEmpire of Japan on December 7, 1941, brought theUnited States into World War II. On January 29, 1964,the naval base was recognized as a National HistoricLandmark district. Within its bounds, it containsseveral other National Historic Landmarks associatedwith the attack on Pearl Harbor, including the USSArizona, USS Bowfin, and USS Utah. Due to thedominance of military-owned land, land use in thearea is not expected to change significantly in the Pearl Harbor, a lagoon harbor, was originally anfuture. Walk and bike are anticipated to be the extensive shallow embayment called Wai Momiprimary access modes. Bicycle parking, bus access, meaning “pearl water”, or Pu‘uloa meaning, “longand a Handi-van zone will be provided. There will be hill”. Small pearl oysters and speckled clams wereno park-and-ride facility, or kiss-and-ride and taxi once quite abundant in the waters. In Hawaiianzones. legends, Pu‘uloa was regarded as the home of the shark goddess, Ka‘ahupahau, and her brother (or son), Kahi‘uka. Keaunui, the head of the powerfulHistoric and Cultural Significance: The Pearl Harbor ‘Ewa chiefs, is credited with cutting a navigableNaval Base Station will be located in what was once channel near the Pu‘uloa saltworks, which made thethe Hālawa ahupua‘a, the eastern-most ahupua‘a of estuary, then known as “Pearl River”, accessible forthe ‘Ewa District. The flatlands along the Hālawa the navigation of canoes and larger vessels.Stream were formerly terraces where taro grew.There is a legend about a man named Kamapua‘a, 28
  31. 31. ART TRAINHonolulu International Airport Station In 1951, the word "International" was added to itsStation Type: Side Platform, No Concourse name. Due to the airport’s proximity to the center of the Pacific Ocean, it was historically a stop for manyStation Description: The Honolulu International transpacific flights to and from North America.Airport Station will be situated on Ala Onaona Road,between the Airport Lei Stands and parking garageexit booths. The station entrance building will have anat-grade connection to the Overseas and Inter-IslandTerminals of the airport. Located three milesnorthwest of downtown, Honolulu InternationalAirport is the principal aviation gateway of the Cityand County of Honolulu, and the State of Hawai‘i.The airport has four major runways, which it shareswith the adjacent Hickam Air Force Base, twodesignated offshore runways for use by seaplanes,and three terminal buildings. A fleet of buses, knownas "Wiki Wiki" buses (from the Hawaiian word"quick") provides inter-airport transportation. Giventhe station’s immediate proximity to the airport,walking will be its dominant mode of access. Existingground-level pedestrian routes will be updated andenhanced. Bicycle parking, local bus, and Handi-Vanzones will be provided. There will be no park-and-ride facilities, or kiss-and-ride and taxi zones.Historic and Cultural Significance: The HonoluluInternational Airport Station marks the transitionfrom the ‘Ewa District to the Kona District. Much ofthe airport land is in what was once the Moanaluaahupua‘a, a beautifully cultivated plain with tarofields, sugar plantations, and banana trees. HonoluluInternational Airport opened in March 1927 as JohnRodgers Airport, named after a World War I navalofficer. It was renamed Honolulu Airport in 1947. By1950, it was the third-busiest airport in the US. 29
  32. 32. ART TRAINLagoon Drive Station After the battle of Nu‘uanu, Kalanikupule fled, butStation Type: Side Platform, No Concourse was finally caught and sacrificed on an altar at Pu‘ukapa. Kamehameha gave Moanalua toStation Description: The Lagoon Drive Station will be Kame‘epili’s adopted son, Lot. It was later passed tosituated on the mauka shoulder of Aolele Street west Ruth Ke‘elikolani, and then to Bernice Pauahi, whoof Lagoon Drive. Station entrances will be located on willed the entire ahupua‘a to Samuel M. Damon ineither side of Aolele Street. The site design includes 1884. In 1974, the Damon family offered the valley totwo on-street bus stops. A new crosswalk will be the people of Hawai‘i as a park for the preservationinstalled across Aolele Street to provide access of native Hawaiian flora and historic sites.between the entrances and bus stops. A pedestrianconnection to Ualena Street will be included. Anexisting maintenance facility for the airport is situatedon the makai side of the station. Most of the landaround the station is owned by the State and thegeneral nature of land uses in the area is not likely tochange dramatically over time. Narrow streets and alack of sidewalks make the area around the stationdifficult for pedestrians and bicyclists, but, even so, itis anticipated that pedestrians and bicyclists will makeup a significant portion of total station demand. AHandi-Van loading zone will be provided. There willbe no park-and-ride facility, or kiss-and-ride and taxiloading zones.Historic and Cultural Significance: Like the HonoluluInternational Airport Station, the Lagoon DriveStation site is located in what was once the Moanaluaahupua‘a. Accounts differ as to where Moanalua gotits name. Some say it is named for two encampments(moana and lua) at taro patches, where travelersbound for ‘Ewa rested. In another story, a youngchief, Kulai ‘Aiea, fell in love with a girl bathing in Iemipool. He cried out moana ka ho‘i ka wai o kena luawai (how wide the water of that water hole). Sheaccepted his offer of love. Much later, when Kahekiliof Maui conquered O‘ahu, he placed his son,Kalanikupule, in charge of Moanalua. 30
  33. 33. ART TRAINDillingham Stations Design GroupStationsThe three stations within the Dillingham StationsDesign Group are: Middle Street Transit Center Station Kalihi Station Kapālama StationDistrict (Moku)All three stations are located in what was once theKona, now Honolulu, District. The Dillingham areawas named for Walter Francis Dillingham (1875-1963). Called the Baron of Hawai‘i Industry,Dillingham was a businessman and industrialist. 31
  34. 34. ART TRAINMiddle Street Transit Center Station The cave led into the underground of the island ofStation Type: Side Platform with Concourse O‘ahu. One branch of the cave led around and under the mountains to Pearl Harbor. Another branch ledStation Description: The Middle Street Transit Center to the center of the island where there was a sacredStation will be situated on Kamehameha Highway pool for swimming. In the early 1900s, an earthquakenear the existing Middle Street Transit Center. A closed the caves. At the southern edge of Kalihi liesstation entrance structure will be located on the the Kamehameha Schools – Kapālama campus andmauka side of the roadway and will include an the Bishop Museum, noted for its historic displays ofelevated pedestrian walkway spanning Kamehameha Hawaiian culture.Highway at the station concourse level. Currently,there is no landscaping planned for the Middle StreetTransit Center. The station area is dominated by lightindustrial and commercial land uses with largesurface parking lots, and the O‘ahu CommunityCorrections Center. This transit center serves as themajor focal point for bus service in Kalihi and, whenthe station opens, will support bus/rail transfers. Arelatively small share of daily station demand willinvolve pedestrians and bicycles. Handi-Van loadingand park-and-ride areas are available at the adjacentMiddle Street Transit Center. No kiss-and-ride or taxizones are planned.Historic and Cultural Significance: The Middle StreetStation site is located in what was once the Kalihiahupua‘a. The name comes from ka lihi, whichmeans "the edge". The Kalihi Valley was oncecovered with extensive terraces. In the 1830s avoyager described the Kalihi Valley as “a broadpasture with tall waiving grasses intersected by afootpath, reminiscent of rural scenes in England”. Itis said that there was once a shallow cave calledKeana Kamano on the Kamanike side of the Valley. Itwas called the cave of the sharks because the sharkgods from Pearl Harbor often rested there. 32
  35. 35. ART TRAINKalihi Station Kāne pushed his staff into the earth, and broke openStation Type: Side Platform, No Concourse a hole from which water leaped forth. This pool of fresh water is known as Kapuka Wai o Kalihi, or theStation Description: The Kalihi Station will be “water door of Kalihi”. Kalihi was also known for itssituated in the Dillingham Boulevard street median at fishponds – ‘Āpili, Pahouiki, Pahounui, ‘Auiki, andMokauea Street. Station entrance buildings will be Ananoho – which have since been filled in.situated on both the mauka and makai sides of theroadway. An elevated pedestrian walkway from eachbuilding will provide station platforms for therespective eastbound and westbound trains. There isno concourse level connecting the two platforms.While currently there is a lack of green space near thestation site, plazas are planned for both entrances,and the arrangement of the makai entrance buildingwill create a courtyard. The station area includesresidential developments mauka of DillinghamBoulevard and Mokauea Street. Walk and bicycleswill make up most of the daily demand. On-street busand Handi-Van zones are planned. There will be nopark-and-ride facilities, or kiss-and-ride and taxizones.Historic and Cultural Significance: The Kalihineighborhood community is flanked by downtownHonolulu to the east and Māpunapuna, Moanaluaand Salt Lake to the west. Like the Middle StreetStation, the site for the Kalihi Station is located inwhat was once the Kalihi ahupua‘a. The ahupua‘aconsisted of Kalihi Uka, Kalihi Waena and Kalihi Kai.Historically, Kalihi Kai was the site of the formerLeprosy Receiving Station, where those suspected ofleprosy were examined prior to treatment or beingsent to Kalaupapa on the island of Moloka‘i. Legendhas it that when Kāne and Kanaloa journeyed alongthe coast of O‘ahu and came to Kalihi they found anumber of ‘awa roots. They pulled up the roots andprepared them for chewing. Kanaloa looked for freshwater to go with the ‘awa, but couldn’t find any. 33
  36. 36. ART TRAINKapālama Station Once mating was accomplished, they were allowed toStation Type: Side Platform, No Concourse leave. The ahupua‘a of Kapālama had two streams watering its terraces, which was almost continuousStation Description: The Kapālama Station will be from ‘Iwilei up to the foothills above School Street, ansituated in the Dillingham Boulevard street median at area measuring about three quarters of a mile both inKokea Street near the Kapālama Stream. Station depth inland and in breadth.entrance buildings will be located on the mauka andmakai sides of the roadway. An elevated pedestrianwalkway from each building will provide stationplatforms for the respective eastbound andwestbound trains. There will be no concourse levelconnecting the two platforms. Plazas will be locatedat each station entrance. The station area has a mixof land uses that includes industrial, retail, andresidential. The most significant generator of stationdemand will be Honolulu Community College (HCC),which is located on Dillingham Boulevard mauka ofthe station. Most station users will be pedestriansand bicyclists. There are on-street bus stops withshelters that will likely be replaced with new sheltersthat match the rail station design. One loading zonefor Handi-Vans is planned. There will not be a park-and-ride facility, or loading zones for kiss-and-rideand taxis.Historic and Cultural Significance: The site of theKapālama Station is in what was once the Kapālamaahupua‘a. The name comes from ka pā lama in theHawaiian language, which means "the enclosure oflama wood". Lama was the Hawaiian name for theendemic ebony trees of the genus Diospyros thatwere used in religious ceremonies. In ancient times,an enclosure made of the sacred wood from the lamatree, surrounded an establishment in which theyoung ali‘i, chief and chiefess, were kept just beforepairing off for offspring. The first-born child of a highchief and chiefess was considered high-ranking ali‘i. 34
  37. 37. ART TRAINCity Center Stations Design GroupStationsThe three stations within the Center City StationsDesign Group are: ‘Iwilei Station Chinatown Station Downtown StationDistrict (Moku)All three stations are located in what was once theancient Kona District, now the Honolulu District. 35
  38. 38. ART TRAIN‘Iwilei Station Kamehameha landed at Waikīkī to Wai‘alae, to theStation Type: Side Platform with Concourse windward of Diamond Head, and made his way to the Nu‘uanu Valley. The position of the O‘ahu army wasStation Description: The ‘Iwilei Station is situated on on the steep side of the hill, about three miles in thethe makai corner of Dillingham Boulevard and Ka‘aahi rear of the town of Honolulu. Believing themselvesStreet. A station entrance structure will be located secure, they defied the enemy with insulting gestureson the makai side of Dillingham Boulevard. The and bravado. Kamehameha’s forces charged. In thestation area includes a mix of commercial, industrial, onslaught many of the O‘ahuans were slain, and theand residential land uses, including Major Wright rest pursued with great slaughter until they wereHomes and Kukui Gardens, both U.S. Housing and driven to the end of the valley, and fell some 600 feetUrban Development low-rise complexes. The to their deaths.adjacent train depot is a vestige of the area’s identityas an industrial and warehousing district. Mid-risesenior and low-income housing is planned for thestation area. Pedestrians and bicycles are anticipatedto account for about a quarter of daily demand.There are two existing bus zones on DillinghamBoulevard. Additional bus zones, and dedicatedHandi-Van, kiss-and-ride, and taxi zones will beprovided. There will be no park-and-ride facility.Historic and Cultural Significance: The ‘Iwilei Stationsite is located in what was once the Nu‘uanuapuhua‘a. Nu‘uanu means “cool terrace”, referringto the cold wind, or “notch in the mountain” referringto the plat at the top of the Pali. It is said that inupper Nu‘uanu there were many small taro-plantedvalleys, which opened into the main valley on eitherside of the Nu‘uanu stream. Nu‘uanu is perhaps bestknown for the Battle of Nu‘uanu. In the year 1795Kamehameha the First, King of Hawai‘i, in pursuanceof his policy of uniting the whole Hawaiian groupunder his sway, came with immense army to O‘ahu tomake war against Kalanikupule, king of Maui andO‘ahu, and son of Kahekili, the famous warrior king ofMaui. 36
  39. 39. ART TRAINThere are said to be petroglyphs on the west bank ofthe Nu‘uanu stream, as well as on the rocks of asection of land once called Kahapaakai (the salt pans).The trail to Nu‘uanu began at Kalanikahua, led toKaumakapili pond, and on to the gap at Nu‘uanu Pali.One old legend of the area is of the Guardian Dogs ofKapena Falls. It is said that a couple that lived on thetrail had five dogs, one named Poki, and that the dogswere kupua, or supernatural beings, in dog form. In the 1800s, ‘Iwilei’s convenient dock and localOne day two men were journeying on the trail. The railroad terminus location served as a red light districtdogs barked in warning. One heeded the warning. for Captain Cook’s sailors. By the 1900s, as a meansThe other petted the dogs and continued his journey, to relegate the then legal and lucrative trade ofonly to be robbed and killed. From then on when prostitution to one area, city elders built a multi-blockpeople journeyed by Kapena Falls, they left gifts for stockade. The district thrived until 1916 when thethe dogs: flowers, leis, ferns and food. police closed the stockade. A prosperous industrial complex lorded by pineapple canneries and gasworks grew and thrived in ‘Iwilei until the late 1980s. ‘Iwilei is also the home of the Hawaiian Pineapple Company Ltd., which opened in 1907, but was later transformed into a 250,000 square-foot outlet shopping center, Dole Cannery. 37
  40. 40. ART TRAINChinatown Station During the 19th century laborers were imported from China to work on sugar plantations in Hawai‘i; many became merchants after their contracts expired. TwoStation Type: Side Platform with Concourse major fires destroyed many buildings in 1886 and 1900. The latter was intentionally started in anStation Description: The Chinatown Station will be attempt to destroy a building infected with bubonicsituated on Nimitz Highway between River and plague. However, on January 20, 1900, the windsKekaulike Streets at the western edge of the shifted, and the fire got out of control, destroyingdowntown district of Chinatown. A single entrance most of the neighborhood. Many of the buildings inwill be located on the mauka side of Nimitz Highway. Chinatown date from 1901. In 1904, the O‘ahuThe station area has a variety of land uses, including Market was opened at the corner of King andthe historic O‘ahu food market, which is visited by Kekaulike streets. The simply designed functionallocals and tourists. The station site is characterized construction (a large open-air, but covered spaceby Chinatown’s rich cultural legacy as well as its divided into stalls) remains in use today. Theproximity to the Harbors Edge, a historic maritime Chinatown district was added to the National Registergateway to the islands. Walk and bicycle will be the of Historic Places on January 17, 1973.primary access modes at this station. A park-and-ridefacility and a loading zone for Handi-Vans areplanned. There are no bus stops in the station areaand no dedicated kiss-and-ride or taxi zones areplanned.Historic and Cultural Significance: The ChinatownStation site is located in what was once the Pāuoaahupua‘a. Pāuoa is an “ear”, or side valley toNu‘uanu. The flatland in the bottom of Pāuoa Valley,between Pacific Heights and King Street, was oncecovered with terraces. The Battle of Nu‘uanucommenced in Pāuoa. Fought in May 1795, thebattle was key to King Kamehameha Is war to unifythe Hawaiian Islands. It is known in the Hawaiianlanguage as Kaleleka‘anae, which means "the leapingmullet", and refers to the number of O‘ahu warriorsdriven off the cliff in the final phase of the battle. TheChinatown Historic District is one of the oldestChinatowns in the United States. The area wasprobably a fisherman port during ancient times, butlittle evidence remains. 38

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