Justicia Espacial y la Urbanización Asimétrica Acelerada - Miguel Robles-Durán


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V Jornadas Internacionales Ciudades Creativas (Medellín, octubre, 2012) - Fundación Kreanta

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Justicia Espacial y la Urbanización Asimétrica Acelerada - Miguel Robles-Durán

  1. 1. Espacio público y cultura en acción Justicia Espacial y la Urbanización Asimétrica Miguel Robles-Durán Cofundador de Cohabitation Strategies, Cooperativa para eldesarrollo socio-espacial, con sedes en Rotterdam y Nueva York www.kreanta.org www.ciudadescreativas.org
  2. 2. 1. La investigación exhaustiva y transdisciplinaria de los procesos de urbanización P a g e 3 b o r d e au x 2 0 1 1
  3. 3. Cohabitation Strategies RESEARCH QUESTIONS RESEARCH PROCESS META-TOPICS RESEARCH DESIGN PROCESSES STRATEGIES A.01 National Development and Renewal Strategies A.02 Municipal Development Strategies A.03 Municipal Governance Networks A.04 District and Neighbourhood Governance A.05 Local Centralities and Connections A.06 Municipal Economic Perspectives A.07 Land Use and Function Distribution A.08 Core Economic Zones ( Wealth and Poverty) A.09 Water and Nature A.10 Mobility A.11 Municipal Budget for Housing A.12 Local Budget for Housing A.13 Building Funds, Subsidies and Fiscal Instruments URBAN INEQUALITIES A.14 Social/Private Rental Housing AND URBAN-PROFIT A.15 A.16 Home Ownership Housing Housing Developers, Corporations and Associations Cohabitation Strategies BASED URBANIZATION A.17 Building Regulation and Quality Control A.18 Housing Deficit and Allocation A. URBAN POLITICS A.19 Urban and Neighbourhood Restructuring ENDOGENOUS A.20 Public and Recreation Spaces Stakeholder Relations EMPOWERMENT A.21 Tenants Right, Obligations and Associations A.22 Real State Value AND ORGANIZATION A.23 Connectivity A.24 Community Organizations Legal Instruments A.25 Urban Mobilizations (Present and Historical) A.26 Gentrification Processes SOCIAL HOUSING A.27 Community Knowledge of Local Policy Social Programs/facilities A.28 Collective Consumption PROVISION AND A.29 Institutionalization of Community Organizations/Programs PRIVATIZATION A.30 A.31 Decision Making and Peoples Power (Jurisdiction) Waste Management and Recycling A.32 Land Contamination Participatory Neighborhood Programs/Facilities A.33 Groundwater Depletion RESTRUCTURING A.34 Water Management (Accumulation, treatment, distribution) URBAN A.35 Energy Management and Conservation A.36 Alternative Energy Cultural Programs/Facilities CONSCIOUSNESS A.37 Natural Resources AND IMAGE A.38 Recycling Culture A.39 Urban Agriculture Culture, Location and Distribution Sports and Leisure Programs/Facilities URBAN REGENERATION B.01 Uneven Urban Development AND B.02 Spatial and Functional Distribution GENTRIFICATION B.03 B.04 Spatial Correlations Infrastructure Networks Economic and Labor Processes B.05 Mobility Networks B.06 Spatial Demographics and Statistics B.07 Temporal Dynamics B. URBAN MORPHOLOGY B.08 Technologies (Spatial, Building and Infrastructure) Modes of Production CONSOLIDATING B.09 Building Clearance LOCAL MODES B.10 Land Speculation B.11 Vacancy Rates OF PRODUCTION B.12 Fragmentations Redistributive Processes Against Poverty B.13 Urban Deprivation and Marginalization SOCIO-SPATIAL B.14 Streets FRAGMENTATION C.01 Housing Typologies and Contemporary Occupation Local Asset Distributions AND DIFFERENCE C.02 Streets, Pedestrian Corridors and Public Space C.03 Abandoned Structures and Spatial Inefficiencies C. TYPOLOGY AND C.04 Urban rhythms Urban Educational Programs/Facilities C.05 Social Rites THE EVERYDAY C.06 Aesthetic Values C.07 Social Processes and Relations DEVELOPING AND C.08 Public Services REINFORCING C.09 Street Culture Spatial Occupation Strategies SOCIAL AND URBAN D.01 Migration CONDITIONS D.02 Gentrification, Displacement and Marginalization SOCIAL COHESION D.03 Forms of Social Relations and Class Stratification Transport Infrastructure and Connectivity AND D. SOCIETY AND CLASS D.04 Spatial Occupation D.05 Social Cohesion PARTICIPATION STRUCTURE D.06 Criminality D.07 Racial Segregation Environmental Solutions D.08 Gender/Age D.09 Social Reproduction D.10 Child Rearing D.11 Residential Differentiation Urban and Housing Renewal Programs D.12 Community Development STIMULATING LOCAL CULTURAL DYNAMICS, E.01 Labour History (Strugles, Organization, etc) CULTURAL E.02 Material Conditions and Local Capacities Sustainable Approaches AND THE COMMUNICATION E.03 Productive Services/Activities and Labour Power PRODUCTION OF URBAN PROCESSES E.04 Division of Labor and Specialization E.05 Structure of Labour Markets and the Circulation of Value E.06 Mobility Chances Public Services/Facilities E. ECONOMY AND LABOR E.07 Means of Production E.08 Surplus Allocation and Circulation E.09 Taxation and Financial Instruments Mijnkintbuurt E.10 Commodity Distribution Production Gate E.11 Credit Systems and Local/External Finances and Resources Urban Rhythms D.01 Cultural Heritage and Everyday Habits D.02 Traditional Forms of Culture D.03 Social and Cultural Interaction / Discrimination D.04 Intellectual and Artistic Potentials D.05 New forms of Aggregations D. CULTURAL POLITICS D.06 Youth Tribes D.07 Community Activities D.08 Techniques of EmpowermentMeta-Disciplinary Approach & Methodology 4 5
  4. 4. P a g e 4 b o r d e au xI N T R O D U C t i o n to t h e t e r r i to ry
  5. 5. P a g e 1 0 S T M I C H E L m e a n s o f e c o n o m i c e xc h a n g e /0:)%&# %1"(,(2" t h e t wo po les o f co m m ercia l ac tivit y o f sain t mich el a r e !"#"#$ :5(*%+1# i t s t w o m a r k e t s , s a i n t m i c h e l , m a n a g e d b y t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y, +)"(,1+"%G(# :50,7(5%2 !)*+,#- &5**(,&( a n d c a p u c i n s , m a n a g e d p r i v a t e ly b u t c o n s i d e r e d o f p u b l i c /$(+*+0"1+# !"#$%&() .-%"$& inter est. t h er e i s a s eco n d i n d o o r m a r k e t i n t h e co u r s *+,-(" /,%G+"(#&5*/+1L )234)%&,"$5 v i c t o r h u g o w h i c h i s fa r l e s s p o p u l a r . d i f f e r e n t c o n s u m p t i o n 2"09(1"2 p a t t e r n s a p p e a r : w h i l e s t u d e n t s u s e t h e s u p e r m a r k e t f o r d a i ly g roceries, im mig r ants ten d to sh o p in small co m m erces, w h er e t h e r e i s a n a lt e r n a t i v e o f m i c r o c r e d i t s i f t h e y d o n t h a v e m o n e y. s t m i c h e l s m a r k e t i s a l s o p o p u l a r a m o n g i m m i g r a n t s : so m e o f t h em b u y goo ds in t h e in fo r mal mar ke t t h at a r e n o t i n t e r e s t i n g i n f r a n c e t o t r av e l b ac k to t h ei r h o m e co u n t r i e s a n d r e-s e l l t h e m . .+/0&%12 *+,-(" 34%&"5,#6075 *+,-("8 *%&,5&,(9%"replaced by dwellings. The same goes for Place Saint-Michel, where shops havegiven way to lots of cafés and snack bars. The neighbourhood’s “elders” lamentthe departure of these businesses, which has greatly reduced the diversity of *%7,+1" /5/0)+"%51neighbourhood shop signs. A long-time resident thus tells us: “Previously, on the 20/(,*+,-(" %&()*)+ 2*+))#&5**(,&(2square, there was watchmaker, a photographer, a butcher and an ironmonger,and nowadays, even if there are still plenty of businesses, there are a lot less”26.Economic FactorsThe Saint-Michel neighbourhood has a large number of ethnic businesses. The G(7("+:)(2 "*#(,-.)*) "(I"%)( 25*(#&)%(1"2# ,(2())#75592#%1# %1J5,*+)#installation of numerous foreign shops in Saint-Michel represents an essential +1"%H0%"%(2 "(%,#&501",%(2# 5J#5,%7%1 *+,-("resource for the North African population and, to a certain extent, for Sub-Saharan African residents27. These businesses offer certain job opportunities, and they *%7,+1" /5/0)+"%51also enable many foreigners to purchase traditional products at better prices,and above all to enjoy advantageous payment conditions, i.e., credit: in Saint-Michel shops owned by foreigners, the practice of offering credit is common, +",,+&"%51#5J#and overall payments are authorized at the end of each month. “When people !"#$%&" K(+)"%(,# &)+22(2 !$(&" $;<=>? @AB!=>?Cknow you in Saint-Michel, you can do your shopping with nothing in your !"#"#$ :5(*%+1# :50,7(5%2 DEF=>?pocket”. Similarly, North African, Portuguese and Turkish restaurants offerreally affordable prices, which at the same time attract French customers &(+/(,# !(/,**)..)+$0who appreciate foreign specialities; but they also enable immigrants in the G(7("+:)(2 "(*/5,+,L# 2"+))2neighbourhood and in particular people living on their own, to eat accordingto their tastes and for less money. 2"09(1"2 3&)52(98 J559#+19#G(7("+:)(2
  6. 6. x