CTO Council April 2014
2019
Technology Landscape
ii
Citrix 2019 Technology Landscape | April 2014
Summary:
Introduction and
Recommendations
Summary:
Trends Update
Future o...
Guy Bieber - Managing Editor
Guy Bieber leads the production of the Technology Landscape as Citrix’s chief futurist. Guy i...
Introduction and
Recommendations
2019 TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE
Isn’t it funny how fiction now
struggles to keep up with reality?
Each year at Citrix, we create
a five-year vision of where
technology is headed and its
impact on people and society.
The t...
Google Now, and Microsoft Cortana help
automate many tasks. Human virtual
assistant services fill gaps for tasks that you
m...
WordPress) have all but eliminated email.
Now there are tools for content sharing
(like ShareFile), project management (li...
apps have reduced the cost of software and
the industrialization of retail has reduced
the cost of goods. Leveraging this ...
requirements may be the last holdouts 

for moving to the cloud. The movement to
the cloud presents unique opportunities 
...
to understand adoption, performance, and
markets for your products and services
gives you a knowledge advantage.
Compete o...
Summary:
Trends Update
2019 TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE
“ Surprise – That feeling you get when you
are about to be disrupted”
– A...
The chart above gives our
overall summary of trends
with rough themes per year.
Here we provide a high level
summary of in...
having difficulty coping with the pace of
change. Tesla direct sales were recently
banned in New Jersey, not for public saf...
Research, the wearable market will grow
to $30.2B by 2018 growing at a 52% CAGR.
ABI Research predicts 90M wearables will
...
The IoE places unique workloads on networks
with a greater quantity of devices, quantity
of sensed data, and quantity of c...
networks continue to increase, for example
Intel next generation wireless will be in the
Gigabit range. We continue to bec...
There have been huge advancements in
contextual understanding with glassware
like Refresh, which provides dossiers of
peop...
Trends
Driverless
In last year’s landscape, we talked about
the impact of driverless cars on society
from increased free t...
a. Energy mining from solar, wind,
waves / motion, temperature
differentials, and radio frequency
energy (like Powercast)
...
delivery system based on quadcopters
called Amazon Prime Air. Many criticized
this as a publicity stunt and, in fact, Netfl...
both for concerns about military use and loss of jobs. Over 200 years ago 90% of the US
population were farmers. Now, this...
stifling innovation and the FDA questions the validity of 23andMe’s genome based health
reports. The stakes are high for ge...
Future of Work:
Loving Work
(Employees)
2019 TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE
“ Love and work are the cornerstones 

of our humanness”...
Sigmund Freud said happiness depends on our ability to love and
work.Agreatchangeishappeninginthenatureofworkbothfroman
em...
The boundaries between work and life
have become blurred for knowledge
workers. The ability to work anywhere
gives them th...
Flexibility / Workshifting
“One day your life will flash before your eyes.
Make sure it’s worth watching.”
– Unknown
Work f...
workerswillgrowto24Minthenextfiveyears. The same tools that enable remote work also
power the freelance economy. This is d...
My Digital Advantage
“Quiet Crisis. The gap between what IT provides
and what users want.” –Daryl Plummer (Gartner)
There ...
intensity based on detected mood.
Though,thenetworkwireshavedisappeared,
we still cling to and crave wired power.This
will...
being used more widely to solve this problem
from Google Knowledge Graph, to Facebook
OpenGraph, Microsoft Office Graph, an...
onslaught of information we are expected
to deal with.
Speed Learning
The evolution in learning allows you to
learn quickl...
quickly hityoursocialnetworksoffriendsfor
shopping advice. There are countless tools
out there that allow you to quickly
c...
with this kind of automation? Here are a
few examples:
IFTTT Best Recipes
• Transcribe voicemail to Evernote
• Controlling...
The automation opportunities are only
limited by your imagination. For example,
what if you picked up your phone at night ...
Many companies (like WordPress and Zapier) are born virtualized and use a collection of tools
to enable a highly distribut...
These tools are enabling some powerful
effects for distributed work. With all of these
effects in place, companies are fin...
Future of Work:
Building Delight
(Employers)
2019 TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE
“ In thirty years’ time, as technology moves
forwar...
Corporationsexisttoimprovethe
human condition by providing
meaningfulworkandproducing
goods and services that improve
the ...
require mobile workstyles that modern
corporations can enable.
Divesting Devices
Companies are divesting the devices they
...
We are seeing many solutions in this space
for device, app, and data management,
however there are still many challenges t...
The cloud provides compute, storage,
networks, optimized edge networks, security,
and cloud-optimized services (like datab...
User Experience (UX)
Today there are many moments of sale
(i.e. key decision points when consumers
select, buy, and use pr...
They have studied for years what makes a
good API which they have identified as 5 key
characteristics: valuable, planned, ...
Office365, SalesForce, ADP, Workday, etc. But
we also need the ability to mash these services
together. Fortunately, the c...
• Tool up – You need good
collaboration tools
• Meet-ups – Every now and then the
team needs to have face-to-face
meetings...
costs of transportation, environmental costs,
cost of living effects, tax implications, and
most importantly, lost time. T...
various work activities. This might be spaces that feel like a coffee shop, places that feel like
a lounge, non-traditiona...
Future of Work:
Education
2019 TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE
“ Imagination is the source of every
form of human achievement”
– Ken ...
As a species, we publish everything we know in real-time on the
web. Innovating on that body of knowledge is throttled by ...
Amazon Retail Moment for
Education
Education is undergoing an Amazon Retail
Moment. We are learning to do education at
sca...
• Certificates to Degrees
- Companies like Udacity are trying to
move from Certificates to Degrees with
online courseware at...
and which aren’t. This allows them to work
just the parts of the course that will have
the biggest impact. This teaches th...
Future of Work:
Finance
2019 TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE
“ A wise man should have money in his
head, but not in his heart.”
– Jon...
The digitization of the financial industry creates a major business
model disruption. Many things are changing simultaneou...
moment of truth for retail used to be when
the consumer bought the product, followed
by the second moment of truth when th...
many identities and credentials. Banks
may even subsidize this kind of wearable
for the added fraud cost avoidance.
The mi...
Future of Work:
Healthcare
2019 TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE
The age of planned human evolution 

is upon us.
Few things in life are more 

important than one’s health.
Among the many advances in
technologywe’vewitnessedover
the las...
won’t be any part of the body that won’t
be either augmented, replaced or improved,
should we choose to do so.”
In an arti...
In terms of bang for your computing buck,
your brain is by far the winner, at the rate
of about 86,956,521 times more powe...
cognitive computing systems. The company
recently unveiled its experimental TrueNorth
computer chips containing memory,
pr...
advancements in Brain-computer interfacing
(BCI), sometimes called a mind-machine
interface, is creating new opportunities...
The tools for reading brainwaves have 

been around since at least 1912, when 

Russian physiologist, Vladimir Vladimirovi...
to make an open-source, affordable, high-
quality EEG amplifier available to everyone
so that those possibilities we are ta...
Rita Kandel, are pioneering an entirely 

new frontier: the use of three-dimensional
printing to construct replacement par...
Mihaela Vlasea, a PhD candidate and lecturer in the mechanical and mechatronics engineering
department at the University o...
Unlike Dr, Kandel, Ms. Vlasea’s research
team is working with a specific calcium
polyphosphate powder material developed
by...
network in older mice. Subsequent tissue
samples showed key biological hallmarks
that were comparable to those of much
you...
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape
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Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape

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Each year, the Citrix CTO Council publishes a five-year vision of where technology is headed and its impact on people and society.

Read this report to learn about emerging technology trends, explore the future of work and the future of life in an increasingly technology-rich and connected world.

http://www.citrix.com/

Citrix CTO Council 2019 Technology Landscape

  1. 1. CTO Council April 2014 2019 Technology Landscape
  2. 2. ii Citrix 2019 Technology Landscape | April 2014 Summary: Introduction and Recommendations Summary: Trends Update Future of Work: Loving Work Future of Work: 
 Building Delight Future of Work: 
 Education Future of Work: 
 Finance Future of Work: 
 Healthcare Future of Life: 
 Attention 
 Economics Future of Life: 
 Balance of Power Future of Life: 
 Almost Free Future of Life: 
 Master of the
 Universe Future of Work: 
 Retail and
 Manufacturing Tap on icons for chapters Contents 4 6 1 2 3 5 7 8 9 11 1210
  3. 3. Guy Bieber - Managing Editor Guy Bieber leads the production of the Technology Landscape as Citrix’s chief futurist. Guy is the Director of Strategy and Architecture for Citrix Labs and the CTO Council. Guy drives strategy, advanced research, and architectural initiatives. Guy previously served in the CTO Council at General Dynamics having worked on advanced military research and architected billion dollar programs. Guy has worked on everything from large command and control centers, to wearable fighting systems, to intelligence and surveillance systems, targets for the Patriot missile, and many other systems. His diverse background gives him a unique view of the future. Reuven Cohen - Author Reuven is recognized as an early innovator and thought leader in cloud computing. He leads worldwide advocacy efforts for Citrix, with a particular focus on increasing the reach and influence of Citrix's extensive portfolio of technology solutions used by more than 330,000 customers and 100 million end users across the globe. A serial entrepreneur, Reuven founded Enomaly, which was among the first to develop a self-service infrastructure as a service (IaaS) platform in 2005, and was acquired by Virtustream in 2012. Reuven also founded 
 SpotCloud in 2011, the first commodity style cloud computing Spot Market. Reuven writes The Digital Provocateur column for Forbes.com and co-hosts the DigitalNibbles Podcast, sponsored by Intel. He is the co-founder of CloudCamp (300+ Cities around the Globe), the largest unconference where early adopters of Cloud Computing technologies exchange ideas. He has served as a board member to the Information Technology Association of Canada as well as a strategic advisor to Sun Microsystems, Amazon.com, York University, and others. Kurt Roemer - Contributing Author As Chief Security Strategist for Citrix Systems, Kurt Roemer leads the security, compliance, risk and privacy strategies for Citrix products. As a member of the Citrix CTO Council, Roemer drives ideation, innovation and technical direction for products and solutions that advance business productivity while ensuring information governance. An information services veteran with more than 20 years experience, his credentials include the Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) designation, he served as Commissioner for the US public-sector CLOUD2 initiative and he led efforts to develop the PCI Security Standards Council Virtualization Guidance Information Supplement for the payment card industry while serving on the Board of Advisors.  Kurt is an active member of the ETSI NFV (Network Function Virtualization) specification team, and is Rapporteur for developing NFV Security and Trust Guidance. Don Clavette - Designer Don Clavette is a Senior Graphic Designer who brings a wealth of experience in both traditional art and digital design to the team and is known for his imaginative illustrations and expert draftsmanship. He joined Citrix in 2002 and has since worked on designs for print, web, events and motion graphics. Don's prior experience includes illustrating book and magazine covers for more than 10 years for publishers such as Ballantine Books (Del Rey), Berkley Publishing Group and Warner Books to mention a few. Special thanks for editorial comments to: Benn Schreiber and Martin Duursma Creative Staff Citrix 2019 Technology Landscape | April 2014
  4. 4. Introduction and Recommendations 2019 TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE Isn’t it funny how fiction now struggles to keep up with reality?
  5. 5. Each year at Citrix, we create a five-year vision of where technology is headed and its impact on people and society. The theme of last year’s technology landscape was Insights for Inspiration. This year’s landscape theme is the Joie De Vivre, which in French has two meanings: 1. Joy of Life 2. Self-Actualization We want to help companies and individuals reach their ultimate potential. This year we will provide an update on unfolding trends, explore the future of work, and explore the future of life. Let’s start with recommendations 
 up front. Recommendations for Individuals The Future of Work and Future of Life articles cover many of these topics in great detail, but here is a summary of recommendations just for individuals to help on their path to Joie De Vivre. Hone Your Digital Advantage. Bring Your Own is an invitation from work to customize your personal digital advantage. The devices and software tools available to you to enhance, automate, and assist you in your life are nothing short of amazing (while paradoxically being in their infancy). We are seeing the rise of hybrid intelligence where people and machines work better together. Digital assistants like Apple Siri, 5 !"#$%&'(#) !"#$% *+,-.+/) 01#-.2#) 3,+/+(4) !1##"-/,#) 54)6'7'8-") 9:2-/8-7#) Hone Your Digital Advantage Leverage Abundance Manage Your Attention Economics Prepare for Freelance/ Creative Economy Hone Your Distributed Work Skills Introduction and Recommendations
  6. 6. Google Now, and Microsoft Cortana help automate many tasks. Human virtual assistant services fill gaps for tasks that you might otherwise have a dedicated personal assistant do. Some of these are by the hour services (Fancy Hands, Zirtual) and others are by the task (like Mechanical Turk and Task Rabbit). Crowd sourced intelligence can answer your pressing questions (Quora) or even advise you on a date while its happening (CrowdPilot). Part of honing your digital advantage is automating. There are a lot of great tools out there for personal automation like IFTTT and Zapier. There are even great tools to automate your home from Lowes, Staples, Control4, Revolr, Tasker, and many others. Working on your personal digital advantage can have great returns. Manage your attention economics. Time management in an infotoxicated world continues to be a challenge. Managing 
 our attention has become a full time job that many companies would like to monopolize. We will see interfaces that optimize our consumption of information and focus 
 by sensing our mood, task at hand, and supporting information needs. Our ability to filter, consume, connect, and act on information hasn’t dramatically increased. Yet the amount of information relentlessly doubles every 1.5 years. This is a losing game. We need better ways to process information. First this starts with tools that attempt to reduce the pipeline of information coming at us by filtering out the most relevant data; tools like Google Alerts and Google Now can help us find the most relevant information. Next we need to improve our ability to consume information; tools like Spritz can triple our speed of reading. There are many options out there for speed learning like Lynda, GetAbstract, and online courseware. We need tools that help us make sense and connect the data. Finally we need tools to help us create more quickly. Hone your distributed work skills. For collaborative work, being in the same place doesn’t matter anymore. The center of gravity for organizations has been moving from a physical location to being online since we started networking computers at work. Many companies (like WordPress, Zapier) are being born virtualized and are using a collection of tools to enable a highly distributed, decentralized workspace. It’s not just email and meeting tools that enable this anymore, in fact some companies (like 6 Introduction and Recommendations
  7. 7. WordPress) have all but eliminated email. Now there are tools for content sharing (like ShareFile), project management (like Podio / Basecamp), hallway conversation effects (Convoi, IRC, Campfire), collaborative creation (Office365, GoogleDocs, iWork), etc. Improving your distributed work skills is more important than ever. Prepare for the freelance / creative economy. People are staying at jobs for shorter periods of time and doing more freelancing. The same tools that enable remote work also power the freelance economy. This is driving the evolution of mobile workstyles. Services like Kaggle (data science), Elance, and Freelancer make it easy for individuals or groups to do freelance work. Another force driving the creative / freelance economy is the rise of automation in all forms. It is getting to the point that we automate almost everything, except creativity. The jobs that seem to be safest, according to Fast Company, are the ones that require complex physical manipulation, creativity, and social perception. But it’s not all bad news; Gartner predicts that one of the rising jobs will actually be teaching machines. Leverage Abundance. The Internet has had the amazing effect of making more things accessible freely to more people. Companies competing for your attention create an abundance of free and valuable services like Google and LinkedIn. Open source makes many tools of creation freely available. Free knowledge and education is possible through Massive Online Courseware like Cousera, Udacity, and Khan Academy. Even free physical things are becoming available with 3D printing and free designs by services like Thingiverse. More resources are being shared by more efficient resource allocation and collaborative consumption with services like Airbnb. More resources are being given away whether for charity or to fund a good idea (like Kickstarter). The final force of abundance is greater value. For example 7 Philosophy In the 2018 Technology Landscape we described our philosophy for predicting the future. Introduction and Recommendations
  8. 8. apps have reduced the cost of software and the industrialization of retail has reduced the cost of goods. Leveraging this abundance of resources greatly empowers individuals. Recommendations for Business The Future of Work articles cover many 
 of these topics in great detail, but here is a summary of recommendations just for businesses to help them on their path to Joie De Vivre. Divest devices. Companies are divesting the devices they used to provide to employees, becauseemployeesarecomingpre-integrated with technology. They are bringing their better digital selves to the job including computers, networks, and software. The device isn’t the only issue; employees bring tools (apps) and their personal information cloud (data) with them. This creates some unique challenges for enterprises in the number of devices to support, which apps are needed where, potentially compromised devices / networks / data, and the next wave of wearables / IoE. Enterprises will save costs on devices, but will also need to support their pre-integrated employees. Divest data centers. Enterprises and especially growing ones will start to move their operations to the public cloud. The grow-as-you-go proposition of the cloud and competitive pricing between providers makes it cheaper and better performing (in most cases) to run operations in the cloud. Amazon,Google,andMicrosoftare competing heavily in this space with an expected market size of $250B by 2017. The cloud provides compute, storage, networks, optimized edge networks, security, and scalable cloud optimized services. This allows companies to globalize without the cost of standing up their own data centers in many geographies. These clouds are even getting better at running unusual workloads like GPUs. Organizations that have extreme scale or special security 8 Introduction and Recommendations !"#$%&'(#) !"#$% *+,-.+/) 01#-.2#) 3,+/+(4) !1##"-/,#) 54)6'7'8-") 9:2-/8-7#) Divest Devices Compete on Experience Re-invent Facilities Be Data Driven SaaS First Approach Divest Data Centers Utilize Anywhere Talent
  9. 9. requirements may be the last holdouts 
 for moving to the cloud. The movement to the cloud presents unique opportunities 
 for corporations. Re-invent facilities. Facilities are the second highest business cost and yet are woefully under-utilized (UnWork cites less than 45% utilization). Many corporate functions are already remote: HR, CPA, Legal, Payroll, Advertising, etc. Some companies have even become 100% virtual, for instance WordPress is completely officeless. Even virtual companies still get together for face-to-face meetings though, often in third spaces facilitated for virtual corporations. For corporations that still co-locate they will find more efficient uses of space, in particular activity based workspaces that allow twice the density employees while having spaces much more suited to work activities like collaboration. Certainly we will see the concepts of workspace continue to change. SaaS first approach. The job of IT is moving from projects that deploy hardware, deploy software, build value added services, and manage operations to one where they help in the selection of instantly deployed services, monitor those services, and help with automation aggregation across these services. This requires services that have good APIs / Developer Experiences (DX) and Mashability Experiences (MX). The list of SaaS services designed for the Enterprise keeps growing: GoogleDocs, Office365, SalesForce, ADP, Workday, etc. But we also need the ability to mash these services together. Fortunately, the cost of integration continues to drop with the advent of good service technology and tools like ITDuzzIT or SnapLogic. How SMBs and Enterprises purchase and deploy productsarestartingtoconverge.Wecontinue to see automation and aggregation as key roles for IT going forward. Utilize anywhere talent. By decoupling enterprises from locations (flexible locations) and time (flexible hours) businesses can utilize talent anywhere in the world. The ability to deliver corporate services into employees digital BYO worlds allows employees to quickly be on-boarded. Overall, this allows companies to better match great work with great people. Be data driven. Last year in the golden 4 we talkedaboutinformationasakeyskillofmodern corporations (see last year’s video). Utilizing big data and machine learning techniques 9 Introduction and Recommendations
  10. 10. to understand adoption, performance, and markets for your products and services gives you a knowledge advantage. Compete on experiences. Corporations continue to accelerate their rate of innovation and differentiate on user experiences to deliver delight. Corporations are typically pretty good at incremental innovation; they know how to innovate products they know. There is a point at which companies need disruptive innovation (as Guy Kawasaki would say, where they need to “jump curves”). This can be done through acquisitions, internal research, open innovation, and accelerators. Open innovation can potentially help by having prized based competitions (hack-a-thons, startup weekends, and innovation prizes). Another trend is to provide Angel Funding for startups that can help disrupt your business (like the Citrix Startup Accelerator, amongst others). In the age of surprise, differentiating disruptive innovation will continue to be highly sought after. Today there are many moments of sale which can be very public events. When consumers research a product, when they buy, and when they use it. Consumers aren’t shy about tweeting or posting about their experiences either. The User Experience (UX) is where people touch your product or service; UXhasbecomecentraltoyourproducts’value proposition. Increasingly, customization or personalization of these experiences is becoming important. Especially with anticipatory / context-aware interfaces like Google Now, Siri, and Cortana which, much like a friend, try to guess what you’re thinking and get interactions right. Competing on experiences will continue to be an essential part of business. 10 Golden Four Last year we talked about the golden four skills companies needed to be ultra successful: Automate, Inform, Design, & Connect. Introduction and Recommendations
  11. 11. Summary: Trends Update 2019 TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE “ Surprise – That feeling you get when you are about to be disrupted” – Andrew Dent
  12. 12. The chart above gives our overall summary of trends with rough themes per year. Here we provide a high level summary of investment in startups, prize based researched, exponential growth, and intersections of technology. Next we will give a brief update on these trends. Megatrends There are four continuing mega-trends to provide an update on and two new trends, which will be addressed in their own articles: Re-defining Work and Attention Economics. But first an update on existing mega-trends. Age of Surprise The Age of Surprise (see the video) where people can connect, create, and project faster than ever before is still accelerating. People, businesses, and governments are 12 Summary: Trends Update
  13. 13. having difficulty coping with the pace of change. Tesla direct sales were recently banned in New Jersey, not for public safety, but because it disrupts existing business models. Wearables disrupt social norms (for example recentattacksonGoogleGlass wearers).With the advent of inexpensive Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) in the form of quadcopters, the government struggles to keep up with businesses built around these devices; cheap UAVs disrupt Federal Aviation Administration practices. Tim O’Reilly, whilepromotingtheSolidConference, talked about anti-science and anti-technology undercurrents in US government. He talked about how the fall of Rome was proceeded by an outcasting of intellectuals. Government plays a vital role in society and being behind in understanding technology is a major issue. Mogility / Wearable “Smart phones have exceeded the metaphors used to define them.“ - Cliff Clang Last year we talked about mogility and wearables (see the video). Wearables are an extension of the already huge mobile market. There are over 7B mobile devices already with more intriguing form factors every day (like folding phones). We even imagine a wearable display that could replace a traditional laptop with a much greater field of view. Wearables are moving beyond fitness trackers. According to BCC 13 Summary: Trends Update
  14. 14. Research, the wearable market will grow to $30.2B by 2018 growing at a 52% CAGR. ABI Research predicts 90M wearables will be shipped in 2014. Wearables are becoming an extension or enhancement of us. Google Glass represents one of the first big moves in this area. Writing apps in this space is very power sensitive and “in the moment” focused. The rules for user interfaces change when you are closer to the user than ever before. Open source hardware and software platforms are driving rapid innovation in this space for many form factors from watches, rings, necklaces, on / in clothing, to glasses. Apps that enhance specific work functions are going to happen in this space early on (for example glass for doctors). Wearables are becoming the tools of life and work. These are being accelerated by the same technologies as the Internet of Everything. The technical challenges may not be as great as the social ones. Samsung described the need for the perceived benefits of wearable devices to overcome their Social Weight at a recent wearables conference: SW (Social Weight) = CL (Cognitive Load) + PP (Physical Presence) + SC (Social Convention) Fashion and social norms clearly collide with function in the world of wearables. The good news is that the use cases are numerous from fitness tracking, medicine, sports optimization, expert work systems, etc. Wearables bring into the mix devices that continuously sense our lives. This context can make for magical experiences (like being told a friend’s flight will be late automatically) but also brings up real privacy concerns. Fusion and Internet of Everything The fusion of the digital layer of life into physical things continues at a dramatic pace (see last year’s video). Gartner has wildly varying estimates of how many things will be in the Internet of Everything (IoE) market ranging from 15B to 1T by 20201 . The IoE attracted $1B in investment money just in 2013. The rise of Internet of Things is dramatic (it will eclipse the PC and mobile markets). This is the beginning of fusion of the digital and physical worlds embedding computing in everything. 141 “Top Predictions”, Gartner Daryl Plumber, 2014-03-13enter text Summary: Trends Update
  15. 15. The IoE places unique workloads on networks with a greater quantity of devices, quantity of sensed data, and quantity of controls 
 it exposes. These devices add a unique 
 in-network attack vector and often have safety and security implications. For instance, networked lighting systems, locks, alarms, climate control, and appliance controlallhave implicationsiftheymalfunction. The tools suites to innovate in this space are improving with Ardruino, Raspberry PI, Beaglebone Black, Bluetooth LTE, NFC, and a variety of ready to deploy sensors. A world of mashable things is difficult to achieve due to the diversity of platforms and lack of standardized interfaces. Companies such as GE, Intel, AT&T, Cisco, and IBM are making significant investments in the IoE and the Industrial Internet. Google is investing in IoE with a recent purchase of Nest and ongoing work in Android. We are even seeing retail vendors entering this space with home automation systems such as Lowe’s Iris, Staples Connect, and AT&T Digital Life. Clearly this market is rapidly coming into focus in the consumer space. However, we expect large fallout as well due to challenging business models and standardization issues. Humanization of Computing The forces behind making computers act and interact more like people continue to unfold. Here is an update on the 5Cs: Connect, Content, Context, Control, and Custom. Connect We are still bringing the other 2/3s of the world’s population online, primarily with mobile technology. Facebook just launched internet.org to make this a reality by reducing the cost of the Internet and increasing bandwidth efficiency. GE and its partners are working on the industrial Internet to bring the Industrial Internet of Things online. The Internet of Things is growing at a dramatic pace due to new technologies such as Bluetooth LE. The speed of wireless
 
 15 Northrup Grumman VIPE The Northrup Grumman Virtual Immersive Portable Environment utilizes projectors and Kinect to create a holodeck. Summary: Trends Update
  16. 16. networks continue to increase, for example Intel next generation wireless will be in the Gigabit range. We continue to become more connected with our world. Content Content is still doubling every 1.5 years. We are starting to use big data techniques to understand this data. Technologies like Hadoop, machine learning (deep learning), and graph databases (Graphlab) are evolving to meet this challenge. Companies like Google and Facebook are making big investments in deep learning (a whole range of technologies around neural networks); Google recently bought the company Deep Mind in this space. Facebook has recently achieved human performance in facial recognition technology using deep learning techniques. We are even starting to use unusual processing techniques like GPUs to deal with this mass of data more effectively (unusual in that GPUs are being used for non graphics rendering purposes). We continue to produce more data and make more sense of it more quickly. Context, Control, Custom The intersection of contextual understanding, customization for individuals, and control through natural user interaction makes a powerful combination. We are seeing a variety of natural user interaction technologies for controlling our worlds mature. The number of augmented reality and immersive systems has dramatically increased: Oculus Rift (recently purchased by Facebook), Glyph, Meta, Atheerlabs, and Sony project Morpheus. We continue to see many products based on brain wave processing including muse and the next generation dry Emotiv headset. These technologies are being used for everything from tele- operating robotics to remotely controlling someone’s body. Northrup Grumman has even created a virtual reality holodeck (VIPE) out of projectors and Kinect for training soldiers. Natural interaction is showing up in more and more products like: Sony’s Eye Tracker for gaming, Samsung’s Gesture Control for TVs, and Microsoft committing to bring Kinect functionality to laptops. 16 Summary: Trends Update
  17. 17. There have been huge advancements in contextual understanding with glassware like Refresh, which provides dossiers of people you are meeting with. Google’s latest Moto-X phone continually listens for commands. Google’s project Tango goes much further bringing 3D understanding to smartphones. Microsoft’s Cortana brings an understanding of people, relationships, places (work and home), and time (when you like to do things) to create a more personalized assistant. Cortana even exposes what it has learned about you in 
 a notebook like a real assistant so you can correct what it gets wrong. Google Now continues to improve its understanding 
 of you based on context from your calendar, email, and browsing history. Google Now is currently embedded in 
 the browser, Google Glass, Android / iOS smartphones, and he recently announced Android for wearables. Context continues to grow as a major differentiator in customized user experiences. Controlling your world has never been easier or more customizable. Ifttt API continues to provide recipes for integrating your world along with many others like Zapiers. There has been a huge movement in consumer home automation with many vendors like Staples, Lowes, ATT, and Control4 providing home automation systems. Customized controls continue to make inroads in the consumer space. 17 Meta SpaceGlasses Meta SpaceGlasses provide one of the best examples of augmented reality. Microsoft Cortana Microsoft Cortana brings more personalization and smarts to personal assistants. Summary: Trends Update
  18. 18. Trends Driverless In last year’s landscape, we talked about the impact of driverless cars on society from increased free time, to driverless taxis, new auto insurance models, reinvented public transit, energy efficiency, high- density parking, etc. This trend is moving along quickly with one after another automaker announcing driverless car prototypes (BMW, Mercedes Benz, Nissan, General Motors, Ford, and Audi). This includes significant size and cost reduction of the components needed for driverless vehicles like Audi’s miniaturized system. Other automakers are making significant user experience enhancements like Audi’s Virtual Cockpit, Carplay mobile integration, and infotainment systems; systems that will eventually become much more important as people are freed from the tedious job of driving. This spare time can be used to multitask for work or pleasure. Automakers will first provide limited driverless tasks like self parking / car retrieval, collision avoidance, and takingactionwhenyou’renot payingattention.Thiswillgivegovernments and business models time to catch up to the technology. Electric Economy The electric economy continues to grow. We see three major contributors and continuing evidence of this transformation. 1. Movement towards electric systems and continuously reducing energy 
 consumption a. Continued movement to electric motors in vehicles b. Movement from incandescent to LED bulbs c. Battery life has become the central issue of today’s electronics 2. Create more efficient, renewable ways to produce energy 18 Google Project Tango Google Project Tango brings 3D contextual understanding to smart phones. Summary: Trends Update
  19. 19. a. Energy mining from solar, wind, waves / motion, temperature differentials, and radio frequency energy (like Powercast) b. 40% of the world’s energy comes from “clean” coal c. Inventionsinefficienthydrogen creation, fuel cells (with many automakers on board), and distributed fuel cell based energy grids 3. Create efficient and faster charging energy storage a. Rapidly charging batteries that charge 1000x faster and supercapacitors b. 30% increase in Lithium Ion Battery Capacity c. Inexpensive printed batteries d. Wireless charging goes mainstream We are moving to a world powered solely by electricity and we are finding better ways to create, store, and distribute electricity. Citi predicts we are moving into the “Age of Renewables”, where renewable energy is the rule instead of the exception. Matternet We are continually making it easier and more efficient to move physical things. Since the first post office, standard shipping container, or logistics automation system we have been striving to make it more efficient to quickly move things. Overnight delivery has been possible for some time, but at a significant cost that was relative to weight. With an Amazon Prime subscription you get free two-day delivery regardless of weight. With the advent of unmanned air vehicles (UAV), it is getting cheaper to move things by air. The quadcopter enabled by efficient motors, gyros, and GPS has dropped the price point of a UAV to 100s of dollars. Amazon announced it was looking at a 2-hour 19 Quadcopters as Athletes Raffaello D’Andrea shows the amazing abilities of quadcopters. Summary: Trends Update
  20. 20. delivery system based on quadcopters called Amazon Prime Air. Many criticized this as a publicity stunt and, in fact, Netflix played along with their own Netflix Drone Parody. Matternet takes quadcopter delivery more seriously for delivery of critical supplies like medicine to people living where road and electric infrastructure is spotty or seasonal. We are also seeing a series of unusual delivery experiments in neighborhoods, effectively covering the last mile, for things like tacos and drug store supplies. Imagine a healthcare wearable that causes a defibrillator to 
 be delivered to you if your heart stops. Regardless,thetimefromwantingsomethingto its delivery to your door continues to decrease. Robotics Special purpose robotics have been around and deployed for some time in large-scale industrial environments like manufacturing, warehouses (kiva), and robotic farming. We are now seeing many special purpose consumer robots for vacuuming (Neato and Roomba), fun (quadcopters, spiders), and even low cost industrial robotics. Auto vendors are working on converting our cars into robots; ship vendors are working on robotic shipping by sea. The more exciting trend is towards general-purpose robotics. We are seeing much lower cost general-purpose industrial robotics that will bring automation to smaller factories. These include the $25K Baxter and $35K UBR1 which can both be trained by simply moving their arms. The Darpa Robotics Challenge is bringing robotics that can deal with disasters with the strength and agility of humans. The set of tasks these robots were able to perform was impressive, everything from navigating debris to turning valves. These robots still consumetoomuchpowerandcosttoomuch. Boston Dynamics Atlas platform consumes 15kW when in full operation; that is the equivalent of 150 100W bulbs. SRI is working on reducing power consumption by 20x and iRobot is working on an inexpensive robotic arm ($3K). Researchers are working on robotic muscles 1000x stronger than human muscles. The rate of innovation in this space is staggering. Itisatimeofrapidevolutionandbreakthroughs in robotics. But it is not without pushback 20 Summary: Trends Update
  21. 21. both for concerns about military use and loss of jobs. Over 200 years ago 90% of the US population were farmers. Now, this is a mostly automated profession and the majority of people do other things. We expect the same kind of adaptation to happen as more robotics enter the workplace. One thing for sure, we will see more robotics in the home and office. Genomics What once was purely a topic of science fiction, changing our own code of life is about 
 to become mainstream. We have reached a point in decoding genomes where the computing has surpassed the cost of sequencing. Genome research has become a major cloud workload. Because we have been able to decode cancer genomes we better understand the variations in cancer and have been able to create gene therapies for many of them. Many companies are about to bring gene therapy to the US for prostate cancer, metastatic melanoma, artery failure in limbs, and many more diseases. Stanford has even been able to create a DNA-based transistor, which may be able to turn off the replication of cancer cells some day. Governments are having trouble keeping up with gene patents 21 DARPA Robotics Challenge The DARPA Robotics Challenge accelerates innovation for disaster recovery humanoid robotics. Summary: Trends Update
  22. 22. stifling innovation and the FDA questions the validity of 23andMe’s genome based health reports. The stakes are high for gene therapy, as a recent CDC threat report predicted, “We will soon be in a post-antibiotic era”. It’s not all bad news though; the National Institutes of Health is creating a cloud for sharing cancer genome data. The intersection of genomics, cloud computing, and medicine will continue to create amazing cures and opportunities for business. 22
  23. 23. Future of Work: Loving Work (Employees) 2019 TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE “ Love and work are the cornerstones 
 of our humanness” – Sigmund Freud
  24. 24. Sigmund Freud said happiness depends on our ability to love and work.Agreatchangeishappeninginthenatureofworkbothfroman employee and employer perspective. There are 615M knowledge workers in the world and another 2.1B non-knowledge workers. In addition, as lifespans have increased we are moving to a 
 four-generation workplace. How engaged are we at work? A recent Gallup poll finds 87% of world workers and 71% of US / Canadian workers are disengagedatwork.Letthatsinkinfora second. That represents a mass epidemic of job dissatisfaction. People want to fall in love with work again. The only difference between work and play, is that work is an activity we have to do and play is an activity we choose to do. How can we get better alignment? 24 !"#$%&'(#) !"#$% *+,-.+/) 01#-.2#) 3,+/+(4) !1##"-/,#) 54)6'7'8-") 9:2-/8-7#) Flex-Time My Digital Advantage Flex-Location Freelance Creative Economy Future of Work: Loving Work (Employees)
  25. 25. The boundaries between work and life have become blurred for knowledge workers. The ability to work anywhere gives them the option to better meet their personal (family and health) and work needs, something the new millennial work force expects in a job. Millennials value experience over things; they want work to mean something. They value access over ownership. They are used to anytime and anywhere education with online classes. They think going into the office is quaint and remote work is a right. In short they want it all: Flexibility and Mobility • How: They decide how they work. They pick their digital tools • Where: They decide the best location for work • When: They decide the best time
 for work Meaning • Why / What: They have a stronger sense of the meaning or why they work. They want better passion alignment over cash Atcompanieswithmainlyknowledgeworkers, the engagement levels are over 70%. Are the goals of the millennials more easily achieved in a knowledge-working environment? We believe so. Ericsson recently published their vision of the Next Generation Working Life. They highlighted some key themes of the next phase of work: • Quest for Meaning • Tasks to Missions • Cultural Gravitation (from colleagues to communities) • Two way flexibility (adapting to the era of connectivity) • Do-ocracy (DIY) • Power of Serendipity (optimizing exposure to others) • The exchange space (form physical space to meaningful exchange) • Consumerization (individual preferences shaping the working environment) We will focus in on four key topics for loving work: Flexibility / Workshifting, Creative / Freelance Economy, My Digital Advantage, and Our Digital Advantage. 25 Future of Work: Loving Work (Employees)
  26. 26. Flexibility / Workshifting “One day your life will flash before your eyes. Make sure it’s worth watching.” – Unknown Work from home pays the same as work from an office. The truth is that many jobs that require working in front of a screen can happen anywhere. For asset-light individuals and corporations, mobility can be empowering. Given a quiet spot with a network connection, smartphone, and laptop, magic can happen anywhere. This is the mobile workstyle and according to recent Forrester surveys people are working from home (50%), client sites (43%), while traveling (40%), and from public sites (32%) more than ever. This is creating the next generation of corporations distributed across many geographic regions. Better edge networks, better time-shifted collaboration, and real-time collaboration changes are enabling corporations to effectively have 24-hour operations. This is creating a new perception time, where things get attended to as needed. This improves business continuity and speed. Flexibility entails working when and where we feel most productive. Generally, we have two modes of work: individual production 
 and collaboration. Different places and tools facilitate these modalities. Mobility and better remote work tools offer the ability to quickly customize your environment for these modalities. A better environment enables greater productivity and higher quality work. 
 Creative / Freelance Economy “Happiness means creativity.” – Meg Carter People are staying at jobs for shorter periods of time and more people are freelancing. 19% of US employees are already part time. In the US the number of Indie (independent) The new ASB head office is an exciting, unique opportunity for ASB to pioneer a world-class future workplace in one of Auckland’s newest and most vibrant sustainable developments. Evolution of the workplace  26 Future of Work: Loving Work (Employees)
  27. 27. workerswillgrowto24Minthenextfiveyears. The same tools that enable remote work also power the freelance economy. This is driving the evolution of mobile workstyles. Services like Kaggle (data science), Elance, and Freelancer make it easy for individuals or groups to do freelance work. Entire startups are starting to freelance through a concept called switch pitch. In switch pitch, established companies pitch jobs to startups and get an integrated group to work their challenging problems. Another force driving the creative / freelance economy is the rise of automation in all forms. It is getting to the point that we automate almost everything, except creativity. A recent Oxford study states 47% of US jobs are potentially at high risk for automation. The jobs that seem to be safest, according to Fast Company, are the ones that require complex physical manipulation, creativity, and social perception. This fundamental change in jobs rings back to a time when the US workforce was mostly farmers (in 1790 farmers were 90% of the labor force) and how industrialization changed that. People learned to do other jobs, just now most of those jobs require something computers aren’t good at, i.e. creativity. Soon everyone may become creativity workers out of necessity. 27 Digital Me Attention & Information Management Speed and Learning Assist Automate More Immediate Less Immediate 9:45 AM 100%iPad Future of Work: Loving Work (Employees)
  28. 28. My Digital Advantage “Quiet Crisis. The gap between what IT provides and what users want.” –Daryl Plummer (Gartner) There are a bunch of tools and techniques you need to hone your personal digital advantage. This is made up of all the digital tools, hardware and software, that enable you to work and live faster, better, and more meaningfully. So how do you hone your personal digital advantage? There are five areas to consider for your personal digital advantages:digitalme,attention/information management, speed learning, assisted / hybrid intelligence, and automation. Digital Me According to Gartner 36% of companies will be all Bring Your Own (BYO) Device by 2016 and 45% by 2020. The industry has been talking about the BYO Everything for a while now, but why is this really happening? People are deeply integrating technology (computing, networks, apps, and content) into their lives. They are coming to work pre-integrated with technology; technology that is giving them a digital advantage in the modern world. The modern enterprise needs to deliver the necessary corporate services into people’s digital lives, instead of trying to supplant them. With all of this technology in our lives we are becoming cyborgs of sorts, but to be mobile we need to be asset light. It either needs to be on us or in a small bag. Tools like a phone, headset, tablet, laptop, and wearables enable us to move work anywhere there is a fast wireless network. Wearable technology is the next wave of mobile giving us productivity on the go. It will have a user interface closer to the user than ever before, effectively helping us better interface to our world. These wearable interfaces will even respond to our mood, e.g. there is an Xbox controller that adjusts 28 9:45 AM 100%iPad Future of Work: Loving Work (Employees)
  29. 29. intensity based on detected mood. Though,thenetworkwireshavedisappeared, we still cling to and crave wired power.This willgoawaytooasdevicescontinue to be more power efficient and last all day. We will enjoy provisioned spaces designed for the digital me with extra display space, great networking, power, and ambiance. Attention and Information Management Time management in an infotoxicated world ofattentioneconomicsischallenging.Perhaps this should really be called distraction management. We will see interfaces that try to optimize our consumption of information and focus by sensing our mood, taskathand, andsupportinginformationneeds.Our ability to filter, consume, connect, and act on information hasn’t dramatically increased. Yet the amount of information coming at us relentlessly doubles every 1.5 years. This is a losing game. We need better ways to process information. First this starts with tools that attempt to reduce the pipeline of information coming at us by filtering out the most relevant data. Whether this is handling our inbox with tools like ZeroMail or filtering the news quickly with tools like Pulse, we continue to search for relevance. One great tool for this is Google Alerts, which allows you to register to receive a weekly digest on content related to keywords you select. We expect more tools like this will incorporate deeper learning and expose the filters in a human understandable way. Sohowcanweimproveourabilitytoconsume information? According to FORBES, the average adult reads about 300 words per minute (wpm). High-level executives read 575 wpm and college professors read about 675 wpm. What if you could double or triple the speed at which you read? Much like the Qwerty layout on a keyboard kept us from overwhelming a mechanical mechanism, how we layout words on a page limits how fast we can move our eyes to read. A new startup called Spritz eliminated the eye movement to achieve 1000wpm reading! Spritz also allows reading on a much smaller display.Whilethatmaynotcatchuptotherate of information creation, it helps significantly. If you are not connecting the dots in your information, you are wasting it. Once you consume the relevant information the next challenge is connecting it to get value. Graph and machine learning technologies are 29 Future of Work: Loving Work (Employees)
  30. 30. being used more widely to solve this problem from Google Knowledge Graph, to Facebook OpenGraph, Microsoft Office Graph, and many tools like Graphlab. Tools like PearlTrees, Tableau, and Evernote help us visually manage larger working sets of information. Tools like MindMeld provide augmenting content based on what we are talking about. Part of the challenge of being human is the working set of data we can operate on. Consciously we operate with very small working sets estimated to be 40piecesofinformationa second.However,subconsciously we process 11M pieces of information per second. We are aware of much less than 1% of our processing capability. In truth our unconscious minds run our lives. Weexpect tools that will more effectively utilize our subconscious processing to come to the marketplace. Once we really understand the data by connecting it we need to act on that information or create from it. So how quickly can we create? It is estimated on average we can think at about 400 wpm. Efficiency in getting that out of our head is the challenge. Here are some numbers on how fast we can capture our thoughts. • 33 wpm – Phone Keyboard • 40 wpm – Phone Swipe Keyboard • 80 wpm – Keyboard • 150 wpm – Speech Given this, one would think speech interfaces would be chosen more frequently. For some professionsspeechispreferred;doctorsuse transcriptionservicestosavetimeonpaperwork. The other challenge with speech is that a traditional cubical office space would have a lot of sound pollution if everyone talked at once. The movie Her featured a speech interface that operated in a deceptively quiet environment. Keyboards will continue to be very popular, but speech will gain popularity as accuracy and work from home increases. We expect more tools in this space to help us personally manage the 30 Spritz Spritz enables reading speeds of up to 1000 wpm by removing the need for eye movement in reading. Future of Work: Loving Work (Employees)
  31. 31. onslaught of information we are expected to deal with. Speed Learning The evolution in learning allows you to learn quickly in small chunks anywhere. Massive Open Online Courseware (MOOC) like Cousera provides access to the best courses taught by the best professors for free. Targeted learning tools like Lynda.com or Code Academy provide access to the 5 minutes of knowledge you need right now. You want to get the core information from a book, but not dedicate 8 hours to reading it? With GetAbstract you can get the overview of a book in minutes. Theworldofcasual andquicklearningenables easy lifelong learning opportunities. Assist / Hybrid Intelligence We are seeing the rise of digital assistants like Apple Siri, Google Now, and Microsoft Cortana. These assistants have varying capability and availability on platforms. Apple Siri – Siri can set appointments, send messages, play music, and launch apps. Siri was the first entrant into the space of virtual assistants. Google Now – Google Now is available on phones and wearable platforms like Google Glass. Google Now looks at browsing history, Gmail, and location data to provide various cards on the weather, travel, restaurants, etc. Google Now can also answer many questions. Microsoft Cortana – This is the most customizable of the assistants. Cortana, adds the ability to see / modify what the phone understands about you through its notebook (modeled after how real assistants keep notebooks about their clients). Cortana understands locations (work and home) and your relationships to other people. Cortana not only accepts voice commands, but also text commands (similar to Google Now). Emu – This app listens to your text conversation and jumps in to help. These smartphone based assistants can do simple things for you, help you keep schedules, and travel plans. There are many human virtual assistant services out there that fill gaps for tasks that you might have a dedicated personal assistant do. Some of these are by the hour services (Fancy Hands, Zirtual) and others are by the task (like Mechanical Turk and Task Rabbit). Crowd sourced intelligence can answer your pressing questions (Quora) or advise you on a date while its happening (CrowdPilot). A new Twitter app, Jelly, allows you to 31 Future of Work: Loving Work (Employees)
  32. 32. quickly hityoursocialnetworksoffriendsfor shopping advice. There are countless tools out there that allow you to quickly crowdsource what you want to do. Some of us are really already directed by computers to fill gaps in automation. Wired gave the example of a UPS delivery truck that is routed completely by computers. People assist in the parts that can’t be automated. This is an example of the hybrid workforce in action. Together these kinds of services extend your ability to get things done and create a kind of hybrid intelligence cleverly mixing human and computer effort. Future intelligence is about asking good questions, being aware of the nature of things, and your working memory set. Anything that can be automated will, and facts / information canberecalledwithavoicecommandortyped question. It will be more important to be able to explore a thought space than to memorize every fact. Before computers, our best external memory was in the form of text or drawings; which wasn’t very searchable or scalable. The age of hybrid intelligence is upon us. Automate The last element of creating a digital advantage is automating everything you can. Given life is so complicated you really need macros for your life. One man actually wrote a program to automate his job. Some companies, like Lincoln Electric, focus on process efficiency by actually seeking and rewarding this behavior. Automation frees us to do other things; it’s the gift of time. There are a lot of great tools out there for personal automation like IFTTT and Zapier. One area we are seeing a lot of activity in is home automation with Lowes, Staples, Control4, Revolr, Tasker, and many others getting into this game. What can you do 32 Wearable Technology in Healthcare Wearable Intelligence’s concept for using Google Glass in healthcare provides a glimpse into how wearables will invade the workplace. Future of Work: Loving Work (Employees)
  33. 33. with this kind of automation? Here are a few examples: IFTTT Best Recipes • Transcribe voicemail to Evernote • Controlling blogging posts – post on WordPress causes post on Facebook, Google+, Twitter, etc. • Turn on your lights at sunset • Automatically save photos to Dropbox or Skydive • Add Foursquare check-ins to your calendar • Notify me when a stock reaches a target • Save photos – forward all emails with photos to be stored in Tumblr • Change your profile on Facebook and it changes on Twitter • Automatically thank someone for following you on Twitter • Add tracks you like from multiple music players to Evernote • Add new movie releases to your calendar • Put favorite YouTube videos in a spreadsheet on Google • Send a text message to be read on 
 your phone • Bill reminders • If it’s going to rain today turn lights to blue • Blink lights to notify me of something (for the hearing impaired) Lowe’s IRIS Magic Rules Examples • Key fob to unlock door • When alarm triggered, record video • When key fob present, send message • On motion turn on lights Control4 – $109M in revenue • Set scenes that can be scheduled • Control temperature, music, locks, garage door, blinds, TV / video switches, cameras, motion sensing, lights • Holidays – Control lights. Play "jingle bells" on doorbell. Play holiday music and light the tree at a certain time • Bars – control lights and Audio / Visual throughout a bar Staples Connect • Controls Environment, locks, shades, lights • Welcome Home – lights, TV, and cooling set • Goodnight – lock house, turn off / down lights, set cooling level • Rise and Shine – lights come on, blinds open, set cooling level • Leave for the Day – blinds close, door lock, set cooling level 33 Future of Work: Loving Work (Employees)
  34. 34. The automation opportunities are only limited by your imagination. For example, what if you picked up your phone at night and
 your lights dimmed so you could navigate through the house. Never underestimate the value of simplicity and convenience in our complex, time starved lives. Our Digital Advantage For collaborative work, being in the same place doesn’t matter anymore. Ericsson suggested in their future work vision that we are moving from a physical space to an exchange space. We are closer than ever to the feeling of being there and sometimes even achieving better than being there effects. The center of gravity for organizations has been moving from a physical location to being online ever since we started networking computers at work. Collaboration is moving beyond traditional meeting tools that just enable audio, video, chat, and pixel pushing. Apps are starting to be born collaborative (e.g. Google Docs). Just as important as the tools is the best practice for using them. Only 5% of people prefer to collaborate with phone or video conferencing. The majority of the time deferred / time-shifted communication is preferred and we want meetings to be as short as possible. Highly- provisioned workspace models have not taken off. Consider Cisco Telepresence or Haworth Bluescape which both require major investment tied to physical spaces. These high-expense at a fixed location solutions lack mobility. 34 Lowes Iris Lowes Iris home automation system is one of many suites on the market. Control4 Control4 is arguably the leader in home automation. Future of Work: Loving Work (Employees)
  35. 35. Many companies (like WordPress and Zapier) are born virtualized and use a collection of tools to enable a highly distributed, decentralized workplace. It’s not just email and meeting tools that enable this anymore, in fact some companies like WordPress have all but eliminated email by using blogging instead. Zapier focuses on team, tools, and processes to make their virtual organization work. The following table gives a summary of popular distributed work tools: 35 Collaboration Area Collaboration Tools Meetings GotoMeeting, WebEx Project Management Podio, Basecamp, iDoneThis, Confluence, Dotloop (all about connecting things) Hallway Chats Campfire, IRC, iMessage, Google Talk, Hip Chat, Lync Content ShareFile, DropBox, SkyDrive, iCloud, GoogleDrive Collaborative Office Tools Google Docs, iWork, Office365 Drive Byes Convoi, Swiggle (pic every 8 seconds), Google Hangouts, Skype Email Google Mail, Outlook Development Github, Trillo, One Test, One Bug Data Centers AWS, Azure, GCE Passwords LastPass Enterprise Blogging / Social Podio, WordPress P2 Future of Work: Loving Work (Employees)
  36. 36. These tools are enabling some powerful effects for distributed work. With all of these effects in place, companies are finding they can significantly reduce the need for face-to- face meetings, but they still have them just 10% of the time instead of 90% of the time. These include hack week meet-ups of teams or even grand meet-ups of the whole company. This saves facility and travel costs. Will this flip-the-workplace perform as well for a ten thousand employee company as a hundred employee company? Only time will tell. These tools and techniques do scale to larger groups. Having more people read the blogs is easy after the fact and is convenientfor things like on-boarding new employees.Wewillcontinue toseetoolscreated to better support the growing list of virtual organizations. 36 Virtual Effects Time Shifting Effects. At WordPress to keep everyone in sync, if something important happens in a meeting people blog about it during the meeting. Hallway effects. Chat rooms that persist outside of meetings and are public are used 
 to get hallway conversation effects. Swiggle enables a unique visual understanding of 
 who looks available to chat. Serendipity – The first two effects create more opportunitiesformagicalintersections 
 to happen at work. Future of Work: Loving Work (Employees)
  37. 37. Future of Work: Building Delight (Employers) 2019 TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE “ In thirty years’ time, as technology moves forward even further, people are going to look back and wonder why offices ever existed. “ – Richard Branson
  38. 38. Corporationsexisttoimprovethe human condition by providing meaningfulworkandproducing goods and services that improve the quality of life. We collectively create technological advances that move us all forward though unevenly at times. Last yearwetalkedabouttheGolden4; thefourskillsmoderncorporations need to thrive: automation, information, design, and connectedness. This year we look at how the nature of work is changing for employers. The Dating Game The freelance / creative economy is driving corporations to play the dating game. Companies are getting into the business of matching great talent to great work. Companies that don’t embrace anywhere (office-less; completely decentralized), any device (BYO), and anytime (flex hours) practices won’t be able to compete for the best talent in the world. Often engagements are shorter-term task level engagements. These crowdsourced work engagements 38 Oculus Rift VR Demo The Oculus Rift is a new virtual reality headset that lets players step inside their favorite games and virtual worlds. Future of Work: Building Delight (Employers)
  39. 39. require mobile workstyles that modern corporations can enable. Divesting Devices Companies are divesting the devices they used to provide to employees, because employees are coming pre-integrated with technology. They are bringing their improved digital selves to the job including computers, networks, and software. Gartner estimates that 36% of businesses by 2016 and 45% of businesses by 2020 will be completely Bring Your Own Device (BYOD). The device isn’t the only issue; employees bring tools (apps) and their personal information cloud (data) with them. This creates some unique challenges for enterprises: • Trusted Apps and Data on Untrusted 
 Devices and Networks - Compromise of BYO Devices and 
 Networks - Compromise of Corporate Data • App / Device Mismatch - Which apps are really used on 
 which devices? - Do some apps become mobile only or laptop only? • Consistent Data Across Devices • Supporting Every BYO Platform • Supporting the Next BYO Wave: Wearables and IOT • UX Expectation - Consumer class work experiences Google Glass is a wearable computer with an optical head-mounted display (OHMD) that is being developed by Google in the Project Glass research and development project, with a mission of producing a mass-market ubiquitous computer. A look at some break- through wearable tech 39 Future of Work: Building Delight (Employers)
  40. 40. We are seeing many solutions in this space for device, app, and data management, however there are still many challenges to solve for the pre-integrated digital employee. Divesting Data Centers - Enterprise in the Cloud Enterprises and especially growing ones will start to move their operations to the public cloud. The grow-as-you-go proposition of the cloud and competitive pricing between providers makes it cheaper and higher performing in most cases to run operations in the cloud. Amazon, Google, and Microsoft are competing heavily in this space with an expected market size of $250B by 2017. In April 2014 Google discounted its cloud offering prices from 30% to 80%; this is a huge competitive move. MicrosofthasmoveditsfocusfromWindowsto the cloud and mobile. Microsoft is monetizing cloud services over Windows Server licenses as reflected by the Azure name change from Windows Azure to Microsoft Azure and supporting other operating systems like Linux. Cisco sees networking equipment moving from on-premise data centers to cloud data centers. In April 2014 they announced a $1B investment to enter the cloud market. Even telecommunicationcompaniesarepositioning forthecloudwiththeirmovementtoNetwork Functions Virtualization (NFV). 40 Grow as you Go Compute Storage OpenCompute has shifted the conversation about energy If they don’t have your keys they don’t have your data Cloud Optimized Services Security Network + CDN Globalize as much as you want 40% virtualized security by 2015 - Gartner Future of Work: Building Delight (Employers)
  41. 41. The cloud provides compute, storage, networks, optimized edge networks, security, and cloud-optimized services (like databases and load balancing). This allows companies to globalize without the cost of standing up their own data centers in many geographies. Thesecloudsareevengettingbetteratrunning unusual workloads like GPUs. Organizations that have extreme scale, special security requirements, or a long tail of legacy apps may be the last holdouts for moving to the cloud. Delivering Delight Corporations continue to accelerate the rate of innovation and differentiate on user experiences. Here we will dig a bit into Innovation and User Experience. Innovation Alex Wissner suggests that intelligence tries to maximize options; that is, to not be squeezed into a corner that makes survival less likely. This is a key challenge for successful corporations; long-lived corporations learn to innovate their way out of these corners. It’s far easier / more sensible to take big risks as a startup where the upside considerably outweighs the downside. Corporations are typically good at incremental innovation; they know how to innovate products they know. There is a point at which companies need a disruptive innovation (as Guy Kawasaki would say, where they need to “jump curves”). This can be done through acquisitions, internal research, open innovation, and accelerators. The problem with internal disruptive research is math. Assuming 1 out of 10 startups is disruptive (major returns are achieved on 10% to 20% of startups), one would need 10 x 5 man teams of your best people to work for 2 years to get a singe home run. Costing at least $2M a team, that is a $20M investment. Open innovation can potentially help by having prized based competitions(hack-a-thons, startup weekends, and innovation prizes). Another trend is to provide Angel funding for startups that can help disrupt your business like the Citrix Startup Accelerator amongst others. In the age of surprise, differentiating disruptive innovation will continue to be highly sought after. 41 Future of Work: Building Delight (Employers)
  42. 42. User Experience (UX) Today there are many moments of sale (i.e. key decision points when consumers select, buy, and use products), which can be very public events. When consumers research a product, when they buy, and when they use it. Consumers aren’t shy about tweeting or posting about their experiences either. The UX is where people touch your product or service; UX has become central to your product’s value proposition. Increasingly, customization or personalization of these experiences is becoming important. Especially with anticipatory / context-aware interfaces like Google Now, Siri, and Cortana which, much like a friend, try to guess what you’re thinking and get interactions right. Net Promoter Score is often used to understand ifyourproduct’smarketisgrowing.Itisameasure of delight. Increasingly, to fit products into our time starved world products they need to add convenience and save us time. If a product can save us time or help change what we can be, we are more likely to acquire it. Mobile Apps have changed our perception about what good software is and what it should cost. Most apps are free or cost around a dollar. Often we are paying for the service behind the apps or being subsidized by ads. Apps are expected to have some social elements built in and to be somewhat multi-device enabled. Here are some of the new rules for multi-device apps: • Data is accessible everywhere • Apps are coherent / similar across devices yet Device-Optimized • Apps are Mashable with Externalizable Control (consider media players) • Reduced repetition / Shared State - If you do it on one device you don’t have to do it again on others Competing on experiences will continue to be an essential part of business. The Great Aggregator The job of IT is moving from projects that deploy hardware, deploy software, build value addedservices,andmanageoperationstoone where they help in the selection of instantly deployed services, monitor those services, and helpwithautomation/aggregationacross these services. This requires services that have good APIs / Developer Experiences (DX) and Mashability Experiences (MX). Software is expected to have great UX, DX, and MX experiences. The programmable web alone indexes over 10K service APIs. 42 Future of Work: Building Delight (Employers)
  43. 43. They have studied for years what makes a good API which they have identified as 5 key characteristics: valuable, planned, flexible, managed / measured, and supported. The core technologies for great APIs include RESTful services, JSON, OAuth, and HTML5. API management has become a business on its own with tools like Mashery. There are even tools that will turn any web page into an API (kimono). These APIs unlock the stovepipe that used to exist between the cloud and client side apps referred to holistically as Software as a Service (SaaS). We are beginning to see corporations put requirements on Enterprise SaaS providers. Here is an initial list of the new rules for Enterprise SaaS: • Transparency = Trust • It’s the customer’s data • Open APIs (REST + JSON + OAuth) • Enable Enterprise Dashboard • Enable Anytime Integration • You shall be secure • Wirelessly Delivered to Mobile • Make it App Store easy The list of SaaS services designed for the Enterprise keeps growing: Google Docs, 43 Future of Work: Building Delight (Employers)
  44. 44. Office365, SalesForce, ADP, Workday, etc. But we also need the ability to mash these services together. Fortunately, the cost of integration continues to drop with advent of good service technology and tools like ITDuzzIT or SnapLogic. We see automation and aggregation as key roles for IT going forward. Workplace – Virtual, Decentralized, and On Demand 61% of information workers currently work outside the office. FORBES says telecommuting willincrease63%inthenext5 years.Companies are becoming more decentralized and distributed. Companies divest their devices (BYO), data center (Cloud), and real estate (office-less) “businesses” to reduce overhead costs and focus on their “real business”. For many companies there is no office. The listof companiesthathirevirtualemployees and the number of companies that are 100% virtual continue to grow. It is the rise of the highly distributed, asset light Enterprise. There are a lot of benefits to this philosophy: • Access the Best Talent. Taking distance out of the equation allows you to pick talent from a much larger pool and enables better talent / passion to task assignment • Kill the commute • Work where you are most productive • More efficient office space use • Cost Savings on the second biggest corporate expense, i.e. facilities • Happier, more productive employees Many corporate functions are already remote: HR, CPA, Legal, Payroll, Advertising, etc. WordPress is completely office-less. They save so much money on facilities that they allow teams to meet wherever and whenever the want in the world. If Greece happens to be the easiest place 
 for everyone to get to, meet there. The book “Remote: Office Not Required” highlights some new best practices for 
 the virtual enterprises: • Thou shall overlap – Have at least some time overlapping of working hours at locations with different time zones • Everyone can see Everything – This eliminates waiting and creates a common understanding • Virtual Water Cooler – Use chat to create water cooler effects 44 Future of Work: Building Delight (Employers)
  45. 45. • Tool up – You need good collaboration tools • Meet-ups – Every now and then the team needs to have face-to-face meetings. Non-work parts of these meet-ups are often when the best decisions are made because we are relaxed and more open: dinner, pub, and coffee shop • One on Ones – One on ones whether virtual or face-to-face are still needed Let’s talk about some ideas for office space efficiency, the cost of physically being there, and better ideas of place. Office Space Efficiency “In 10 years, the average work environment will be as foreign to most people now as today's work environment would be to someone living a century ago.” – Britni Myers Digital Journal Ericsson suggests offices shouldn’t exist to store people. It’s a funny notion, but we layout offices that way. We create separate personal spaces that hold employees for the time they are at work. Sadly those spaces are poorly utilized; UnWork cites less than 45% utilization. Given that facilities is the second highest business cost this seems like a lot of waste. Cost of Physically Being There There are significant costs to physically 
 co-locating somewhere at the same time. These expenses can include costs of fuel, 45 Future of Work: Building Delight (Employers)
  46. 46. costs of transportation, environmental costs, cost of living effects, tax implications, and most importantly, lost time. There are also practical limits to physical co-location. Two people can meet practically anywhere, but it gets progressively harder and more expensive from there. How many rooms or buildings fit 10, 20, 200, 5000, or millions of people? The benefits of co-locating also go down, as the group gets larger. Wharton suggeststheoptimalteamsizefallssomewhere in the 5 to 12 range, but even that is task dependent. Virtually being there eliminates all these costs and allows elastic scale for attendance at almost no cost. Virtual workplaces allow many more options to employers and employees. Better Ideas of Place Information workers ebb and flow between several modalities of work. When we need to collaborate with others and when we need to work alone. This can be creative (open mode) or execution work (closed mode) (John Cleese on Creativity). Let’s face it, as the book “Remote: Office Not Required” puts it, sometimes the office is the ultimate interruption factory. Group activities like running a restaurant require co-location. But most activities don’t. However, even virtual teams benefit from face-to-face meetings. Different physical and virtual environments suit different needs. Offices shouldn’t be a place to “store” employees during working hours. We have already discussed tools for working together in the Future of Work: Loving Work. Here we will discuss alternatives for physical spaces for those times when we need to get together. Activity Based Workspaces If you are going to have an office, Activity Based Workspaces provide the most efficient and delightful workspaces. Activity Based Working promotesofficedesignthatoptimally supports work activities, rather than drawing boundariesaroundemployeepersonalspaces. This is not open office layout; it’s a collection of different kinds of spaces that support Brainstorm Designer Restaurant Developer Group Alone ExecutionCreative 46 Future of Work: Building Delight (Employers)
  47. 47. various work activities. This might be spaces that feel like a coffee shop, places that feel like a lounge, non-traditional meeting rooms like Kivas, spaces that feel like living rooms, open spaces, and closed spaces (like phone booths). Basically whatever kind of space inspires people and helps them get the job done. By doing Activity Based Workspaces, Citrix IT has doubled employee density, while improving the work environment, and seeing an increase in people working from the “office”. Third Spaces If you don’t have an office or the main office is too far away, what UnWork describes as the 3rdspacemaybetheanswer.Thesearespaceswhereitisconvenientforyourteamtogettogether. There are numerous co-working spaces (services like Regus, LiquidSpace, ShareDesk and DeskCamping) and short term spaces like those provided by Breather. These spaces are becoming smart spaces pre-configured with wireless networking, automated lighting, extra displaysandanythingelseanon-demandcorporationneeds.Utilizingtheunusedspacecapacity in cities on demand could have a dramatic impact on businesses. This could even have a dramatic impact on cities enabling design around people instead of cars. Office space on-demand wherever your team wants to meet is becoming easier than ever to get. We now look at space in terms of its facility and locality to the task at hand, valuing the work experience it creates over ownership. 47 Future of Work: Building Delight (Employers)
  48. 48. Future of Work: Education 2019 TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE “ Imagination is the source of every form of human achievement” – Ken Robinson
  49. 49. As a species, we publish everything we know in real-time on the web. Innovating on that body of knowledge is throttled by our ability to filter, process, and connect knowledge. We have reached a rate of information growth where students need to learn eight times as much before they have started a four and a half year degree. This has put significant stress on our models of education. 49 Flip the 
 Classroom Data Driven 
 Mentoring Certificates to Credits to Degrees Just in Time
 Learning Bite Sized 
 Learning IUanyWare Apps & Data Virtual Labs Competency based All you Can Eat Free Classes 
 for the Masses Crowd Mentoring Future of Work: Education
  50. 50. Amazon Retail Moment for Education Education is undergoing an Amazon Retail Moment. We are learning to do education at scale, less expensively, with higher quality, and more effectively. This disrupts the business ofeducation,butwhyisthisthecase?Hereare a few drivers: • Learn Free - Massive Open Online Courseware is freely available from many sources. • Learn Anytime / Anywhere - Education can now be delivered from any network attached device at the time, location, and learning pace chosen by the student. • Best Quality - Great teachers can reach millions of students instead of 100s. The best institutions in the country (like MIT 
 and Stanford) are making their 
 courses available online for free. - Because this courseware is easy to instrument, feedback on the effectiveness of every part of the course can be continuously optimized. • Just-In-Time and Targeted Learning - Services like Lynda allow you to learn specific skills in just a few minutes. This is moving us to a just-in-time learning model. Malcom Gladwell suggests it takes 10K hours to be an expert at something, but Josh Kaufman suggests thatitonly takes20hourstobereasonably good at something. Learning what you need when you need it is the new rule. • Flip the Classroom (if you still have one) - TheKhanAcademyhasbrokencoursesinto digestible bits like Lynda. But additionally they have provided automated homework for every part of the lesson. They can understand what bits of the course are beingmosteffectiveandevolvethecourse. Khanflipstheclassroombyhavingstudents listen to the lecture at home and do the homework in the classroom. They give teachers tools to see which students are having trouble with parts of the homework andtheycanthendirectpersonalized tutoringwhilethekidsareintheclassroom. 50 Future of Work: Education
  51. 51. • Certificates to Degrees - Companies like Udacity are trying to move from Certificates to Degrees with online courseware at a much cheaper price point. Teaching is moving from being like live theatre to being like video games. As educators from Universities are quick to point out, there are other reasons students go off 
 to college: • Social Aspects - Making friends and dating are key social aspects of college that being there just helps. • Motivation - Deadlines and grades motivate completion and excellence. Angela Duckworth’s research suggests the biggest indicator of success is grit, 
 not natural talent or off-the-chart intelligence. Grit being defined as 
 the combination of passion and persistence. Instilling grit in students can be hard at a distance. • Getting Kids Out of the House - Parents benefit from getting the kids out of the house and it also gives kids another view on life. If the model for education gets flipped where people only need to co-locate occasionally, this changes the facilities model for education. If the course is free, but the testing and degree isn’t, this changes the financial model. This may change the monetary focus of universities, perhaps to focus more on funded research, innovation/ imagination, and entrepreneurship. University research has been a long-term driver of corporate innovation. Teaching the Teachers By putting their courses online, teachers not only reach more students but enable massive big data learning. They can tell exactly what parts of a course are effective 51 Flipping the Classroom The Khan Academy flips the classroom so you get the lectures at home and do the homework in class. Future of Work: Education
  52. 52. and which aren’t. This allows them to work just the parts of the course that will have the biggest impact. This teaches them to be better teachers. Lifelong Learning At no time in history has mankind created so much information. Information is doubling every 18 months. This means at the end of a 4.5 year degree you need to learn 8 times as much as when you started; that is a losing game. This makes rapid lifelong learning a must. Massive Online Open Courseware and products like Lynda can help us play catch-up, but human intelligence alone is 
 a losing game. Hybrid Intelligence / Teaching Robots So if we can’t keep up with the rate of information, what can we do? Part of 
 the solution is hybrid intelligence. Allow computers to suggest and do the heavy informational lifting, while people perform the higher order reasoning and creativity. We are moving from working to teaching robots (or software) to do the work. Gartner believes teaching robots will be a major job 
 in the near future. Baxter, by Rethink Robotics, is one of the first robots that people train by simply moving its arms. There is a new division of work coming for humans, computers, and robotics. We have seen this with specialized robots on car production lines for some time, more recently in warehouses to handle shipping. We are seeing a movement from specialized robotics to general-purpose robotics. This big leap is being driven by real world problems like the Fukushima power plant meltdown, which drove the Darpa Robotics Challenge. 52 Teaching Robots Rethink Robotics Baxter is one of the first robots you can teach just by showing it what to do. Future of Work: Education
  53. 53. Future of Work: Finance 2019 TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE “ A wise man should have money in his head, but not in his heart.” – Jonathan Swift
  54. 54. The digitization of the financial industry creates a major business model disruption. Many things are changing simultaneously: where we bank, how we shop, how we pay, and even our concepts of currency (bitcoin) are being challenged. Your bank will move to the cloud. The reasons for us to go into a physical bank continues to be decreasing: to get a loan, businesses that deposit physical cash, and what else? If this is the case, does the bank need to be a physical place anymore? Almost every bank already has an online presence and many banking institutions such as Ally Bank have become branchless / completely virtual. In many parts of the developing world, physical banks are not affordable: consider Indonesia, a country that is made up of 17.5K islands with over 700 dialects. Expect your bank to drift into the cloud in the near future. How we are buying things has changed dramatically due to online retail driven by companies like Amazon, EBay, and every business having an online presence. If you can wait a few days you can research the best product, find the cheapest price, and have it delivered to your house. Services such as Amazon Prime make two-day shipping free. The first 54 The Bank is in the Cloud The Store is in Your Pocket Snap a Photo to Buy it... Your Wallet is Your Wearable BANK S H O P Future of Work: Finance
  55. 55. moment of truth for retail used to be when the consumer bought the product, followed by the second moment of truth when they used the product. Recently, we have had a zero moment of truth where customers become aware of a product and research it before buying it from the cheapest source. Awareness happens less through traditional marketing channels as consumers often ask their friends on Facebook before making a bigpurchase.Thiscontinuestobetroublesome for bricks and mortar retailers. When people go to a bookstore, browse the books, and then order it online it dramatically affects in-store revenue. This has killed many bookstores already. But this is happening with almost every other kind of goods. Amazon recently added the ability to buy something by taking a photo of a product in their iPhone app. This may change the model for physical retailers as places to experience a product before buying it and perhaps monetizing by tapping into the marketing revenuestream.Thestoreistrulyin yourpocket. The majority of the world has retired the magnetic strip based credit card for NFC based cards. This transition to chip based credit cards is scheduled to occur in October 2014 for the United States. But does it make sense to have so many chipped credit cards? Couldn’t one chip be associated with many banking services, but perhaps have much stronger multi-factor authentication. Imagine a wearable device that contains the payment chips and enough biometric sensing to know you are wearing it. Then imagine how this could eliminate the need for so Mobile Coverage 17.5K Islands and 700 Dialects 55 Future of Work: Finance
  56. 56. many identities and credentials. Banks may even subsidize this kind of wearable for the added fraud cost avoidance. The middleman continues to disappear from transactions. Whether the retail store, the car dealership, or even transaction costs on purchases. The grand bitcoin experiment created a digital currency and tried to remove transactioncosts.Unfortunately, governments may not like it when businesses take over control of the money supply, make it difficult for them to track spending, and difficult to collect taxes. Bitcoin has had some setbacks with wildly fluctuating currency rates and the bankruptcy of its biggest exchange due to it being hacked. What we may see come out of this is a better government-backed digital currency that has less transaction costs than the current banking system, though banks will certainly lobby against this. Ultimately, we are automating some of the middleman costs out of finance and retail. An Australian tailor creates a wearable credit card. http://www.campaignbrief.com/2014/04/mj-bale- teams-with-heritage-ba.html Innovation in Finance 56 Future of Work: Finance
  57. 57. Future of Work: Healthcare 2019 TECHNOLOGY LANDSCAPE The age of planned human evolution 
 is upon us.
  58. 58. Few things in life are more 
 important than one’s health. Among the many advances in technologywe’vewitnessedover the last few decades, perhaps healthcare has had the most impact on our daily lives. From new discoveries about the mind to understanding our fundamentalprogramming,over the coming years we’re on the threshold of discovering how we function on a molecular level. The next evolution of humanity will be technological, rather than biological (though they are very intertwined). “In a way, we’ve crossed the threshold of discovery, where we’ve spent the last millennium or so discovering new things, to where we’re now at the point where we’re gaining control over them… we’re entering a different era in our species” said David Evans, chief futurist at Cisco Systems Inc. “We’re no longer at the mercy of evolution or biology. With technology — nanotech and biotech and gene therapy and new emerging material sciences and 3D printing and so on — we’re entering a new era for our self-evolution. Very soon, I think there 58 Future of Work: Healthcare Antiquity 460 B.C. Origin of rational medicine. Hippocrates states that diseases have natural causes and puts forth the Hippocratic Oath 400 B.C. Philistion of Locri distinguishes veins and arteries and determines only arteries pulse
  59. 59. won’t be any part of the body that won’t be either augmented, replaced or improved, should we choose to do so.” In an article in the National Post, Mr. Evans, describes the beginning phase of human history as “adornment”, where people would augment themselves with cosmetics, tattoos and jewelry. He believes that today, we as humans are entering the second, or “wearable technologies,” phase of this 
 evolution, as seen by devices such as smart watches and Google Glass camera glasses. Brain The human brain is both the most powerful and most efficient computer ever created. Running on just 23.3 watts, the brain makes up 2% of a person's weight. Despite this, even at rest, the brain consumes 20% of the body's energy. The brain consumes 
 energy at 10 times the rate of the rest of the body per gram of tissue. Even though your brain is the most energy intensive organ in your body, by computing technology standards, your brain uses an extremely low amount of energy for an estimated 1exaFLOP (exaSCALE) computing capability. Theoretically, an exaSCALE computing system – 100 times more computing capability than today’s fastest systems – could be built with only more common x86 processors, but it would require as much as 2 gigawatts of power or roughly the peak power generation of the Hoover Dam. 59 29 A.D. Galen Clinical medicine based on observation and experience 1084 First documented hospital in England Canterbury Antiquity 280 B.C. Herophilus Dissection studies the nervous system and distinguishes between sensory nerves and motor nerves and the brain Future of Work: Healthcare
  60. 60. In terms of bang for your computing buck, your brain is by far the winner, at the rate of about 86,956,521 times more power efficient than conventional computing systems. The rush is now on to try to fundamentally understand the most basic building blocks of how our own brains process information. The task is daunting; the average human brain possesses about 100 billion neurons with roughly 1 quadrillion — 1 million billion — connections known as synapses wiring these cells together. To put this in perspective, the new Xbox one gaming platform microprocessor boasts a mere 5 billion transistors within it. Based in Geneva, Switzerland, the Human Brain Project (HBP) is a large scientific research project, directed by the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne and largely funded by the European Union. 
 The project aims to simulate the complete 
 human brain on supercomputers to better understand how it functions. A primary goal of the project is to discover new techniques of brain-centric interactive supercomputing. Building devices and systems, modeled after the brain, may help overcome fundamental limits on the energy-efficiency, reliability and programmability of current technologies, clearing the road for systems with brain-like intelligence and performance. Today we are at a point where most efforts are best described as brain inspired rather than actually functionally recreating our brains. IBM is among a group of technology companies exploring the opportunities of 60 1800s 1800 Humphry Davy announces the anesthetic 
 properties of nitrous oxide 1816 Stethoscope Invented 1818 First successful human blood transfusion 1842 First surgical operation using Anesthesia with ether Future of Work: Healthcare
  61. 61. cognitive computing systems. The company recently unveiled its experimental TrueNorth computer chips containing memory, processors and communication channels wired up like the synapses, neurons and axons of a brain. A key idea is that the chips can be hooked up into vast grids with many thousands working together in parallel (we have seen a continued march towards more cores in computing). These cognitive chips are designed to mimic how our brains work handling many streams of input data at once – much like the sensory input we deal with all the time as humans. The major challenge to this type of brain inspired computing system is that it requires a significantly different approach to programming than what you would expect when looking at more traditional computing devices. To help solve this challenge, IBM designed a new way of programming. 
 The approach involves telling the computer how to connect together the many individual chips to work in unison. The IBM team came up with a way to package the functionality of each chip inside blocks of code they call "corelets" which can in turn be bundled in ever increasing systems and sub-systems. Essentially these systems are “wired” together into several libraries that are dedicated 
 to specific tasks, much like how our brain may dedicate certain parts to specific bodily functions. Mind Formost,howthehumanbrainworksremains a mystery, let alone how to program it. Recent 61 1852 Hypodermic syringe with plunger invented 1879 First Vaccine 
 for Cholera 1895 First documented media use 
 of x-rays Future of Work: Healthcare
  62. 62. advancements in Brain-computer interfacing (BCI), sometimes called a mind-machine interface, is creating new opportunities in exploring the connection between mind and body powered by nothing more than your thoughts. BCI is one of those areas of technology that has longed been viewed as mostly science fiction. The kind of technology you might see in a low budget Sci-Fi movie. Remember Luke Skywalker’s prosthetic limb in The Empire Strikes Back? In healthcare, medical grade BCIs are often used in assisting people with damage to their cognitive or sensory-motor functions, however, more and more we are seeing 
 affordable BCIs emerge in neurotherapy applications that assist people with ADHD, anxiety, phobia, depression, and other common psychological ailments.  Because of costs and access, this type of technology has generally been limited to scientists and researchers. Over the last few years the cost of BCI technology has begun to be reduced, opening the opportunity for those who want to explore the inner-workings of the mind without the costs of more traditional approaches. One such example is a new Kickstarter campaign created by engineers, Joel Murphy and Conor Russomanno, which aims to create an affordable, open-source brain-computer interface kit. 62 1899 First commercial bottle of aspirin sold 1901 First ECG or EKG machine 1800s 1900s 1920 Band-Aid Invented Future of Work: Healthcare
  63. 63. The tools for reading brainwaves have 
 been around since at least 1912, when 
 Russian physiologist, Vladimir Vladimirovich Pravdich-Neminsky, published the first use of electroencephalography (EEG). EEG 
 provides the ability to measure the faint electrical signals that our brains make when we do things. These signals are emitted when we think, day-dream, sleep, move around, or meditate. Whenever we use our brains, electrical impulses are moving and potentials are flowing all around inside of our heads. EEG is a technique for recording these brain signals.  According to the OpenBCI project creators, “An EEG system has three basic parts to measure these signals: electrodes which are placed on the scalp; an electronic amplifier that can sense and relay the tiny electrical changes that your brain makes; and a signal processing computer used to make sense of the data and map it to some type of output. After that, the possibilities are endless! One
 of the most important links in the chain is the amplifier. It is the goal of our Kickstarter 63 1922 Insulin first used to treat diabetes 1924 First vaccine for Tetanus produced 1927 “Iron Lung” invented 1928 Penicillin’s antibacterial qualities first discovered OpenBCI An Open Source Brain Computer Interface A customizable and fully open brain-computer interface platform that gives you access to high-quality brain wave data. Future of Work: Healthcare
  64. 64. to make an open-source, affordable, high- quality EEG amplifier available to everyone so that those possibilities we are talking about can be realized by anyone.” In the United States, the Food and Drug 
 Administration recently approved a new artificial retina technology known as the Argus II that can restore partial sight to people suffering from a specific type of blindness known as retinitis pigmentosa. Elsewhere, scientists at the University 
 of Southern California at Los Angeles 
 believe they are close to being able to 
 restore a person’s memory capabilities with microchips inserted in the brain. The researchers used an electronic system that duplicates the neural signals associated with memory. They then managed to replicate the brain function in rats associated with long-term learned behavior, even when the rats had been drugged to forget. “Flip the switch on, and the rats remember. Flip it off, and the rats forget,” said 
 Theodore Berger of the USC Viterbi School of Engineering, who holds the David Packard Chair in Engineering and is director of the USC Center for Neural Engineering. Body Imagine a day when doctors repair damaged, diseased or arthritic joints with new ones ― not made of titanium or plastic ― but with your very own tissue. Thanks to new research, that day is fast approaching. Scientists at Toronto’s Mount Sinai 
 Centre for Regenerative Medicine and Musculoskeletal Research, including Dr. 64 1949 First implant of intraocular lens 1948 Plastic contact lens developed 1950 Tylenol approved by FDA in 1958 Future of Work: Healthcare
  65. 65. Rita Kandel, are pioneering an entirely 
 new frontier: the use of three-dimensional printing to construct replacement parts that mimic the patient’s own joints and bones. More simply, similar to other forms of 3D printing, the technology creates objects by laying down many successive micro-layers of material. The technology allows doctors to create replacement parts that are built specifically for a patient using the patient’s own DNA. “This is a real meeting of minds,” explains Dr. Kandel, who is also Chief of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital. “Dr. Toyserkani uses 3D printing to literally construct the joint using 
 biodegradable material. We then take that joint and use the patient’s stem cells to grow actual tissue (cartilage, etc.) on it. The original damaged joint will be replaced by a joint made entirely of the patient’s own tissues. It’s quite extraordinary.” These ‘bio-replacements’ stand to overcome many of the current limitations of traditional replacements, and could be used to repair joint tissues damaged by disease or injury, 
 and could also play an important role in intervertebral disc, or even bone replacements. “Now, with 3D printing, we can tailor precisely the implant to the missing structure in a patient’s body. This work is a shining example of personalized medicine, because the tissues that comprise these joints are those of the exact patient who will receive the replacement,” she adds. 65 1953 Heart/Lung bypass machine first used in surgery 1955 Ultrasound first used on pregnant women 1958 First cardiac Pacemaker implanted 1958 Artificial heart valve developed Future of Work: Healthcare
  66. 66. Mihaela Vlasea, a PhD candidate and lecturer in the mechanical and mechatronics engineering department at the University of Waterloo, is another researcher working with 3D printers to create new implants and replacement joints out of state-of-the-art raw materials, although her approach is different from Dr. Kandel’s. 66 1962 First hip replacement using a metal head 1965 First portable 
 defibrillator used 1967 First human-to- human heart transplant WSU Researchers Use a 3D Printer to Make Bone-like Material Washington State University researchers have used a 3D printer to create a bone-like material that can be used in orthopedic procedures, dental work, and to deliver medicine for ailments like osteoporosis. Paired with actual bone, it acts as a scaffold for new bone to grow on and ultimately dissolves with no apparent ill effects. Future of Work: Healthcare
  67. 67. Unlike Dr, Kandel, Ms. Vlasea’s research team is working with a specific calcium polyphosphate powder material developed by material specialists at the University of Toronto and doctors at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto. Because the powder behaves similarly to bone, and is biodegradable, the implants Ms. Vlasea is helping to design are created to promote bone growth as they decay, essentially helping the bones around the implant to regenerate. Think of it as a biodegradable 3D model. “It’s a very exciting time,” said Ms. Vlasea. “Currently when surgeons do a joint replacement, they have to cut healthy tissue as well because they have this general sized implant that is not necessarily customized to what the patient needs. The idea for our implant is to address early stages of joint damage and basically replace those areas with this bone implant and a culture of cartilage on top.” Aging In looking at the recent advancements in biotechnology, a re-occurring question continues to be asked. It’s a question as old as life itself, the question of aging and death. The good news is that researchers at Harvard have recently discovered a cause of aging 
 in mammals that may actually be reversible. The essence of the discovery is a series of molecular events that enable communication inside cells between the nucleus and mitochondria. As communication breaks down, aging accelerates. By administering a molecule naturally produced by the human body, scientists restored the communication 67 1972 CAT Scan for brains invented 1977 First image of a human in a whole body MRI scanner 1978 First cochlear implant 1978 First Test tube baby Future of Work: Healthcare
  68. 68. network in older mice. Subsequent tissue samples showed key biological hallmarks that were comparable to those of much younger animals.“The aging process we discovered is like a married couple—when they are young, they communicate well, but over time, living in close quarters for many years, communication breaks down,” said Harvard Medical School Professor of Genetics, David Sinclair, senior author on the study. “And just like with a couple, restoring communication solved the problem.” Among the few proven ways to combat aging is restricting calorie consumption. Though the underlying mechanism is mostly unknown, calorie restriction has been shown to prolong lifespan in yeast, worms, flies, monkeys, and, in some studies, humans. Making these discoveries possible is an emerging area of computer science and biology, known as Metabolic Network Reconstruction and Simulation, that allows for an in-depth insight into the molecular mechanisms of a particular organism. Or simply, how all parts from the smallest to the biggest work. Think of it as a reconstruction that collects all of the relevant metabolic information of an organism and compiles it in a digital or mathematical model for simulations. 68 1982 First permanent artificial heart used 1982 First biotechnology drug approved by FDA 1987 First laser surgery used
 on human cornea Future of Work: Healthcare

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