Inquiry project-based learning and web 2.0 technologies: 21st century skills education

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LEE, Wing Yi (The University of Hong Kong)
CHU, Kai Wah (The University of Hong Kong)

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Inquiry project-based learning and web 2.0 technologies: 21st century skills education

  1. 1. 21st century skills education:Inquiry project-based learning and Web 2.0technologies Ms. Celina LEE & Dr. Sam CHU Faculty of Education The University of Hong Kong 1
  2. 2. Presentation outline  What are 21st century skills  Why are 21st century skills important?  Teaching strategies that foster students’ 21st century skills development  Inquiry project based learning  Collaborative teaching approach  Use of Web 2.0 technologies2
  3. 3. What are 21st century skills - P21 framework for 21st century skills3 Partnership for 21st century skills (2009)
  4. 4. Presentation outline  What are 21st century skills  Why are 21st century skills important?  Teaching strategies that foster students’ 21st century skills development  Inquiry project based learning  Collaborative teaching approach  Use of Web 2.0 technologies4
  5. 5. Why are 21st century skills important?  The acceleration of digital technology development in the 21st century has required people to acquire different sets of digital skills and knowledge (Black, 2009)  Routine and manual work are being assigned to computers and jobs nowadays emphasize “expert thinking” (which involves critical thinking and problem solving) and “complex communication” (which involves interpretation of information and communicating ideas to the others) (Levy & Murname, 2004, p.5)  Hence it is important for educators to find effective ways to help students develop these skills5
  6. 6. Presentation outline  What are 21st century skills  Why are 21st century skills important?  Teaching strategies that foster students’ 21st century skills development  Inquiry project based learning  Collaborative teaching approach  Use of Web 2.0 technologies6
  7. 7. Teaching strategies Inquiry project-based learning (inquiry PjBL) - 1 Inquiry-based learning (IBL)  student-centred approach  promotes the integration of skills, knowledge, and values (Education Bureau, 2002) In the inquiry process, students are active constructors of knowledge teacher is a facilitator of learning IBL + project = inquiry PjBL (project-based learning)7
  8. 8. Teaching strategies Inquiry project-based learning (inquiry PjBL) - 3 Problems encountered  Students seem to lack the skills and techniques needed by inquiry PjBL:  A group of Primary 4 students presented their work by holding a A3 size paper  Another group of students produced 20 PowerPoint slides, but they only went though a few of the slides during their oral presentation8
  9. 9. Presentation outline  What are 21st century skills  Why are 21st century skills important?  Teaching strategies that foster students’ 21st century skills development  Inquiry project based learning  Collaborative teaching approach  Use of Web 2.0 technologies9
  10. 10. Teaching strategies Collaborative Teaching Approach - 1  Research suggests that collaboration between different teachers promotes effective IBL (Thousand, et. al, 2006).  Although there is much anecdotal evidence regarding successful teacher and librarian collaboration, there is scarce research that looks into the specific practice of teacher and librarian collaboration in primary schools (Montiel-Overall, 2007).10
  11. 11. Study 1: Inquiry PjBL with collaborative teaching approach - 4The inquiry PjBL model adopted for theGeneral Studies group projects Type of Number of participants participants Students 141 (M=9 year-olds, 4 classes, (P4) 30-40 each) Teachers 11 (4 subjects) Parents 27 (interviewed by phone) 11 Chu, S. (2009). Inquiry project-based learning with a partnership of three types of teachers and the school librarian. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60(8): 1671-1686.
  12. 12. Study 1: Inquiry PjBL with collaborative teaching approach - 5 Data Collection Project grades  compared with the project grades of the students who had followed the traditional approach the previous year Questionnaire  Various perceptions related to the first IBL project were measured using a similar 5-point scale,  with questions on project difficulty, helpfulness of project components, school support, and parental participation Interviews  Face to face/phone interviews with the parents and teachers were conducted.12
  13. 13. Study 1: Inquiry PjBL with collaborative teaching approach - 6 Findings and Discussion 1. Evaluation of Group Projects T-tests showed statistically significant differences (p<0.001), with the13 inquiry PjBL group obtaining higher grades than the traditional group.
  14. 14. Study 1: Inquiry PjBL with collaborative teaching approach - 7 Findings and Discussion 2. Eight Dimensions of Learning14
  15. 15. Study 1: Inquiry PjBL with collaborative teaching approach - 8 Findings and Discussion 3. Students’ Enjoyment and Perceptions of Inquiry PjBL Projects  The students reported positive enjoyment (3.77±1.02)  The teachers and the parents even reported higher levels of perceived student enjoyment of the projects (teachers: 3.9±.568; parents: 3.94±.813).  the differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05).  Students’ reported enjoyment of the project appears to have a linear relationship with 5 of the 8 learning dimensions.  Regression analysis showed that there are significant linear relations between level of enjoyment & information literacy, reading ability, writing ability, subject knowledge, and communication skills (all have p<0.001).  These findings imply that learning may be facilitated by activities15 that the students enjoy.
  16. 16. Study 1: Inquiry PjBL with collaborative teaching approach - 9 Findings and Discussion 4. Perception of Difficulty and Support  Both the parents and the students rated the tasks as relatively easy, while the teacher’ ratings were in the middle of the scale, signifying a neutral perception.16  They also perceived help from school, teachers, librarian are helpful.  no significant differences between the group ratings (p>0.05).
  17. 17. Presentation outline  What are 21st century skills  Why are 21st century skills important?  Teaching strategies that foster students’ 21st century skills development  Inquiry project based learning  Collaborative teaching approach  Use of Web 2.0 technologies17
  18. 18. Teaching strategies Use of Web 2.0 technologies - 1  Integrating Web 2.0 technologies (e.g., blogs, wikis) into education has been seen as beneficial in facilitating teaching and learning (Chu, Chan & Tiwari, 2012; Chu & Kennedy, 2011; Richardson, 2006)  Pifarre and Starrman (2011) point out that wiki opens up shared dialogic spaces for students to discuss ideas and accomplish tasks together using such ideas, thus scaffolding their critical thinking and problem-solving skills (Woo et al., 2011).18
  19. 19. Study 2: Inquiry PjBL with collaborative teaching approach and wiki - 2New teaching model – 12 dimensions instudents improvement Participants P5 (n=420) students in four primary schools in Hong Kong The academic performance of the participating schools is average/above average 19
  20. 20. Study 2: Inquiry PjBL with collaborative teaching approach and wiki - 3 Data Collection (1) An online survey  Administered to 420 P5 students who participated in the GS group project  Examined four factors regarding the use of wiki in supporting inquiry PjBL  Learning/pedagogy  Motivation  Group interaction  Technology (2) Focus group interviews  With a total of 42 students who took part in English collaborative writing  Students’ insights on the use of wiki in collaborative writing were explored20
  21. 21. Study 2: Inquiry PjBL with collaborative teaching approach and wiki (GS) - 4 Sample of students’ GS project work on Google Sites (with annotations in red)21
  22. 22. Study 2: Inquiry PjBL with collaborative teaching approach and wiki (GS) - 5 Findings and Discussion 1. Learning/ PedagogyStatements regarding wiki’s influence on students’ learning Mean (SD) Sample SizeA1. Use of the wiki enhanced my interest in the course 3.73 (±1.16) 385A2. I would like to see wikis used in other courses 3.81 (±1.20) 384A3. I will retain more material as a result of using the wiki 3.77 (±1.10) 384A4. I participated in the assignment more because of using the wiki 3.65 (±1.10) 384A5. Use of the wiki aided me in achieving course objectives 3.87 (±1.06) 385 A student reported that he had “little interest [in the beginning] but after doing this project, [he] want[s] to learn more.”22
  23. 23. Study 2: Inquiry PjBL with collaborative teaching approach and wiki (GS) - 6 Findings and Discussion 2. MotivationStatements regarding wiki’s influence on students’ learning Mean (SD) Sample SizeB1. Benefit of using the wiki is worth the extra effort and time required to learn it 3.58 (±1.12) 383B2. I would recommend classes that use wikis to other students 3.71 (±1.15) 380B3. I would prefer projects that use wikis over other projects that do not use wikis 3.71 (±1.19) 384B4. I will continue to explore use of wikis for project-works 3.75 (±1.15) 384B5. I stayed on the task more because of using the wiki 3.73 (±1.09) 383A student commented that when compared to the traditional pen-and-paper approach, working on wiki had given him “the motivation toaccomplish tasks”. 23
  24. 24. Study 2: Inquiry PjBL with collaborative teaching approach and wiki (GS) - 7 Findings and Discussion 3. Group InteractionStatements regarding wiki’s influence on students’ learning Mean (SD) Sample SizeC1. I liked seeing other students’ interaction with material I posted in the wiki 3.56 (±1.10) 385C2. Use of the wiki for the assignment helped me interact more with students 3.64 (±1.11) 381C3. Because of using the wiki, my group was able to come to a consensus faster 3.61 (±1.10) 385C4. I learned more because of information posted by other students’ in the wiki 3.63 (±1.11) 381C5. Use of the wiki promoted collaborative learning 3.73 (±1.09) 383Student A: “it is easier to communicate [via wiki] with eachanother”24
  25. 25. Study 2: Inquiry PjBL with collaborative teaching approach and wiki (GS) - 8 Findings and Discussion 4. TechnologyStatements regarding wiki’s influence on students’ learning Mean (SD) Sample SizeD1. The wiki interface and features were overall easy to understand 3.93 (±0.98) 386D2. Benefits of using the wiki outweighed any technical challenges of its use 3.52 (±1.17) 384D3. Browsing/editing information in the wiki was easy 3.84 (±1.09) 386D4. Compared to other online discussion board, the wiki was easier to 3.59 (±1.21) 384D5. Technical features in the wiki helped enhance my learning 3.76 (±1.07) 385 Students found that the online working platform allowed them to work on their projects “anytime and anywhere” in a simultaneous manner.25
  26. 26. Study 2: Inquiry PjBL with collaborative teaching approach and wiki (English) - 9Sample of students’ English collaborative writing on wiki Comments made on grammar by various students and the corresponding revisions26 made by the group on their writing (indicated with words in red and green)
  27. 27. Study 2: Inquiry PjBL with collaborative teaching approach and wiki (English) - 10 Findings and Discussion Peer Learning  “If we use Google Sites as the collaborative platform, we get to read the pieces of writing from other classes, exchange views and comment on our classmates’ work. If we write on paper, we can only read a few pieces.”  After reading his classmate’s work, a student wrote “Your writing is good but I do not [understand] the meaning of truthful”.  The writer responded, “truthful means honest.”27
  28. 28. Study 2: Inquiry PjBL with collaborative teaching approach and wiki (English) - 11 Conclusion Wiki was perceived to be an enabling tool to facilitate students’ learning Students indicated that wiki helped increase and maintain their motivation to tasks Students believed that wiki helped facilitate group interactions Wiki was not perceived to be a difficult tool to use Students showed substantial degree of peer learning28 on wiki
  29. 29. Book on 21st century skills education For the e-version, please visit: http://web.edu.hku.hk/academic_staff.php?sta29
  30. 30. Q & A session Thank you!30

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