How Teacher Intervention Affects Primary Student Collaboration in Wiki Environment

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WONG, Joyce Choi Chun (Teacher Librarian of Kingston International School)

http://citers2013.cite.hku.hk/en/paper_621.htm

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  • I:\\Sam-conferences\\Germany_UK - Cambridge 2013 6 yrs of research
  • I:\\Sam-conferences\\Germany_UK - Cambridge 2013
  • I:\\Sam-conferences\\Germany_UK - Cambridge 2013
  • I:\\Sam-conferences\\Germany_UK - Cambridge 2013
  • I:\\Sam-conferences\\Germany_UK - Cambridge 2013
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  • Sample of students’ GS project work on Google Sites (with annotations in red)
  • Sample of students’ GS project work on Google Sites (with annotations in red)
  • I:\\Sam-conferences\\Germany_UK - Cambridge 2013
  • I:\\Sam-conferences\\Germany_UK - Cambridge 2013
  • I:\\Sam-conferences\\Germany_UK - Cambridge 2013
  • I:\\Sam-conferences\\Germany_UK - Cambridge 2013
  • I:\\Sam-conferences\\Germany_UK - Cambridge 2013
  • I:\\Sam-conferences\\Germany_UK - Cambridge 2013
  • I:\\Sam-conferences\\Germany_UK - Cambridge 2013
  • How Teacher Intervention Affects Primary Student Collaboration in Wiki Environment

    1. 1. 1How teacher intervention affectsprimary student collaboration inWiki environmentMs Joyce Wong Choi ChunTeacher LibrarianKingston International SchoolDr. Samuel Kai Wah ChuAssociate ProfessorFaculty of Education, University of Hong Kong
    2. 2. 2Presentation outline Research on Wikis in education Research Instruments Findings and Discussion Conclusion and Implications
    3. 3. 3Past research on Wiki in educationWhat is Wiki?Wiki is a Web 2.0 tool for collaboration and socialnetworking that allows multiple authoring andediting.Wiki in educationTeachers believe students who used either a blogor a wiki increased their 21st Century Skillsincluding collaboration, communication, basicliteracy, digital literacy and global awarenessskills (Lutcher, 2011)
    4. 4. 4Research Background A Bilingual International School in HKClass size: 14-22 with one English teacher andone Putonghua teacher Each class in upper primary (P4-P6) has a classwiki for teaching and learningPlatform: PBWorks free version Participants: 28 students (age 8-9) from two P4classes. 4 P4 class teachers.
    5. 5. 5Research Instruments1. Two online group projects completed earlier inSeptember and November 20122. Two different sets of online survey forstudents and teachers3. Group interviews for all participants
    6. 6. 6Data Collection (1) – Online Group Projects Two online group projects in Wiki were studied. Numberof editions and comments were looked at to determinethe degree of collaboration among the users. They are both bilingual projects including differentcontents in English and in Chinese First project about Body System is a trial project. It wasnot part of the assessment. Second project about Ecosystem is part of anassessment.
    7. 7. Sample of IS Students’ Project on Wiki7• Sample of students’ GS project work on Google Sites (with annotations in red)
    8. 8. 8Sample of IS Students’ Project on Wiki
    9. 9. 9Sample of IS Students’ Project on Wiki
    10. 10. 10Data Collection (2) – Online Surveys Questionnaire was adapted from Chu’s (2012), Hazari’s(2009)and Chen’s (2008) questionnaires on the use of wiki ineducation Online survey for students concerning 5 constructs:1. Learning/ Pedagogy2. Motivation3. Group interaction4. Technology5. Social factor Online survey for teachers concerning 5 constructs:1. Learning2. Motivation3. Group interaction4. Technology5. Teaching and Planning
    11. 11. 11Data Collection (3) – Group InterviewsGroup interviews for all participants6 groups of students (4-5 students in a group)3 groups of teachersQuestions related to the following areas:1. Advantages and disadvantages of using Wiki2. Collaboration by discussing, commenting and editing3. Feelings about posting and commenting4. Teacher’s rolesFor teachers (covering the above and the following):1. Planning, monitoring and assessing wiki group projects2. Time and efforts spent on maintaining wiki work3. Can Wiki be a self-sustained learning tool for students to use withoutteacher intervention
    12. 12. 12Findings and Discussion1. Analysis of Group Projects – Student Comments• The most common type of comments made in the projects is to give positivefeedback/ compliment. Both teachers and students stressed on the use ofappropriate language in the interviews.• “Don’t just say bad things about other’s work. You may hurt others’ feelings. Ifwe want them to improve, tell them what they can do to make it better.”Student comment types Examples Number ofoccurrencesWork progress “I hadnt finish the poster yet!” 13Positive feedback/compliment“I watch the vidoes aready they are very useful”“ 寫得很好啊”22Ask question aboutproject“but where is P4 unit group i cant find it.”“Are we supposed to do this at home or at schoo or both?”18Answer questions “hey,Conner, we do need to do it both at school and athome”7Suggestion on the work “and remembered please put all the intenet that you gone toplease put it into the WIKI!!!^o^”9Social (well-being,online/offline)“are you online?”“Timothy are you felling better?”11Off topic “no conner the corn” 4Total no. of comments 84
    13. 13. 13Findings and Discussion1. Analysis of Group Projects – Teacher CommentsTeacher commenttypesExamples Number ofoccurrencesGuidance/ suggestionon work“you should find some chinese beacause this is bilingual!”-TA“Could you please paste some more specific websites about whatyouve found? Brainpop, school.ebonline, kidzsearch are toobroad. Thanks!” – TA“It is great to know you are excited about learning, but I can helpyou use this information in a better way so it is YOUR wordsJohnny. Thanks!” -TC22Positive feedback/compliment“You did such a great job, Theresia! 太棒了~!裡面的內容你都看懂了嗎?期待你能把這些資料製作成精美的海報!加油!” - TA“Wow, great work so far!” -TB12Chase students’ work “Id also like to see more information from any books you havefound. Thanks!” –TA“Keep it coming!” –TB“Hi Ryosa, please spend more time on the Wiki. You have notbeen on the Wiki in 1 week! Thank you.” -TC14Answer questions “We will help you Fedoria” - TB 2Social comments “Nicholas, great job! 早睡早起身體好! See you tomorrow!” - TA 8 The most common teacher comment type is guidance and suggestions. They tendto be more detailed and directional, while compliments are brief and general.• Teacher tried to use subtle and positive words to chase students’ work.• Social comments help foster a trusting relationship.
    14. 14. Teacher Intervention/ RolesTeacher Intervention ResultsProject Class English teacher ChineseteacherNo. of groupssubmitting theirworkNo. of groupsincludingChinese1 A  All 5/6B X(absent for 2 weeks)X 4/6 0/62 A  All 6/8B X All 2/8 The above table shows a significant difference between studentparticipation with and without teacher intervention. Teachers’ consistency in making comments reminds students their worksare constantly monitored. Assessment is important in determining collaboration. Project 1 wasn’tgraded and so two groups in Class B didn’t even submit their work.
    15. 15. Teacher intervention/ roles RQ: Can wiki be a self-sustained learning tool for primary studentswithout teacher intervention? “No way!” Teacher’s rolesStudent perceptions Teacher perceptionsSupervision &Coaching to beResponsibleInformationUsers“Talk to the whole class when wedon’t do sensible things”“Teachers delete the badcomments”“Teachers know who did whatpart”“Provide a safe avenue for students tolearn, unlike facebook” -TD“Teach kids to be accountable for whatthey say” -TD“When students complain or say somethingbad about the other student, let them knowthere’s consequence” -TATechnology skills “Teach us how to save and uploadour works.”“Takes a lot of time to train kids to use it,upload things, save things and locate theirwork.” -TA“A lot of time spent is to fix the bugs.” -TBGuidance &Encouragement“Teachers post lots of greatresources”“Teachers appreciate ourworks and participation”“Consistency in encouraging students to useand participate more” -TD“Reinforce it at the beginning till it becomesa habit, for some students at least” -TD
    16. 16. Comparison between Local School (LS) students andInternational School (IS) students on the Wiki Use16LS students IS studentsAge (grade) 10-11 (P5) 8-9 (P4)AcademicperformanceAverage/ above average AdvancedNo. ofschools4 1Sample size 420 28InstrumentforcomparisonSurvey covering 4constructsLearning/pedagogyMotivationGroup interactionTechnologySurvey covering 5constructsLearning/pedagogyMotivationGroup interactionTechnologySocial Factor
    17. 17. Sample of LS students’ group project on Wiki17• Sample of students’ GS project work on Google Sites (with annotations in red)
    18. 18. Sample of IS students’ group project on Wiki18• Sample of students’ GS project work on Google Sites (with annotations in red)
    19. 19.  Statements regarding wiki’s influence on IS students’ learning Mean (SD) SampleSizeA1. Use of the wiki enhanced my interest in the courseA2. I would like to see wikis used in other coursesA3. I will retain more material as a result of using the wikiA4. I participated in the assignment more because of using the wikiA5. Use of the wiki aided me in achieving course objectives3.714.043.823.463.6828282828281. Learning/ Pedagogy 5-point Likert-type scale(with 1 being “strongly disagree”, 5 being “strongly agree”) Statements regarding wiki’s influence on local school students’ learning Mean (SD) SampleSizeA1. Use of the wiki enhanced my interest in the courseA2. I would like to see wikis used in other coursesA3. I will retain more material as a result of using the wikiA4. I participated in the assignment more because of using the wikiA5. Use of the wiki aided me in achieving course objectives3.73 (±1.16)3.81 (±1.20)3.77 (±1.10)3.65 (±1.10)3.87 (±1.06)38538438438438519Comparison between LS and IS students’ Survey Result Overall, all the results are positive. IS students rated 3 questions higher but twolower, but the differences are slight.
    20. 20.  Statements regarding wiki’s influence on IS students’ learning Mean (SD) SampleSizeB1. Benefit of using the wiki is worth the extra effort and time required to learn itB2. I would recommend classes that use wikis to other studentsB3. I would prefer projects that use wikis over other projects that do not use wikisB4. I will continue to explore use of wikis for project-worksB5. I stayed on the task more because of using the wiki3.793.933.254.143.392828282828 Motivation Statements regarding wiki’s influence on local school students’ learning Mean (SD) SampleSizeB1. Benefit of using the wiki is worth the extra effort and time required to learn itB2. I would recommend classes that use wikis to other studentsB3. I would prefer projects that use wikis over other projects that do not use wikisB4. I will continue to explore use of wikis for project-worksB5. I stayed on the task more because of using the wiki3.58 (±1.12)3.71 (±1.15)3.71 (±1.19)3.75 (±1.15)3.73 (±1.09)38338038438438320 All the results are positive. IS student rated 2 questions significantlylower than LS students. B3 in particular: Possible explanations may be IS has more resourcesand its small teacher-student ratio allows more variety and engagingproject options to happen in the classroom.Comparison between LS and IS students’ Survey Result
    21. 21.  Statements regarding wiki’s influence on IS students’ learning Mean (SD) SampleSizeC1. I liked seeing other students’ interaction with material I posted in the wikiC2. Use of the wiki for the assignment helped me interact more with studentsC3. Because of using the wiki, my group was able to come to a consensus fasterC4. I learned more because of information posted by other students’ in the wikiC5. Use of the wiki promoted collaborative learning4.143.893.363.933.7528282828282. Group Interaction Statements regarding wiki’s influence on local school students’ learning Mean (SD) SampleSizeC1. I liked seeing other students’ interaction with material I posted in the wikiC2. Use of the wiki for the assignment helped me interact more with studentsC3. Because of using the wiki, my group was able to come to a consensus fasterC4. I learned more because of information posted by other students’ in the wikiC5. Use of the wiki promoted collaborative learning3.56 (±1.10)3.64 (±1.11)3.61 (±1.10)3.63 (±1.11)3.73 (±1.09)38538138538138321 Overall, all the results are positive. IS students rated 4 out of 5 questions higher. Except C3: A few students mentioned in interviews that a delay in response makes it harderto communicate than real time communication. Thus, they feel more neutral consideringWiki speeds up the discussion process. C1 was rated very high compared to LS students. IS students take pride in their works andthey rated high to see others interact with material they post.“Teachers appreciate our work and participation.” For C4, IS students learn more from wikis.“Not just low kids, higher level kids gain a lot out of it.” - TDComparison between LS and IS students’ Survey Result
    22. 22.  Statements regarding wiki’s influence on KIS students’ learning Mean (SD) SampleSizeD1. The wiki interface and features were overall easy to understandD2. Benefits of using the wiki outweighed any technical challenges of its useD3. Browsing/editing information in the wiki was easyD4. Compared to other online discussion board, the wiki was easier toD5. Technical features in the wiki helped enhance my learning4.183.754.573.963.682828282828 Technology Statements regarding wiki’s influence on local school students’ learning Mean (SD) SampleSizeD1. The wiki interface and features were overall easy to understandD2. Benefits of using the wiki outweighed any technical challenges of its useD3. Browsing/editing information in the wiki was easyD4. Compared to other online discussion board, the wiki was easier toD5. Technical features in the wiki helped enhance my learning 3.93 (±0.98)3.52 (±1.17)3.84 (±1.09)3.59 (±1.21)3.76 (±1.07) 38638438638438522 Overall, IS students rated significantly higher than LS students ontechnology area. They find technology of Wiki is overall easy to use andunderstand.Comparison between LS and IS students’ Survey Result
    23. 23.  Statements regarding wiki’s influence on IS students’ learning Mean(SD) SampleSizeE1. I feel comfortable posting in the Wiki environment.E2. I feel awkward to edit others worksE3. I feel embarrassed or insulted if my classmates edit my work.E4. I feel safe to use Wiki when I know my teachers are checking our works on Wiki.E5. I dont feel free to comment because I know my teachers are checking our works on Wiki.4.183.754.573.963.68282828282823Social Factor All results from survey are positive.  In general IS students feel comfortable to post (E1) and they feel safe to use Wiki with the presence of teacher supervision (E4). However, they rated the highest in the survey E3 that they feel embarrassed or insulted if others edit their work. That can explain why E2 that they also feel awkward to edit other’s works.   From interviews, a few students expressed their worries related to social factor. “I may get in trouble if I make a comment. I don’t mean to be mean but others may think I am.”“Maybe I think his work’s kinda rubbish, but he thinks it’s important.”“I feel awkward and worried that the other person may feel bad”“I’m scared to comment others because they may feel sad.”Little research has taken social factor of students into account in Wiki use. This study shows that impact of social factor is significant in student collaboration.
    24. 24. 24Conclusion and Implications Teacher intervention definitely promotes collaboration ingroup work in Wiki Teacher intervention does not mean a lot extra work andeffort “I take 5-10 minutes over my coffee to read and comment on students’ workevery morning” - TB “We plan the work anyway at the beginning of the unit. We just need to post itup on Wiki” -TA “Spent time at the beginning to guide them through it, but they have self-sustained pretty well.” - TB “At the beginning, we reinforced it and then it became a habit, for somestudents.” -TD As teachers, we need to be more sensitive towards students’feelings when working on an open-access Wiki. Positivereinforcement (even just a ‘WOW!’, ‘Great job’) can booststudents’ confidence in posting their work, and reinforce positiveand responsible behavior of students.
    25. 25. ReferencesChu, S.K.W., Tavares, N.J., Chu, D., Ho, S.Y., Chow, K., Siu, F.L.C., Wong, M.(2012). Developing upper primary students 21st century skills: inquirylearning through collaborative teaching and Web 2.0 technology. HongKong: Centre for Information Technology in Education, Faculty ofEducation, The University of Hong Kong.Hazari, S., North, A., & Moreland, D. (2009). Investigating Pedagogical Valueof Wiki Technology Journal of Information Systems Education, 20(2), 187-198.Lutcher, R. L. (2011). Teachers perceptions on the impact of blogs and wikisregarding the acquisition of 21st century skills in the classrooms for thefuture classroom: A study of two pennsylvania high schools. IndianaUniversity of Pennsylvania). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Retrievedfrom http://search.proquest.com/docview/913067220?accountid=14548

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