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Module 3


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The slideshow covers several aspects of child development. Concepts include the Stages of Cognitive Development.

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Module 3

  1. 1. Module 3 ED 300 Educational psychology Mr. John Jenkins Spring 2007 Franklin Palacios Bruce Camacho Regina Doone
  2. 2. Jean Piaget <ul><li>* Swiss Psychologist who studied the learning behavior of children. </li></ul><ul><li>*Introduced the cognitive-developmental theory. </li></ul><ul><li>* Theory based on the assumption that people try to create knowledge through direct experience with objects, people, and ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>*Identified the 4 stages of cognitive development. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Contributions… <ul><li>Piaget’s developmental perspective convinced others in his field that children are active learners. </li></ul><ul><li>His theory encouraged the development of educational philosophies and programs that emphasize learning through direct contact with the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The stages of cognitive development are associated with specific ages and serve as general guidelines and not as labels. </li></ul><ul><li>People use one level of thinking to solve on kind of problem and a different level to solve another. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Schemes <ul><li>* The basic building blocks of thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>* Mental systems or categories of perception and experience. </li></ul><ul><li>* People tend to organize thinking processes into psychological structures. </li></ul><ul><li>* System of understanding and interacting with the world. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sensorimotor Stage <ul><li>Piaget’s first stage, during which infants and toddlers “think” with their eyes, ears, hands and other sensorimotor equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Spans the first two years of life. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Major Accomplishments <ul><li>Object permanence </li></ul><ul><li>*The understanding that objects exists in the environment whether the baby perceives them or not. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal-directed actions </li></ul><ul><li>* Deliberate actions to achieve a goal </li></ul>
  7. 7. Preoperational Stage <ul><li>* The stage before a child masters logical mental operations . </li></ul><ul><li>*Use of symbols to represent action schemes </li></ul><ul><li>* Children imitate what they see. </li></ul><ul><li>*Found between the ages of 2 and 7 years old. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Concrete-operational <ul><li>* Stage in which thought is logical, flexible, and organized in its application to concrete information </li></ul><ul><li>* “Hands-on thinking” </li></ul><ul><li>* Extends to about 7 to 11 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>* Activity : blocks to demonstrate “parts” of a “whole” and “One-half” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Formal Operational <ul><li>* Final stage In which adolescents develop the capacity for abstract, scientific thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>* Main characteristic of this stage is the use of logical thinking and understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>* Begins at around age 11 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>* Activity : Debates-tied into Social studies or Research activities-Science. Example: Possible alternative energy sources in the CNMI. </li></ul>
  10. 10. What are Formal Operations? <ul><li>Mental tasks involving abstract thinking and coordination of a number of variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of thinking shifts from what “is” to what “might be”. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypo-deductive reasoning—a problem solving strategy that requires organized, scientific thinking to generate different possibilities for a given situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescent egocentrism—assumptions that everyone else shares one’s thoughts, feelings, and concerns. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Key Terms <ul><li>Disequilibrium: In Piaget’s theory, the “out-of-balance” state that occurs when a person realizes that his or her current ways of thinking are not working to solve a problem or understand a situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensorimotor: Encompasses the use of the 5 senses and motor activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Operations: Actions a person carries out by thinking them through instead of literally performing the actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Preoperational: The stage before a child masters logical and mental operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete Operations : Mental tasks tied to concrete objects and situations. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Continued… <ul><li>Concrete operations: Concrete tasks tied to concrete objects and situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Egocentric: Assuming the others experience the world the way you do. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Guidelines … <ul><li>Conservation: </li></ul>
  14. 14. Hypothetical thinking <ul><li>“ If a card has a vowel on one side, then it has an even number on the other side.” </li></ul><ul><li>Take a look at the cards below and and tell me, which cards do I need to turn over to tell if this rule is actually true? </li></ul>