Teaching Students with Special NeedsInstructional Strategies and Resources for Teaching Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder(ADHD), Hearing Impaiments, and Learning Disabilities
What is a disability in the most basic sense of the term? ➲ Friend and Bursack define disability as a “condition characterized by a physical, cognitive, psychological, or social difficulty so severe that it negatively impacts the students learning.
What qualifies a child as having a disability as defined by the IDEA?➲ According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), a child is determined to have a disability if he or she has a diagnosis in one of the following 13 areas (GA Dept. of Education, 2008):➲ Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD) Deaf-blind➲ Hearing Impaired Emotional & Behavior Disorder(EBD)➲ Intellectual disability(mild, moderate, severe, or profound)➲ Othopedic Impairment(OI) Other health impairment(OHI)➲ Significant development delay Specific learning disability(SLD/LD)➲ Speech-language impairment Traumatic brain injury(TBI)➲ Visual impairment(VI)
What qualifies a child as having adisability as defined by the IDEA? In addition to being diagnosed in one of the thirteen areas, a students disability must also: ➲ Significantly impact his or her ability to learn ➲ Require that he or she receive special education services as a result of the disability (Rothstein & Johnson, 2010)
How is a disability defined in the Americans with Disabilites Act and Section 504 of the Rebilitation Act of 1973?➲ A disability is defined as a condition that limits some major life activity such as (Rothstein & Johnson, 2010): Reading Concentrating Thinking Communicating Operation of major bodily functions of the : Immune system (AIDS) Digestive system (Feeding tube) Excretory system (incontinence) Neurological system Respiratory system Circulatory system Endocrine system (ex. diabetes)
What is required of school systems under IDEA?➲ The IDEA mandates that students who have been diagnosed with one of the thirteen qualifying disabilities receive an appropriate education in the least restrictive environment.➲ IDEA also mandates that these students be given appropriate individualized instruction based on an Individualized Education Program plan (IEP).➲ Provide instructional strategies, accommodations,modifications, and related services(as needed) as specified in the IEP.
What is an IEP?➲ It is a program plan for students with an IDEA qualifying disability. This plan which is developed by the IEP team outlines and addresses the individualized educational goals, related services, parental concerns, instructional and testing accommodations (including district-wide assessments), transition planning, assistive technology use, present level of academic achievement (PLAAFP), and the least restrictive environment (LRE).
A Word About IEPs➲ It is important to remember that teachers are mandated by the Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) to adhere to the IDEA qualifying students IEP plan. Always Remember: ➲ IEPs are legally binding➲ In other words, if IEP plans are not followed as prescribed, you are breaking federal law
“Okay... How can a general education teacher adhere to the IEP requirements as mandated by IDEA?➲ By using instructional and testing accommodations and modifications that addresses the learning needs of the child as outlined in the IEP➲ By collaborating with Special Education teachers and other related professionals➲ By differentiating your instruction for all children as this is the expectation under the Response to Intervention and Pyramid of Interventions model (RtI/POI)➲ By following the Behavior Intervention Plan for those students who have one Be an advocate for your students with special needs....
A Closer Look at Two IDEA Categories of Disability....➲ Deaf/hard of hearing➲ Specific Learning Disability
A Closer Look at Two IDEA Categories of Disability....Deaf/hard of hearing➲ IDEA defines “deaf” as hearing loss that “adversely” impacts a students educational performance due to an inability to process linguistic information “with or without hearing aids”( http://www.cec.sped.org retrieved: 6/17/2012)➲ IDEA defines “hard of Hearing” as “a hearing loss (permanent or intermittent) that adversely impacts a students educational performance but that allows the student to access some degree of communication (with or without hearing aids)”( http://www.cec.sped.org retrieved: 6/17/2012)
A Closer Look at Two IDEA Categories of Disability....Specific learning disability (or Learning disability)➲ IDEA defines a student with a “learning disability” as one who has average to above average intelligence. However, the student is unable to achieve (academically) at an identical rate of their peers. This is largely due to impairments in information processing especially in “language-based activities. Students with learning disabilities(LD/SLD) may have difficulty following directions, concentration, organization, time management, decoding and spelling words, differentiating numbers, recalling math facts ( http://www.cec.sped.org retrieved: 6/17/2012).
A Closer Look at Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)➲ The American Psychiatric Association defines ADHD as a behavioral condition that inhibits the ability to “focus on everyday tasks and routines. Students who are diagnosed with ADHD have difficulty with self-regulation, adapting to changing situations (http://www.apa.org and http://www.educationworld.com retrieved: 6/17/2012)➲ Some characteristics of children with ADHD are Fidgeting Blurting out Impulsivity Inattention Low frustration tolerance
Instructional Strategies, Accommodations, & Assistive Technology for Students with ADHD, Hearing Impairments, & Learning Disabilities Disability Instructional Strategies Assistive Technology Hearing Use visual aids Cochlear implants Reduce background noise TV/Video Caption SoftwareImpairment (HI) Reduce visual distractions Video Phone Conferencing w/text Provide written directions Alarm Clock Signalers Write key concepts and terms on WhiteBoard FM wireless receivers (Amplification devices) Repeat directions and check for understandingSpecific Learning Use concrete manipulatives before using symbolic Graphic organizers Provide practice in small manageable “chunks” Simple/concrete manipulatives Disability Provide step by step instruction (SLD/ LD) Use a multisensory approach to teaching new concepts, terms, etc.Attention Deficit Place student in close proximity to teacher Calendar or Daily Planner Reduce visual and distractions Graphic Organizers Hyperactivity Reduce problem set Disorder Break up tasks into smaller manageable tasks (ADHD)
ReferencesAssistive Technology Devices. (n.d.). Georgia Project for Assistive Technology. RetrievedJune 17, 2012, from http://www.gpat.org/Georgia-Project-for-Assistive-Technology/Pages/Assistive-Technology-Devices.aspx Adult Basic Education Disability Manual. (n.d.). Adult Basic Education Disability Manual.Retrieved June 17, 2012, from http://manual.abedisabilities.org/ Assistive Technology for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing | Division of VocationalRehabilitation. (n.d.). Welcome to VocRehab Vermont | Division of VocationalRehabilitation. Retrieved June 17, 2012, fromhttp://vocrehab.vermont.gov/programs/rcd/assistivetechnology CEC | Home. (n.d.). CEC | Home. Retrieved June 17, 2012, from http://www.cec.sped.org Education World: ADHD: What Is It? . (n.d.). Education World: The Educators BestFriend. Retrieved June 17, 2012, fromhttp://www.educationworld.com/a_issues/issues/issues148.shtml Friend, M. P., & Bursuck, W. D. (2008). Including students with special needs: a practicalguide for classroom teachers (5th ed.). Boston, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon. Rothstein, L. F., & Johnson, S. F. (2010). Special education law (4th ed.). ThousandOaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.