What Is the Solution?Open access toscholarly journal articlesand other scholarly materials!
What Is Open Access?Open access (OA) materials are: accessible at no cost on a journal website or in a repositorycommitted to long-term archiving available for all to read, download, print, copy, share, etc.(attribution always required, of course)Many kinds of documents can be made OA: scholarly journalarticles, books, curricular materials, conference presentations,dissertations, college documents, and much more.
This Sessions FocusGreen OA"Green OA" refers to materials that,regardless of where else they appear,are made available at no chargein an online open access repositorycommitted to long-term preservation.Journals are called “green” if they permittheir authors to self-archive their articlesin open access repositories.
Not This Sessions FocusGold OA"Gold OA" means publishing with publishersthat automatically and immediately makethe work available online to all at no cost.Most gold OA publishers are journal publishers,but a few book publishers make their books OA.Note: Some gold OA publishers charge publication fees,and some universities cover those fees for their faculty and staff.It would be fantastic if CUNY created a fund to pay reputable publisherspublication fees, but thats a conversation for a different day.
Finding Gold & Green OA Materials OA materials are available at no cost online, either on anOA journal site or in some kind of OA repository. Therefore, OA materials are easily findable via Google,Google Scholar, and other web search tools. In addition, library databases index many OA journals.(Of course they do!) Upshot: You will find OA materials naturally when you doresearch.
A Very Important DistinctionOA = anyone can read the journalOA ≠ anyone can publish in the journal OA journals (green & gold) are real journals. Publishing in an OAjournal is not self-publishing or vanity publishing! OA journals (green & gold) earn respectability the same wayother journals do: through the quality of their articles and theprominence of the people they attract as authors, editors, etc. Of course: Just as some non-OA journals are better thanothers, some OA journals are better than others. Research anyjournal you’re thinking of publishing in!
Independent Variablesx-axis: opennessy-axis: quality(impact, rigor of peerreview, etc.)CellNatureJournal of FinancePhilosophical Review“Predatory” OA Journals =unscrupulous, unserious, spammingSee Beall’s list:http://scholarlyoa.com/publishers/PLoS BiologyAtmospheric Chemistry and PhysicsPhilosophers’ ImprintCollege & Research LibrariesJust about every field has somebottom-of-the-barrelsubscription-based journals…
Back to This Sessions FocusGreen OA"Green OA" = "self-archived in a repository"Can be any kind of scholarly, instructional, or institutionaldocument, but journal articles are the trickiest in terms ofunderstanding whether self-archiving is allowed.
Prevalence of Permission?Of the 18,000+ journals covered by SHERPA/RoMEO as ofNovember 2011: 87% allow immediate self-archiving of some version of article 60% allow immediate self-archiving of post-refereed version of article 16% allow immediate self-archiving of published PDF Allowing for embargoes (usually 6 to 24 months), 94% allow self-archiving of post-refereed versionsFor more information:http://romeo.jiscinvolve.org/wp/2011/11/24/
Where to Self-Archive?Subject RepositoriesarXiv.orgPubMed CentralResearch Papers in Economics (RePEc)Social Science Research Network (SSRN)Curious if theres a repository for a certain field?http://oad.simmons.edu/oadwiki/Disciplinary_repositoriesNote: Not every field has a subject repository.
Where to Self-Archive?Institutional RepositoriesAn institutional repository (IR) is an online databaseoffered by an institution to collect, preserve,and make freely available scholarly journal articlesand other works created by that institution’s community.Of course, self-archiving in an institutional repositoryis possible only at institutions with a repository.
Where to Self-Archive?Who has an IR?MIT, Harvard, U of California, and many others(large and small, private and public)Who doesnt?CUNYProblem: Where can people from CUNY whose fieldsdo not have subject repositories self-archive their work?
What an IR Would Do for Faculty Make going open access easier Make sharing with colleagues and students easier Make self-promotion easier Offer stats about downloads, help measure impact
What an IR Would Do for FacultyIncrease Impact!Increased availability More readers More scholarly citations, impact in the fieldEasy to link to More mentions/links in news, blogs, etc. Broader awareness in the world
What an IR Would Do for Students Students would have access to more of the literature theyneed to master their fields Students would be better able to research their faculty, makemore informed choices about courses, advisors, etc. If faculty assign materials in the CUNY IR or anotherIR, students would save money Students would have better awareness of repositories, whichare becoming increasingly common, and thus betterawareness of the landscape of scholarly literature
As OA and IRs becomeincreasingly prevalent acrossacademia, libraries will beno longer be hamstrung byastronomical journal prices.What an IR Would Do for Libraries
What an IR Would Do for CUNYOpen access institutional repositories can "serve as tangibleindicators of a university’s quality" and "demonstrate thescientific, societal, and economic relevance of its researchactivities, thus increasing the institution’s visibility, status,and public value."— Raym Crow, "The Case for InstitutionalRepositories: A SPARC Position Paper"
What Else Benefits?Fields of Study:Greater access to information More informed research Better researchArticles placed in repositories before they appear in journal Ends reliance on journal publication cycles Allows readers/researchers to respond more quickly Speeds innovation
And What Else?The Public:Greater access to information Better informed doctors, teachers, journalists, etc. Better informed individuals, voters, etc. Healthier, better educated people living ina cleaner, safer, more evidence-based world
Who Thinks OA & IRs Are Important?A growing number of universities have IRs and OA policies:Harvard, MIT, UCSF, U of Kansas, Duke, Utah State, Princeton,Emory, Oberlin, Bucknell, U of Hawaii at Manoa, etc.Some funding agencies have OA mandates:National Institutes of Health, Gates Foundation, MacArthurFoundation, Wellcome Trust, etc.Some countries have OA mandates!E.g., Ireland
Who Thinks OA & IRs Are Important?Coming soon: More federal agencies! Massive expansion of NIH policy: The Obama administration isdirecting all federal agencies with $100M+ in researchexpenditures to develop policies to make resulting researcharticles open access within 12 months of publication. This includes NASA, NSF, DoD, CDC, Smithsonian, etc. Taxpayers are entitled to the research they pay for!
Who Thinks OA & IRs Are Important?Coming soon: New York State? Taxpayer Access to Publicly Funded Research (TAPFR) Act TAPFR would make all state-funded research (>$50M/year)open access. If passed, NY would be the first open access state in thenation.
The TakeawayEveryone would benefit if CUNYs scholarly output became OA.And a huge percentage of CUNYs scholarly output could be madeOA if:1. faculty knew about their self-archiving rights2. faculty had a place to self-archive their articles3. faculty exercised their rights to put their article thereWere working on all three things!
CreditsThis slideshow is licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.Specific graphics may have different licenses:“What Is the Problem?” graphic,content by Jill Cirasella / graphic design by Les LaRue, http://www.leslarue.com/,licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported LicenseProfit margin graph from Nick Shockey, SPARC/Right To Research CoalitionLibrary Expenditures chart from ARL Statistics 2008-2009,http://www.arl.org/bm~doc/arlstat09.pdfPhilosophical Transactions image fromhttp://www.ansp.org/explore/online-exhibits/stories/the-philosophical-transactions/Uncle Sam image adapted from Army recruitment poster by James Montgomery Flagghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Unclesamwantyou.jpg