CIRAM X Ray Radiography Contribution Feb 2009

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A very good document to understand how usefull is the radiography in science for art.

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CIRAM X Ray Radiography Contribution Feb 2009

  1. 1. CIRAM Analysis Analysis, authentication and dating of work’s of art CIRAM Analysis Analysis and dating of cultural heritage CIRAM Archaeology Analysis and dating of archaeological artefacts CIRAM Track Safe marking and traceability of objects ART AND ARCHEOLOGY OBJECTS AUTHENTICATION: X-RAY RADIOGRAPHY CONTRIBUTION Why developing a crossed approach X-ray digital radiography in situ / Material analysis? 16, avenue Pey-Berland Chem’Innov – 33600 Pessac – France Tel.: +33 5 57 34 21 18 Fax : +33 5 56 23 45 35 www.ciram-art.com Contacts : Dr Olivier Bobin, Dr Emmanuel Vartanian CIRAM SARL au capital de 21.000 € ENSPB - Chem’Innov Tél. & Fax : 00.33.(0)5.56.23.45.35 480 825 652 RCS Bordeaux - APE 742C 16, avenue Pey-Berland Portable : 00.33.(0)6.66.63.80.99 SIRET 480 825 652 00021 33607 Pessac Cedex E-mail : contact@ciram-art.com N° TVA Intracommunautaire FR 56 480 825 652 France Site web : www.ciram-art.com
  2. 2. Crossing X-R/ Analysis Page 2 / 17 Terracotta Thermoluminescence X-ray Radiography Thermoluminescence gives an X-ray radiography permits to approximate dating of the last evaluate the structural firing of the object. homogeneity of the piece. Approximate dating. Not representative of Direct view of the No material analysis: the whole object. restoration areas, of can not determine Unique method eventual falsification the making-period of adapted to terracotta and setting-up. the object. giving this result. Jointed use of the methods - Approximative dating of the material - Homogeneity of the whole CIRAM SARL au capital de 21.000 € ENSCPB – Chem’Innov Tél. & Fax : 00.33.(0)5.56.23.45.35 480 825 652 RCS Bordeaux - APE 742C 16, avenue Pey-Berland Portable : 00.33.(0)6.66.63.80.99 SIRET 480 825 652 00021 33607 Pessac Cedex E-mail : contact@ciram-art.com N° TVA Intracommunautaire FR 56 480 825 652 France Site web : www.ciram-art.com
  3. 3. Crossing X-R/ Analysis Page 3 / 17 Few examples… 6000 Intensité T L (u.a.) 5000 Nat Nat + 8,7 Gy Nat + 17,5 Gy 4000 Nat + 26,2 Gy Bruit de fond 3000 600000 Intensité T L (u.a.) 2000 500000 1000 400000 0 225 275 325 375 425 300000 température (°C) 200000 100000 -6,0 dose d´irradiation (Gy) 0 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Dose Naturelle Thermoluminescence analysis compatible with the presumed age of the objects…. …. and internal structures « abnormal » in X-ray digital radio. CIRAM SARL au capital de 21.000 € ENSCPB – Chem’Innov Tél. & Fax : 00.33.(0)5.56.23.45.35 480 825 652 RCS Bordeaux - APE 742C 16, avenue Pey-Berland Portable : 00.33.(0)6.66.63.80.99 SIRET 480 825 652 00021 33607 Pessac Cedex E-mail : contact@ciram-art.com N° TVA Intracommunautaire FR 56 480 825 652 France Site web : www.ciram-art.com
  4. 4. Crossing X-R/ Analysis Page 4 / 17 20000 Intensité T L (u.a.) 18000 Nat 16000 Nat + 8,7 Gy 14000 Nat + 17,5 Gy Nat + 26,2 Gy 12000 Bruit de fond 10000 8000 6000 4000 2500000 2000 Intensité T L (u.a.) 0 225 275 325 375 425 2000000 température (°C) 1500000 1000000 500000 -10,0 dose d´irradiation (Gy) 0 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Dose Naturelle Thermoluminescence analysis compatible with the presumed age of the objects…. …. and internal structures « abnormal » in X-ray digital radio. CIRAM SARL au capital de 21.000 € ENSCPB – Chem’Innov Tél. & Fax : 00.33.(0)5.56.23.45.35 480 825 652 RCS Bordeaux - APE 742C 16, avenue Pey-Berland Portable : 00.33.(0)6.66.63.80.99 SIRET 480 825 652 00021 33607 Pessac Cedex E-mail : contact@ciram-art.com N° TVA Intracommunautaire FR 56 480 825 652 France Site web : www.ciram-art.com
  5. 5. Crossing X-R/ Analysis Page 5 / 17 2000 Intensité TL (u.a.) 1800 Nat 1600 Nat + 2,7 Gy 1400 Nat + 5,5 Gy 1200 Bruit de fond 1000 800 600 45000 400 Intensité TL (u.a.) 40000 200 0 35000 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 30000 température (°C) 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 -1,5 dose d´irradiation (Gy) 0 Thermoluminescence analysis compatible -4 6 with the presumed age of the objects…. Dose Naturelle …. and an internal structure « abnormal » in X-ray digital radio. CIRAM SARL au capital de 21.000 € ENSCPB – Chem’Innov Tél. & Fax : 00.33.(0)5.56.23.45.35 480 825 652 RCS Bordeaux - APE 742C 16, avenue Pey-Berland Portable : 00.33.(0)6.66.63.80.99 SIRET 480 825 652 00021 33607 Pessac Cedex E-mail : contact@ciram-art.com N° TVA Intracommunautaire FR 56 480 825 652 France Site web : www.ciram-art.com
  6. 6. Crossing X-R/ Analysis Page 6 / 17 2500 Intensité TL (u.a.) 2000 Nat Nat + 12,0 Gy 1500 Bruit de fond 1000 500 3000 Intensité TL (u.a.) 0 2500 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 température (°C) 2000 1500 1000 500 -0,7 dose d´irradiation (Gy) 0 -10 0 10 20 Dose Naturelle Thermoluminescence analysis incompatible with the presumed age of the objects …. 900 …. and internal structures « normal » Intensité TL (u.a.) 800 in X-ray digital radio. Nat 700 Nat + 6,0 Gy 600 Nat + 12,0 Gy Bruit de fond 500 400 300 8000 200 Intensité TL (u.a.) 100 7000 0 6000 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 température (°C) 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0,0 dose d´irradiation (Gy) 0 -10 0 10 20 Dose Naturelle CIRAM SARL au capital de 21.000 € ENSCPB – Chem’Innov Tél. & Fax : 00.33.(0)5.56.23.45.35 480 825 652 RCS Bordeaux - APE 742C 16, avenue Pey-Berland Portable : 00.33.(0)6.66.63.80.99 SIRET 480 825 652 00021 33607 Pessac Cedex E-mail : contact@ciram-art.com N° TVA Intracommunautaire FR 56 480 825 652 France Site web : www.ciram-art.com
  7. 7. Crossing X-R/ Analysis Page 7 / 17 Metals Microanalysis X-ray radiography Microanalysis permits to evaluate X-ray radiography permits to the chronological compatibility of evaluate the structural the metal and its deteriorations homogeneity of the piece. with the presumed area. Chronological Not representative of Direct view of the No material analysis: compatibility the whole object. restoration areas, of can not determine evaluation. eventual falsification when the object was Unique method and setting-up. made. adapted to metals giving this kind of information. Jointed use of the methods - Chronological compatibility of the material - Homogeneity of the whole CIRAM SARL au capital de 21.000 € ENSCPB – Chem’Innov Tél. & Fax : 00.33.(0)5.56.23.45.35 480 825 652 RCS Bordeaux - APE 742C 16, avenue Pey-Berland Portable : 00.33.(0)6.66.63.80.99 SIRET 480 825 652 00021 33607 Pessac Cedex E-mail : contact@ciram-art.com N° TVA Intracommunautaire FR 56 480 825 652 France Site web : www.ciram-art.com
  8. 8. Crossing X-R/ Analysis Page 8 / 17 Few examples… Microanalysis shows that a part of the constitutive material of the object has an ancient metal properties.… … and radiography reveals a modern setting-up. …besides, the microanalysis permits to identify the material used for the patches’ junction: a metal and organic medium mix. CIRAM SARL au capital de 21.000 € ENSCPB – Chem’Innov Tél. & Fax : 00.33.(0)5.56.23.45.35 480 825 652 RCS Bordeaux - APE 742C 16, avenue Pey-Berland Portable : 00.33.(0)6.66.63.80.99 SIRET 480 825 652 00021 33607 Pessac Cedex E-mail : contact@ciram-art.com N° TVA Intracommunautaire FR 56 480 825 652 France Site web : www.ciram-art.com
  9. 9. Crossing X-R/ Analysis Page 9 / 17 Radiography brings to light a complex whole: restoration, use of a modern material, modern combination… O … the microanalysis permits the study of different materials. Particularly, it distinguishes an ancient metal from a modern metal and resin mix. CIRAM SARL au capital de 21.000 € ENSCPB – Chem’Innov Tél. & Fax : 00.33.(0)5.56.23.45.35 480 825 652 RCS Bordeaux - APE 742C 16, avenue Pey-Berland Portable : 00.33.(0)6.66.63.80.99 SIRET 480 825 652 00021 33607 Pessac Cedex E-mail : contact@ciram-art.com N° TVA Intracommunautaire FR 56 480 825 652 France Site web : www.ciram-art.com
  10. 10. Crossing X-R/ Analysis Page 10 / 17 Radiography brings to light restorations at the level of the side of the object… … microanalysis completes the study determining the modernity of the material used for the restoration. O O O … at the same time, the microanalysis determines the age of the constitutive metal of the whole object. CIRAM SARL au capital de 21.000 € ENSCPB – Chem’Innov Tél. & Fax : 00.33.(0)5.56.23.45.35 480 825 652 RCS Bordeaux - APE 742C 16, avenue Pey-Berland Portable : 00.33.(0)6.66.63.80.99 SIRET 480 825 652 00021 33607 Pessac Cedex E-mail : contact@ciram-art.com N° TVA Intracommunautaire FR 56 480 825 652 France Site web : www.ciram-art.com
  11. 11. Crossing X-R/ Analysis Page 11 / 17 … the base shows the use of a material different from the one constituting the whole… … the characters are constituted by a material less dense than the rest of the object. CIRAM SARL au capital de 21.000 € ENSCPB – Chem’Innov Tél. & Fax : 00.33.(0)5.56.23.45.35 480 825 652 RCS Bordeaux - APE 742C 16, avenue Pey-Berland Portable : 00.33.(0)6.66.63.80.99 SIRET 480 825 652 00021 33607 Pessac Cedex E-mail : contact@ciram-art.com N° TVA Intracommunautaire FR 56 480 825 652 France Site web : www.ciram-art.com
  12. 12. Crossing X-R/ Analysis Page 12 / 17 Stones Microanalysis X-ray Radiography Microanalysis permits to evaluate X-ray radiography permits to the chronological compatibility of evaluate the structural the stone’s deteriorations with the homogeneity of the piece. presumed area. Evaluation of the chronological Not representative of Direct view of the No material analysis: compatibility. the whole object. restoration areas, of can not determine eventual falsifications when the object was Unique method or setting-up. made. adapted to stones giving this kind of information. Jointed use of the methods - Chronological compatibility of the material - Homogeneity of the whole CIRAM SARL au capital de 21.000 € ENSCPB – Chem’Innov Tél. & Fax : 00.33.(0)5.56.23.45.35 480 825 652 RCS Bordeaux - APE 742C 16, avenue Pey-Berland Portable : 00.33.(0)6.66.63.80.99 SIRET 480 825 652 00021 33607 Pessac Cedex E-mail : contact@ciram-art.com N° TVA Intracommunautaire FR 56 480 825 652 France Site web : www.ciram-art.com
  13. 13. Crossing X-R/ Analysis Page 13 / 17 An example… Radiography brings to light restoration areas… Microanalysis shows the use of a modern material… CIRAM SARL au capital de 21.000 € ENSCPB – Chem’Innov Tél. & Fax : 00.33.(0)5.56.23.45.35 480 825 652 RCS Bordeaux - APE 742C 16, avenue Pey-Berland Portable : 00.33.(0)6.66.63.80.99 SIRET 480 825 652 00021 33607 Pessac Cedex E-mail : contact@ciram-art.com N° TVA Intracommunautaire FR 56 480 825 652 France Site web : www.ciram-art.com
  14. 14. Crossing X-R/ Analysis Page 14 / 17 Wood Carbon 14 X-ray radiography Carbon 14 permits to date the X-ray radiography permits to death of the living organism evaluate the structural having been used for the making homogeneity of the piece. of the object. Direct dating. Not representative of Direct view of No material analysis: the whole object. restoration areas, of can not determine Method permitting to eventual falsifications when the object was give the maximal age Does not date the and setting-up. made. of the object’s object as it. making. Jointed use of the methods - Material dating - Homogeneity of the whole CIRAM SARL au capital de 21.000 € ENSCPB – Chem’Innov Tél. & Fax : 00.33.(0)5.56.23.45.35 480 825 652 RCS Bordeaux - APE 742C 16, avenue Pey-Berland Portable : 00.33.(0)6.66.63.80.99 SIRET 480 825 652 00021 33607 Pessac Cedex E-mail : contact@ciram-art.com N° TVA Intracommunautaire FR 56 480 825 652 France Site web : www.ciram-art.com
  15. 15. Crossing X-R/ Analysis Page 15 / 17 Few examples… A sculpture… Pointing up of metallic elements into the sculpture… b/ Fraction pMC corrected Conventional age δ13C(‰) wood, alkaline residue, 4.0 mg C 120.17 ± 0.67 > 1955 -29.31 ± 0.02 Radiocarbon age: > 1955 AD … radiocarbon shows, as for it, that the wood is modern. CIRAM SARL au capital de 21.000 € ENSCPB – Chem’Innov Tél. & Fax : 00.33.(0)5.56.23.45.35 480 825 652 RCS Bordeaux - APE 742C 16, avenue Pey-Berland Portable : 00.33.(0)6.66.63.80.99 SIRET 480 825 652 00021 33607 Pessac Cedex E-mail : contact@ciram-art.com N° TVA Intracommunautaire FR 56 480 825 652 France Site web : www.ciram-art.com
  16. 16. Crossing X-R/ Analysis Page 16 / 17 A painting… Radiography does not show any anomaly… Fraction Correction pMC Conventional age δ13C(‰) wood, alkaline residue , 4.1 mg C 96.63 ± 0.33 275 ± 30 BP -24.13 ± 0.09 Radiocarbon age : 276 ± 28 years BP Age Calibré : cal AD 1643 1 Sigma cal AD 1527 - 1554 (Probability 28,7 %) (Probability 68,3 %) 1632 - 1658 (Probability 39,6 %) 2 Sigma cal AD 1518 - 1596 (Probability 47,7 %) (Probability 95,4 %) 1620 - 1666 (Probability 46,7 %) 1783 - 1790 (Probability 1,0 %) 800 600 Radiocarbon age [years BP] 400 200 The radiocarbon shows that the wood support 0 dates from a period included between the sixteen and the seventeen century… -200 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 Age Calendaire [years AD] CIRAM SARL au capital de 21.000 € ENSCPB – Chem’Innov Tél. & Fax : 00.33.(0)5.56.23.45.35 480 825 652 RCS Bordeaux - APE 742C 16, avenue Pey-Berland Portable : 00.33.(0)6.66.63.80.99 SIRET 480 825 652 00021 33607 Pessac Cedex E-mail : contact@ciram-art.com N° TVA Intracommunautaire FR 56 480 825 652 France Site web : www.ciram-art.com
  17. 17. Crossing X-R/ Analysis Page 17 / 17 In summary… The authentication research means the complementarity of the analysis methods: Constitutive material of the object’s analysis Visualization of its internal structure CIRAM proposes a wide range of analysis permetting to bring the necessary informations for a rigourous research authentification. CIRAM SARL au capital de 21.000 € ENSCPB – Chem’Innov Tél. & Fax : 00.33.(0)5.56.23.45.35 480 825 652 RCS Bordeaux - APE 742C 16, avenue Pey-Berland Portable : 00.33.(0)6.66.63.80.99 SIRET 480 825 652 00021 33607 Pessac Cedex E-mail : contact@ciram-art.com N° TVA Intracommunautaire FR 56 480 825 652 France Site web : www.ciram-art.com

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