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Curs engl incepatori

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Curs engl incepatori

  1. 1. LUDMILA CIUMAC ENGLISH(From beginners or false beginners to intermediates) CHIŞINĂU 2001
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONS IN PHONETICSIntroducere in foneticaEngleza este o limba germanica si are semne conventionale dinalfabetul latin.Totusi cu timpul, Engleza s-a transformat dintr-o limbafonetica, pronutarea careia a devenit o problema reala pentrustraini. Venind in ajutor studentului in pronuntarea corecta acuvintelor, mai intai vom descrie sunetele, iar apoi, cuvintelevor fi descrise in Sistema Internationala de Semne, cunoscutadeasemenea ca Alfabetul Fonetic. Toate vocalele insotite de /:/arata lungimea vocalei respective.Rules of ReadingIn limba engleza sunt 26 de litere si 44 de sunete. Aceasta seexplica prin faptul ca vocalele a, e, i, o, u, y se citesc diferit inpozitii diferite. Tabelul de mai jos va va ajuta sa sistematizatisi sa memorizati citirea lor. 2
  3. 3. Vocală Silabă Silabă Vocala Vocal Excepţii a+r (se termină (se termină în în vocală) consoană) a + re A [ei] [æ] [a:] [εә] many cake [keik] bag [bæg] car [ka:] care [k εә] have [hævi] plate [pleit] man [m bar [ba:] hare [h take [teik] æn] part [pa:t] εә] make [meik] can [k æn] card [ka:d] fare [f εә] map [m rare [r εә] æp] E [i:] [e] [ ә:] [ i ә] he [hi:] egg [eg] her [hә:] here [hiә] English she [∫i:] pen [pen] Berlin [b ә:lin] mere [miә] we [wi:] hen [hen] perfect[pә:fikt] seven [sevn] be [bi:] lesson [lesn] term [tә:m] I/Y [ai] [I] [ ә:] - I [ai] pig [pig] bird [ bә:d] live [liv] nine [nain] sick [sik] girl [gә:l] give [giv] pine [pain] tip [tip] circle [sә:kl] fix [fiks] my [mai] kirk [kә:k]- system [sistәm] fly [flai] myth [mi θ] (biserica scot) O [ou] [ ә] [ ә:] - rose [rouz] box [boks] fork [fo:k] do [du:] close [klouz] fox [foks] horse [ho:s] son [sΛn] nose [nouz] clock [klok] pork [po:k] who [hu:] open [oupn] cock [kok] form [fo:m] two [tu:] one [wΛn] you [ju:] U [ju:] [Λ] [ ә:] - 3
  4. 4. pupil [pju:pl] cup [kΛp] fur [fә:] put [put] music duck [dΛk] turn [t ә:n] [mju:zik] duster[dΛstә] burn [bә:n] pure [pju:ә] plus [plΛs] curl [kә: l] mute [mju:t] cut [kΛt] purpose student [pә:pәz] [stju:dnt]VOWELS [vauэlz] – description and pronunciation (descrierea si pronuntarea)“A”[э] as ‘ă’ ca in limba romana: casă, fată, mamă. a [э] - un, o summer [sΛmэ] - vara sister [sistэ] - sora[з:] ca ‘aa’ romanesc girl [gз:l] - fata first [fз:st] - primul/prima purpose [pз:pэs] - scop/intentie[æ] ca ‘a/e’: bere man [mæn] - om/barbat cat [cæt] - pisica flat [flæt] - apartament[Λ] ca in l. romana: tac, zac, mac. son [sΛn] - fiu but [bΛt] - insa/dar/ci nut [nΛt] - nuca[a:] rostit din fundul gurii: ba, are. 4
  5. 5. car [ka:] - automobil aunt [a:nt] - matusa far [fa:] - departe[ai] [au] ca in l. romana: cai sau. I [ai] - eu now [nau] - acum eye [ai] - ochi cow [cau] - vaca buy [bai] - a cumpara mouse [maus] - soarece[aiэ] numai in triftongi rostit aprox. Ca aca, cu ultimele doua elemente foarte scurte. fire [faiэ] - foc tired [taiэd] - obosit hire [haiэ] - a inchiria[auэ] rostit aprox.. ca aoă, cu ultimele doua elemente foartescurte: flower [flauэ] - floare tower [tauэ] - turn sour [sauэ] - acru“E”[e] ca in l. romana: vers, neg, cred. pen [pen] - stilou lesson [lesn] - lectie bed [bed] - pat[ei] ca in l. romana: tei, lei, vrei. day [dei] - zi name [neim] - nume stay [stei] - a sta/a locui 5
  6. 6. [eiэ] in triftongi player [pleiэ] - jucator/actor prayer [preiэ] - rugaciune layer [leiэ] - strat[eэ] o prelungire a lui ‘e’ in ‘ă’ hair [heэ] - par fair [feэ] - blond/targ/onest/corect bear [beэ] - a purta/a suporta/urs rare [reэ] - rar care [keэ] - grija/atentie“I”[i] ca in l. romana: vin, lin, plin. pity [piti] - mila/compatimire fist [fist] - pumn it [it] - el/ea pentru obiecte, fenomene, etc.[i:] rostit ca doi de‘i’ eat [i:t] - a manca meet [mi:t] - a /se/ intalni/ a face cunostinta niece [ni:s] - nepoata[iэ] rostit ca ‘i’ si ‘ă’romanesc impreuna ‘iă’. near [niэ] - langa/aproape dear [diэ] - draga/scumpa fear [fiэ] - teama/spaima/risc“O”[o] rostit scurt si deschis, putin nazal. not [not] - nu pot [pot] - oala/vas/cratita/ghiveci fog [fog] - ceata[o:] ca in l. romana: alcool, co-operativa. floor [flo:] - etaj/podea storm [sto:m] - furtuna 6
  7. 7. door [do:] - usa[oi] ca in l. romana: oi, noi, doi. toilet [toilit] - toaleta, baie/WC boy [boi] - baiat toy [toi] - jucarie“U”[u] ca romaneste: drum, cum, fum. cook [cuk] - a gati/bucatar book [buk] - carte put [put] - a pune[u:] ca romaneste: vacuum soon [su:n] - curand /indata noon [nu:n] - amiaza spoon [spu:n] - lingura[uэ] ca romaneste ’u’ si ‘ă’ rostite impreuna poor [puэ] - biet/sarman/sarac tour [tuэ] - tur/vizitarea unui oras hour [auэ] - ora[ou] [эu] ambele sunt rostite in acelas mod ca in l. romana: căusbăut, tău. open [oupn] - a deschide old [ould] - vechi/batran no [nou] - nuCONSONANTS [konsэnэnts] - descriptions and pronunciations(descrierea si pronuntarea)Consonants are divided into two main groups (Consoanele suntdivizate in doua grupe principale): VOICED [voist] (sonore) b, d, g,v, z, m, n, n, r, l and UNVOICED [Λnvoist] (surde) p, t, k, f, O, s, , t, h; SEMIVOWELS [semivaulz] (semivocale) j, w.[b] ball [bo:l] - minge bell [bel] - clopotel big [big] - mare 7
  8. 8. [d] dog [dog] - caine dirty [dэ:ti] - murdar deep [di:p] - adanc[g] goose [gu:s] - gasca gold [gould] - aur good [gud] - bun/a/[v] very [veri] - foarte voice [vois] - voce have [hæv] - a avea[z] zip [zip] - fermoar zoo [zu:] - gradina zoologica does [dΛz] - face[m] money [mΛni] - bani maybe [meibi] - probabil must [mΛst] - a trebui[n] nose [nouz] - nas night [nait] - noapte nice [nais] - frumos[l] live [liv] - a locui love [lΛv] - a iubi light [lait] - lumina[p] party [pa:ti] - partid/petrecere pillow [pilou] - perna pie [pai] - placinta[r] crazy [creizi] - nebun red [red] - rosu screen [skri:n] - ecran 8
  9. 9. [t] time [taim] - ori/timp/ora tea [ti:] - ceai tall [to:l] - inalt[k] cake [keik] - pragitura kind [kaind] - fel/amabil cold [kould] - frigf] fly [flai] - a zbura fast [fast] - repede feel [fi:l] - a simti[s] see [si:] - a vedea city [siti] - oras son [sΛn] - fecior[h] he [hi:] - el who [hu:] - cine husbund [hΛzbэnd] - sotSPECIAL PHONETIC SYMBOLS CORRESPONDING TOGROUPS OF CONSONANTS (Simboluri special foneticecorespunzatoare grupurilor de consoane)[∫] ca ‘s’ romanesc: şal, şarpe.fish [fi∫] - peşte/a pescuimushroom [mΛ∫ru:m] - ciuperci[t∫] ca in cuvantul cinci: trecerea de la “t∫” la oarecare dintrevocale face fara intermediul lui “I” sa “e”, ca in l. romana; sunetul“t” poate fi final (ca in “zici”)picture [pikt∫э] - tablouteach [ti:t∫э] - a predachair [t∫εэ] - scaun[ŋ] ca ‘n’ din langa, lingurasing [siŋ] - a canta 9
  10. 10. song [soŋ] - cantecbring [briŋ] - a aduce[dз] ca ‘g ‘ sau ‘j ‘ romanesc (gi).John - [dзon] - Ionjam - [dзæm] - gemjoy - [dзoi] - bucurie[зэ] ca ‘j’’ romanesc: jar, jaf, jale.pleasure [pleзэ] - placeretreasure [treзэ] - comoarameasure [meзэ] - masura[j] ca ‘i ‘romanesc din: ieri, iarna, iarba.yesterday [jestэdi] - ieriyellow [jelou] - galbenyes [jes] - da[ð] stands for letters ‘th’ and is pronounced as if having a singingbee on the tip of the tongue. No similitudes between this sound andany their Romanian sound. (‘z’ sau ‘d’ rostit cu varful limbii intredinti)mother [mΛðэ] - mamafather [fa:ðэ] - tatabrother [brΛðэ] - frate[θ] stands for letters ‘th’ and is pronounced as if imitating thesound of snake: No similitudes between this sound and anyRomanian sound. (‘s’ sau ‘t ‘rostit cu varful limbii intre dinti)thanks [θænks] - multumirithick [θik] - grosthink [θink] - a gandi Citirea imbinarilor de litere 10
  11. 11. ee ea eo [i:]see [si:] sea [si:] people [pi:pl]green [gri:n] meal [mi:l]feed [fi:d] mean [mi:n]teach [ti:t∫э] speech [spi:t∫]meet [mi:t] meat [mi:t]ai ay [ei]main [mein] day [dei]pain [pein] clay [klei]chain [t∫ein] say [sei]faint [feint] may [mei]lain [lein] pay [pei] oa [ou]coat [kout]coal [koul]soap [soup]boat [bout]float [flout] ou [au] [Λ]sound [saund] young [jΛng]count [kaunt] country [kΛntri]south [sauθ] cousin [kΛzn]pound [paund] touch [tΛt∫]BUT: group [gru:p], soup [su:p] oo oo 11
  12. 12. [u] [u:]book [buk] too [tu:]cook [kuk] fool [fu:l]good [gud] spoon [spu:n]mood [mud] cool [ku:l]took [tuk] moon [mu:n]NOTE: [oo] before ‘d’, ‘k’ is pronounced [u] ([oo] inainte de ‘d’ si‘k’ este rostit [u] scurt). ow ew[au] [ou] [ju:] ngbrown [braun] low [lou] new [nju:]crown [kraun] crow [krou] few [fju:]down [daun] yellow [jelou] dew [dju:]crowd [kraud] fellow [felou] chew [t∫ju:]Except now [nau], cow [kau], how [hau].ng[ŋ]ring [riŋ]sing [siŋ]thing [θiŋ]long [loŋ] th [ð] [θ]this [ðis] thank [θænk]these [ði:z] bath [ba:θ]that [ðæt] breath [breθ] 12
  13. 13. those [ðouz] teeth [ti:θ]clothes [klouðz] cloth [kloθ]wh wa[w] [wo]when [wen] was [woz]where [wεэ] wash [wo∫]what [wot] watch [wot∫]which [wit∫] want [wont]why [wai] wander [wondэ]NOTE: WH is pronounced [w] before all the vowels except thevowel ‘o’.(WH rostit [w] inaintea tuturor vocalelor cu exceptia lui‘o’). Example: who [hu:] – cine?, whose [hu:z] – al, a, ai, ale cui,whom [hu:m] – cui, pe cine. war wor [wo:] [wз:]warm [wo:m] world [wз:ld]war [wo:] word [wз:d]warn [wo:n] worm [wз:m]ward [wo:d] worse [wз:s]wardrobe [wo:droub] worth [wз:θ] wr [r]wrist [rist]write [rait]wrong [roŋ]wrinkle [riŋkl]wrap [ræp] ch sh 13
  14. 14. [t∫] [∫]child [t∫aild] shake [∫eik]chill [t∫il] shave [∫eiv]lunch [l Λnt∫] shelf [∫elf]check [t∫ek] fish [fi∫]chief [t∫if] wash [wo:∫] ture sure [t∫э] [зэ]picture pikt∫э] pleasure [pleзэ]structure [strΛ kt∫э] measure [meзэ]mixture [mikst∫э]lecture [lekt∫э]signature [signit∫э]tion [∫n] (at the end of the word – la sfarsit de cuvant)sionssionstation [stei∫n]tension [ten∫n]session [se∫n]sion [зn] at the end of the word after vowels (la sfarsit de cuvantdupa vocale). Example: television [teliviзn]a + ss [a:s] a + ll [o:l]a + st [a:st] a + lk [o:lk]ask [a:sk] all [o:l]fast [fa:st] small [smo:l]grass [gra:s] talk [to:k] 14
  15. 15. pass [pa:s] walk [wo:k]task [ta:sk] tall [to:l] ear air [iэ] [еэ]clear [kliэ] hair [hеэ]dear [diэ] pair [pеэ]tear [tiэ] fair [fеэ]near [niэ] chair [t∫еэ]hear [hiэ] air [eэ] eer our [iэ] [o:] [au]beer [biэ] four [fo:] sour [sauэ]deer [di:э] your [jo:] flour [flauэ]cheer [t∫iэ] our [auэ] BUT: hour [auэ]qu + vowel i+ ld, ndquite [kwait] kind [kaind]question [kwest∫n] mild [maild]quiet [kwaiэt] bind [baind]queen [kwi:n] mind [maind] 15
  16. 16. UNIT 1Articolul nehotarat [Idefinite Article] din l. engleza este ‘a, an’, echivalentul articolului nehotarat din l. romana ‘un, o’ [un om, o carte].Inaintea vocalelor “an [эn]” – an animal, an egg, an hour, aneconomist, an eye, an agency.Inaintea consoanelor si sunetelor ‘w’ si ‘j’ “a [э]” a lady, a boy, atable, a European [juэrэpiэn], a window, a university.Intrebuintare:a). Introduce o notiune noua. Example: There is a new shoppingcentre in the city. (In oras exista un nou centru comercial).b). Inainte de un nume predicativ. Example: He is an artist. (El esteartist). She became a doctor. (A devenit medic).c). In expresii: as a rule (de regula); for a time (pentru un timp); It isa pity (E pacat); to be in a hurry (a se grabi).d). Numai cu substantive la singular si dispare odata cu trecereasubstantivului respectiv la plural. Exemple: a book – books, an item –items, a dog – dogs, a computer – computers. 16
  17. 17. Articolul hotarat (Definite article) din l. engleza este “the”,echivalentul articolului hotarat din l. romana – ul, (pomul, omul), - a(tabla, masa), ua – (sacaua, daraua), - le (peretele, caietele) sau laplutal –ii (pomii, merii), - le (femeile, florile) etc.Inaintea vocalelor the [ði]: the animal, the apple, the egg.Inaintea consoanelor the [ðз]: the lady, the man, the university, theteacher, the European[juэrэpi:эn].Articolu hotarat introduce o notiune cunoscuta sau amintitaanterior:I like the recipe. (Imi place reteta).Exista un numar de substantive proprii care se cer precedate dearticolul hotarat datorita dezvoltarii istorice a limbii engleze. Categoriide substantive proprii precedate de articolul hotart:a). Nume de ape curgatoare (rauri, fluvii): the Danube - Dunarea the Thames - Tamisab). Nume de oceane si mari: the Atlantic (ocean) the Black Seac). Nume de munti si dealuri: the Alps - Alpii the Carpathians - Carpatiid). Nume de insule (grupe de insule) la plural: The British Isles - Insulele Britanicee). Nume de stramtori, canaluri, golfuri, capuri: the Straits of Dover - Stramtoarea Dover the English Channel - Canalul Manecii the Cape Verde - Capul Verde the Bay of Biscay - Golful Biscaiaf). Nume de intreprinderi, institutii, hoteluri etc: the British Museum the Savoy (Hotel)g). Nume de vase: 17
  18. 18. the Augustina the Titanich). Nume de ziare si reviste engleze si americane: the Times, the World, the Breezei). Nume de familii la plural: the Browns, the Smiths.Articolul hotarat se refera la un obiect sau lucru considerat de a fiunic: the sun, the moon, the sky, the world, the Lord, the Bible, theair, the universe etc.Artocolul Zero inaintea unor substantive proprii. (TheZero Article before certain Proper Nouns).a). Nume de oameni, animle, corpuri ceresti etc: Michael, John Corbin, Venus – Venera.b). Nume de continente, tari, provincii, regiuni, orase, sate etc: Europe, Africa, Rome, France, Moldova.Dintre exceptii pot fi mentionate: The Ukraine, the United States, the Hague.c). Denumirile lunilor anului, ale zilelor saptamanii: March, June, Monday, Sunday etc.d). Denumirile limbilor: Romanian, English, Russian.e). Cu nume de strazi, piete, parcuri, constructii, aeroporturi,metruri: Oxford Street, Red Square, National Park, Windsor Castle,London Bridge. f). Cu nume de substantive (in sens general): Oil floats on water.II. PRONUMELE PERSONAL (Personal Pronoun)I = euYou = tu , dumneataHe, she = el, ea (pentru nume de persone)It = el, ea (pentru nume de animale si obiecte)We = noi 18
  19. 19. You = voiThey = ei, eleI se scrie intotdeaune cu litera mare.EXERCISES:I. Put in a or an (Adaugati a sau an):1. … teacher: 4. … worker; 7. … book;2. … English car; 5. … farmer; 8. … doctor;3. … engineer; 6. … nurse; 9. … chair;2. Put in a, an (Completati cu a, an):1. I have … new car.2. Nick is … manager.3. His teacher is … American.4. She eats … ice cream.5. I want … apple.6. We have … nice picture.7. This is … interesting story.8. He reads … newspaper.9. Helen learns … poem.10. My sister has … black cat.11. Her brother writes … letter.12. You sit in … armchair.A. Put the or nothing into each gap.I like … Coke.1. … meat is expensive.2. He likes to drink … wine.3. … wine in my glass is red.4. … Heathrow is … busiest airport in Europe.5. We arrive in … Paris on … third of April.6. I don’t like … milk.7. … milk in my cup is not hot.8. … textbook is old.9. These are … desks. 19
  20. 20. 10. … desks are dark brown.11. Tom and Bill are … students.D. Put in articles where necessary.1. This is … nice street. It is … Pushkin street.2. Mr. Brown lives near … Hyde Park.3. They go to … National Airport.4. She says that she loves … sea.5. Mr. Wilson is … professor at … Oxford University.6. … Greens come to London today.7. I like … tea.8. They go to … Black Sea for their holiday.9. We visit … United States.10. … Atlantic lies between … Europe and America.11. They go to … Travel Agency and book … train tickets.12. … Music Festival will take place in … Moscow next year.PRESENT SIMPLE of the verb “TO BE”(Timpul present al verbului “to be- a fi”).AFFIRMATIVE (Afirmativ)SingularI am (I’m) = eu suntyou are (You’re) = tu estihe/she/it is (he’s/she’s/it’s) = el, ea estePluralwe are (we’re) = noi suntemyou are (you’re) = voi suntetithey are (they’re) = ei suntVerbul to be formeaza interogativul prin inversiune.INTERROGATIVE (Interogativ) INTERROGATIVE-NEGATIVEam I? am I not?are you? are you not? etc. 20
  21. 21. is he/she/it?are we?are you?are they?Verbul to be formeaza negativul adaugand cuvantul not (n’t) dupaverb.NEGATIVE (Negativ)I am not (I’m) notYou are not (aren’t)He/she/it is not (isn’t)We are not (aren’t)You are not (aren’t)They are not (aren’t)Note: 1. You is singular and plural but the verb with you is alwaysplural, e.g.Are you a man? (singular)Are you all students? (plural)2. Always write a capital letter for I, e.g.My friends and I are in the garden.EXERCISES:I. Put in I, you, he, she, it, we, they:1. Paul is a worker. … is a worker.2. Jane is a girl. … is a girl.3. Felix is my cat. … is my cat.4. My friend is a teacher. … is a teacher.5. This is an English book. … is an English book.6. Toby is a dog. … is a dog.7. Mary is a manager. … is a manager.8. Tom and Bill are children. … are children.9. The students are in the classroom. … are in the classroom.10. My friend and I are at the window. … are at the window.11. The bag is on the chair. … is on the chair. 21
  22. 22. 12. The children are at the door. … are at the door.II. Put in the interrogative (Puneti la forma interogativa):1. He is an economist.2. You are doctors.3. She is a good woman.4. They are here.5. You are near the window.6. It is on the desk.7. Tom is in the classroom.8. They are at work.9. It is on the chair.10. The manager is in the office.III. Put in the negative (Treceti la forma negativa).1. They are there.2. You are at school.3. I am a good friend.4. He is a businessman.5. We are in the classroom.6. She is a singer.7. It is hot.8. You are busy.9. He is a pilot.10. It is summer. 22
  23. 23. UNIT 2The PLURAL OF NOUNS (Pluralul substantivelor)In limba engleza pluralul substantvelor se formeaza de regulaadaugand litera ‘s’, care se citeste [s], [z], sau –es, care se citeste [iz]:[s] - dupa consoane surde:a book - booksa desk - desksa map - mapsa cat - cats[z] - dupa vocale sau consoane sonore:a pen – pensa girl – girlsa dog – dogsa boy – boys[iz] - substantive terminate in literele s, sh, ch, tch, sau x adaugaes:a match – matchesa glass – glassesa church – churchesa fox – foxesa peach – peachesa wish – wishesSubstantivele terminate in consoana + y schimba la plural y in i siadauga es:a lady – ladiesa city – citiesan agency – agenciesCele terminate in vocala + y adauga numai s:a day – daysa play – playsa ray – rays 23
  24. 24. Cele care au mutatie vocalica:a man – mena woman – women [wimin]a foot – feeta tooth – teetha mouse – mice [mais]a goose [gu:s] – geese [gi:s]Plural in –en + mutatie vocalicaan ox – oxena child – childrenUnele substantive terminate la singular in “o “formeaza plural in– es:a hero - heroesa potato – potatoesa tomato – tomatoesAlte substantive terminate la singular in “o” formeaza pluralul in– s:a photo – photosa piano – pianosa radio – radiosa studio – studiosPlurale neregulate:- sonorizarea consoanei finale:[θ] – [ðz] path [pa:θ] – paths [pa:ðz] bath [ba:θ ] – baths [ba:ðz] mouth [mauθ] – mouths [mauðz][f] – [vz] a leaf – leaves a half – halves a shelf – shelves a knife – knives a life - lives a wife – wives 24
  25. 25. - Plurale straine:a nucleus [nju:kliэs] nucleu – (nuclei) [nju:kliai] (nuclei)a bacterium – bacteriaan analysis [э‘nælisis] – analyses [э‘nælisi:z]The Adjective (Adjectivul)In limba engleza adjectivele au o singura forma, indeferent de gen saunumar. Ele se asaza de regula inaintea substantivului:A young womanA new flatA handsome manAdjectivele derivate din nume proprii se scriu cu initiala majuscula:RomanianEnglishFrenchIV. Pronumele si adjectivul demonstrativNumar De aproape De departeSing. This [ðis] that [ðæt] (acesta/aceasta/acest/aceasta) (acela/aceea/acel/acea)Plural these [ði:z] those [ðouz] (acestea/acestea/acesti/aceste) (aceia/acelea/acei/acele)Examples: This is a book. It’s here. These are books. They are there. That is a picture. Those are pictures.This is a pencil.Is this a pencil ?Yes, it is.No, it isn’t. 25
  26. 26. PREPOZITII DE LOC. 1. ON se foloseste cu referire la: - o linie It’s on the edge of the table (Este la marginea mesei) He lives on Oxford Street (Locuieste pe strada Oxford). Dar in the street (= pe strada). - suprafata: Put it on the table (Pune-o pe masa). 2. IN se foloseste cu referire la o zona: It’s in my bag (E in geanta mea) He lives in Paris (Locuieste la Paris). 3. UNDER : The cat is under the chair. 4. AT se foloseste cu referire la un anumit punct sau pozitie: I’ll meet you at the station (Ne vom intalni la gara). 5. BETWEEN exprima pozitia fata de doua elemente My house is between the school and the bank (Casa mea este intre scoala si banca).IV. INTREBARI GENERALE (General Questions)Intrebarile generale presupun un enunt general (o propozitie intreaga)si un raspuns general, redus, de obicei, la yes da sau no nu. Example: She is a doctor. Is she a doctor ? Yes, she is. No, she is not (isn’t) We are managers. Are we managers ? Yes, we are. No, we are not (aren’t). 26
  27. 27. The Construction “THERE IS/ARE”There is = este, exista, se afla, se gaseste.There are = sunt, exista, se afla, se gasesc.There is are forma prescurtata there’sLa viteza normala de vorbire there is si there are sunt neaccentuate sicontin de regula forme slabe.There is a man at the door.La interogativ is si are sunt accentuate, iar there are forma tare.‘Is there a cup of tea for me too?‘Are there many books on the table?There is si there are cu accentul pe there, inseamna tot iata, pentrudistanta:There is the bus = Iata autobusul.There it is. = Iata-l.There they are. = Iata-i.There are Mr. and Mrs. Stevens. Iata-i pe d-na si dl. Stevens.Folosim there is, there are de a denumi lucruri care exista sau nuexista.There’s a child’s picture but there aren’t any plants.Deseori folosim “there” cand vorbim despre ceva pentru prima data,si “it” cand descriem detaliile.There is a good office. It’s dark.There is a computer in the office. It’s very modern.EXAMPLESThere is a teacher at the table.There is a cat in the picture. Is there a cat in the pictureYes, there is.No, there isn’t.Is there a train in the station? Yes, there is.There are flowers in this picture. Are there flowers in this picture?Yes, there are.Are there cups on the table? No, there aren’t. 27
  28. 28. Intrebari disjunctive la propozitiile continand there is (there’s),there are, there is not (there isn’t, there’s not), there are not (therearen’t) sunt:There are some books on the desk, aren’t there?Yes, there are.Sunt cateva carti pe masa, nu-i asa?There isn’t much water in the cup, is there?No, there isn’t.Nu este multa apa in ceasca, nu-i asa?EXERCISES:1. Give the plural of these words:1. a star. 2. a mountain. 3. a tree. 4. a pound. 5. a knife. 6. a waiter. 7.a woman. 8. a man. 9. an eye. 10. a wife. 11. an airplane. 12. a box. 13.a bench. 14. a city. 15. a radio. 16. a tomato. 17. a girl. 18. a brush. 19.a peach. 20. an address.2. Put these sentences in the plural (Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la plural) Model: This is a book. That is a map. These are books. Those are maps.1. This is a boy. 6. This is a desk.2. That is a teacher. 7. That is an armchair.3. This is a window. 8. This is a chair.4. That is a tree. 9. This is a table.5. That is a pencil. 10.That is a bed.3. Exprimati dezacordul dumneavoastra (Express your discord).Model: This coat is green. (yellow) This coat isn’t green. It’s yellow. 1. That car is old. (new) 2. These hats are black. (red) 3. This apple is big. (small) 28
  29. 29. 4. Those texts are easy. (difficult) 5. That office is bad. (good) 6. This tie is nice. (plain) 7. These books are thin. (thick) 8. That room is dark. (light) 9. This cat is white. (black)11. Those days are good. (bad)4. Make these sentences interrogative:1. This is a train.2. That is a door.3. Those are planes.4. It is a cat.5. That is a clock.6. That egg is bad.7. This is an umbrella.8. The window is open.9. The man is in the car.10. The cat is under the table.11. The train is in the station.12. The plate is on the table.13. The cigarette is on the desk.14. They are waiters.15. The pictures are on the wall.5. Answer these questions affirmatively (with yes). Use he, she, it or they in the answers:1. Is this a pencil?2. Is this a train?3. Is that a window?4. Are the students in the classroom?5. Are the children in the garden?6. Is the woman a mother?7. Is a table a thing? 29
  30. 30. 6. Answer these questions negatively (with no). Use he, she, it, or they in the answers:1. Is this a tree?2. Are these trees?3. Is that a book?4. Are the girls in the office?5. Is the boy near the door?6. Are the flowers on the table?7. Is the door open?8. Are the books on the shelf?9. Is the piano in the corner of the room?10. Is the computer under the desk?7. Put in on, in, between, at or under:1. Tom and Mary are … home.2. They aren’t … school.3. The institute is … hospital and the school.3. It is … the floor.4. The doctor is … the hospital.5. Peter is … the blackboard.6. Bill sits … a chair.7. Father sits … an armchair.8. The mouse is … the floor.8. Translate into English1. Cestile sunt pe masa.2. Camera este mare.3. Automobilul este nou.4. Acea geanta este neagra. Este ea sub masa?5. Baiatul este la masa.6. Lectia este interesanta.7. Ei nu sunt la lectie.8. Textul nu este mare.9. Omul acela este sofer. Este el in masina?10. El si ea sunt medici. Sunt ei medici?11. Ei nu sunt medici. Ei sunt ingineri.12. Este lampa pe masa? Da, este. 30
  31. 31. Vocabulary:picture tablou, pictura, fotografie, filmdoor usato close a inchidewindow fereastraclock ceas (de perete)wall peretetable masanear langaboy baiatpen pixpencil creiondesk banca, birou, masa de scris, (ec.) casapay at the desk platiti la casabox cutiethick grosthin subtirebig marenice placut, dragutlarge mare, largTEXT: In the classroomThis is a classroom. The classroom is large. That is a teacher and theseare students. That is the door. The door is closed. Those are windows.One window is open. This is a nice picture. That is a map on the wall.There is a table in the classroom. There are flowers on the table. Theteacher is near the table. These are desks. The pens and the pencils areon the desks. Are they thick? The pencils and the pens are thin. Theyare in the boxes. The clock is on the wall. Is the clock big? Yes, it is. 31
  32. 32. UNIT 3The verb to have/ to have got (Present Tense)AffirmativeI have / have got = eu amYou have / have got = tu aiHe has / has got = el areShe has / has got = ea areIt has /has got = el/ea are (pentru animale, obiecte)We have /have got = noi avemYou have / have got = voi avetiThey have / have got = ei auInterrogativeDo I have? Have I got?Do you have? Have you got?Does he have? Has he got?Does she have? Has she got?Does it have? Has it got?Do we have? Have we got?Do you have? Have you got?Do they have? Have they got?NegativeI don’t have I haven’t gotYou don’t have You haven’t gotHe, she, it doesn’t have He, she, it hasn’t gotWe don’t have We haven’t gotYou don’t have You haven’t gotThey don’t have They haven’t gotNote: In stilul vorbit, formelor verbului “to have” li se adauga got faranici o modificare a sensului. 32
  33. 33. II. Pronumele personale la cazurile nominativ si obiectiv:Nominative ObjectiveI me (mie, pe mine)You you (tie, pe tine)He him (lui, pe el)She her (ei, pe ea)It it (le el, pe ea)We us (noua, pe noi)You you (voua, pe voi)They them (lor, pe ei)NOTE: La cazul nominativ pronumele personale se folosesc numaiin rolul de subiect:E.g. We are students.La cazul obiectiv (acuzativ) aceste pronume se folosesc in rolul decomplement a unui verb, dupa prepozitie.Nominative Verb Objective Preposition ObjectiveI know him and I write to himYou know me and you write to meHe knows her and he writes to herShe knows us and she writes to usWe know them and we write to themThey know you and they write to youE.g. Help me! = (Ajuta-ma). I see him every day. (Il vad pe el infiecare zi). Give them these books. (Dati-le lor cartile acestea.).III. Ordinea obisnuita a cuvintelor in propozitie. Pozitia subiectului si predicatuluiSubiectul este asezat inaintea predicatului:E.g. Dan has a new car. (Dan are o masina noua). 33
  34. 34. In propozitia interogativa verbul totdeauna preceda subiectul:E.g. Does Dan have a new car? (Are Dan o masina noua?)Is he a teacher? (Este el profesor?)Intrebarile, care se incep cu un verb se numesc generale. Ele se rostesccu un ton ascendent si raspunsul este scurt afirmativ si negativ.:E.g. Is he a student? Yes, he is. No, he isn’t.Have they got good marks? Yes, they have. No, they haven’t.Intrebarile, care incep cu cuvintele interogative ca: who? (cine?),what? (ce?), where? (unde?), how? (cum?), how many? (cati,cate?), how much? (cati, cate?), how old? (ce varsta ai?) whatkind of? etc. se numesc speciale.E.g. Who is she? (Cine este ea?). She is Jane. (Ea este Jane). What is Bill? (Ce este Bill?) He is an economist. (El esteeconomist).The word who is for people.The word what is for things. Note: Who is he? He is Mr. X. What ishe? He is a driver.The students are in the classroom.Who are in the classroom?The students are in the classroom, or The students are, or Thestudents.Are the students in the classroom? Yes, they are.Where are the students? They are in the classroom.The train is in the station.What is in the station?The train is in the station, or The train is, or The train. 34
  35. 35. NUMERALS(Cardinal Numerals) (Ordinal Numerals)0- nought/zero [no:t] [zirou]1 one [wΛn] the first [fз:st] 1st2 two [tu:] -“- second [sekэnd] 2nd3 three [θri:] third [θЗ:d] 3rd4 four [fo:] fourth [fo:θ] 4th5 five [faiv] fifth [fifθ] 5th6 six [siks] sixth [sikθ] 6th7 seven [sevn] seventh [sevnθ] 7th8 eight [eit] eighth [eitθ] 8th9 nine [nain] ninth [nainθ] 9th10 - ten [ten] tenth [tenθ] 10th11- eleven [ilэvn] eleventh [ilэvn] 11th12- twelve [twelv] twelfth [twelfθ] 12th13- thirteen [θз:ti:n] thirteenth [θз:ti:nθ] 13th14- fourteen [fo:ti:n] fourteenth [fo:ti:nθ] 14th15- fifteen [fifti:n] fifteenth [fifti:nθ] 15th16- sixteen [siksti:n] sixteenth [siksti:nθ ]16th17- seventeen [sevnti:n] seventeenth [sevnti:nθ]17th18- eighteen [ei’ti:n] eighteenth [eiti:nθ] 18th19- nineteen [nainti:n] nineteenth [nainti:nθ] 19th20- twenty [twenti] twentieth [twentiiθ] 20th21- twenty-one [twenti wΛn] twenty first 21st30- thirty [θз:ti] thirtieth [θз:ti:θ] 30th40- forty [fo:ti] fortieth [fo:tiiθ] 40th50- fifty [fifti] fiftieth [fiftiiθ] 50th60- sixty [siksti] sixtieth [sikstiiθ] 60th70- seventy [seventi] seventieth [seventiiθ] 70th80- eighty [eiti] eightieth [eitiiθ] 80th90- ninety [nainti] ninetieth [naintiiθ] 90th100-one (a) hundred [h Λndrэd] hundredth [h Λndrэdθ] 100th101- one (a) hundred and one (the) hundred and first 101st1000- one (a) thousand [θauznd] thousandth [θauzndθ] 1000th1000000 – one (a) million [miliэn] the millionth [miljэnθ] 1000000th 35
  36. 36. Numeralele ordinale, cu exceptia primelor trei, se formeaza dinnumeralele cardinale corespunzatoare, cu ajutorul sufixului -th:Grupul de litere ve din five si twelve devine f in numeralelecorespunzatoare (the fifth, the twelfth). Eight primeste doar un h (theeighth).Vocala e din nine cade (the ninth).De la twenty la ninety, y se transforma in ie, la care se adauga th.Exprimarea datei: September 12, 1999 – September the twelfth,nineteen ninety nine.12th September, 1999 – the 12th of September, nineteen ninety nine.She was born on the 12th of September. Ea s-a nascut la 12 septembrie.Exercises:1. Put in have or has (Completati cu have sau has). 1. I … an English book. 5. You … a little cat. 2. She … a nice dress. 6. We … a new company. 3. He … a little dog. 7. They … a clean house. 4. They … a new chief. 8. Dan … an interesting book.2. Make these sentences (I) interrogative, (2) negative:I. I have a book.8. You have an exercise book.9. Mr. Corbin has a new car.10. The students on my left have a computer.11. Miss Helen has a reading book.12. Peter has bad pronunciation.13. I have bad pronunciation.14. You have a lot of money.15. The children have funny toys.16. She has a nice picture.3. Give true answers (Dati raspusuri adevarate):Model: Has Tom got a little dog?Has your father got an English book? Yes, he has. No, he hasn’t. 36
  37. 37. 1. Do you have you a new pencil? 5. Does your father have a new hat?2. Has your teacher got a new bag? 6. Does your sister have a redblouse?3. Do you have a cat? 7. Do they have good friends?4. Has Mary got a big family? 8. Has Tom got a big flat?4. Cross out the wrong pronoun (Stergeti pronumele gresit):1.I write to (he, him) and you write (I, me).2. Mary goes to a dance, and Bill goes with (her, she).3.We know (them, they) very well, and they know (we, us).4. I see (she, her) in the office and she sees (me, I).5. He telephones (she, her) every day and tells the news.6. He speaks English to (we, us), and (we, us) speak English to (he, him).7. He teaches (us, we).8. They help (me, I).5. Make special questions (Puneti intrebari speciale la cuvintele evidentiate):1. Mr. Smith has a new team.2. I have an old car.3. We go home after lessons.4. You have five French books.5. Tom has two sisters and one brother.6. He is a good father.6. Do these sums (Faceti aceste adunari):Model: 3 + 5 = 8 Three and five is eight.8+4= 1 + 11 = 4+7=2+5= 10 + 1= 2+8=4+3= 5 + 5= 7+1=3+9= 6 + 3= 6+6= 37
  38. 38. 7. Translate into English Aceasta este familia mea. Ea este mare. Aceastea sunt parintii mei.Tatal meu este inalt. El este doctor. Cati ani are tatal tau? Mama meaeste tanara si frumoasa. Ea este invatatoare. Aveti frati, surori? Da, amdoi frati si trei surori. Fratii sunt studenti si surorile eleve. Cine suntaceia? Acei sunt bunei mei. Ei nu sunt prea invarsta. Bunelul estemuncitor si bunica contabil. Cati ani au ei? Noi suntem nepotii lui.Avem un unchi si o matusa. Ei locuesc nu departe de noi. Cati copii auei? Ei nu au copii.Vocabularyfamily familieaverage mediehusband sotwife sotieparents parintifather tatamother mamagrandparents bunicigrandfather bunelgrandmother bunicachildren copiischool-children elevison feciordaughter fiicasister sorabrother frategrandson nepot (de bunic)granddaughter nepoata (de bunic)uncle unchiaunt matusanephew [nefju:] nepot (de unchi)niece [ni:s] nepoata (de unchi)cousin verisor(a)godfather nasgodmother nasabride mireasa 38
  39. 39. bridegroom mirewedding cununieparents-in-law socrisubject obiect de studiuto work a lucrato play a se jucasummer varafarmer fermier, agricultorusually de obiceinursery cresaevery fiecarefriend prietenin-laws cuscriText: My friend’s familyMy friend has an average family. His name is Paul Brown. He lives inLondon. What’s his job? He is an engineer. Paul works in a company.How old is he? He is thirty. He has got a wife and two children. Hiswife’s name is Mary and his children’s names are Jane and Nick.Mary is a young woman. She is twenty- nine. She’s a doctor in ahospital. Mr. Brown’s son is a school-boy. He is ten. He takes a lot ofsubjects at school. Nick has many friends. He likes playing tennis. Hisdaughter Jane is five. Her father takes her to a nursery school everymorning. Jane has two little friends: Toby, the dog and Felix, the cat.Mr. Brown has parents. They aren’t very old. They live in the village.His father is a farmer and his mother is a housewife. Paul’s wifeusually takes the children to the country in summer to stay with theirgrandfather and grandmother. They love their grandchildren verymuch. Mr. Brown has parents-in-law. They live in the country, too. Hehas an uncle and an aunt. They are farmers. Have they got children?No, they haven’t. Mr. Brown’s family is very friendly. 39
  40. 40. MEETING PEOPLEHow do you do! Buna ziuaHello! Noroc/Salut!Who are you? Cum va numiti?/Cum te numesti?I am …/My name is… Sunt…/Ma numesc …Glad/Nice to meet you! Sunt incantat de cunostinta!She is …, my wife. Ea este …, sotia mea.He is …, my husband. El este …, sotul meu. 40
  41. 41. UNIT 41. Modal verbs: can, may, must, needsunt verbe defectiv-modale, cu urmatoarele caracteristici:- Nu pot fi conjugate la toate modurile si timpurile. Au o forma pentru present, iar o parte din ele si pentru trecut.- Au aceeasi forma la toate persoanele:I can We canYou can You canHe, she, it can They canFormeaza predicatul numai insotite de alt verb (la infinitiv fara to).Formeaza interogativul prin inversare:Can I ? Can we?Can you? Can you?Can he? Can they?Can she?Can it?- Formeaza negativul prin adaugarea lui not:Cannot forma prescurtata can’tMust not mustn’tMay not may notSensurile verbelor modale:Can – a putea, a sti saCan you help me?Yes, I can. No, I can’t.I can’t swim.May – a putea (a-i fi permis); a se putea, a fi posibil, “poate ca”May I open the window? Pot sa deschid fereastra?It may be true. Poate sa fie adevarat.He may be handsome, but he is not clever.O fi el frumos, dar destept nu e. 41
  42. 42. Must – a trebuiYou must go home. Tu trebuie sa mergi acasa.Need – forma de present, se foloseste numai in propozitiileinterogative, negative si are sensul de “este nevoie”, “este cazul”,“trebuie”, “este necesar”.You needn’t ask him. (Nu e nevoie/nu e cazul sa-l rogi/intrebi).Need I repeat that? E nevoie/trebuie sa repet asta)Yes, you must. No, you needn’t.La intrebarile cu need, raspunsul afirmativ se formeaza cu must, iarcel negativ cu needn’t.2. Indefinite Pronouns (Pronumele nehotarate) (some, any, not any, no)Some – unii, unele, ceva, catva, cativa, cateva, niste, oarecare –Se foloseste in propozitii afirmative:Some houses are high and some are low.Any – ceva, catva, catava, cativa, cateva, unii, unele, vreun(ul), vreo,vreuna, vreunii, vreunele, putin(a) –Se foloseste in propozitii interogative in locul lui some:Are there any books on the table?Is there any milk in the bottle?Se foloseste in propozitii afirmative cu sensul de oarecare:You may take any of these books. Poti lua oarecare din aceste carti.Some poate fi folosit in propozitii interogative cand intrebarea nu serefera la some:May I have some water? Pot sa beau putina apa?Yes, you may.Comparati cu:Is there any sugar in the cup?Yes, there is (some).Any se foloseste in propozitii negative si se traduce prin nu, nici un,nici o:I haven’t any chocolates on the table. 42
  43. 43. There isn’t any mistake in my work. (Nu exista nici o greseala inlucrarea mea).No inlocuieste pe not … any.There is no mistake in my work.3. Much, many, a lot of, lots of.Much [mΛ t∫] mult, multa – se foloseste cu singularul.Much water/ sugar/information/tea/coffee/milk/work/rice/money/time.I haven’t got much time. - Nu am (prea) mult timp.Many [meni] multi, multe – se foloseste cu pluralul.Many cars/computers/desks/books/lamps/dictionaries.There are many books in the library.In propozitiile afirmative se prefera folosirea expresiei a lot of (maifamiliar lots of).There are a lot of flowers in the garden.There are lots of trees in the park.4. a little, little, a few, fewa little – putin, putina, ceva, niste (pentru singular)a few – cativa, cateva, niste (pentru plural) au conotatii pozitive:I have a little time. Am putin (ceva) timp. Dispun de oarecare timp.We have a few friends in this town. Avem cativa prieteni in acest oras.Little – putin, prea putin, mai deloc.Few – (prea) putini, (prea) putine, mai deloc au conotatii negative:I’m afraid I have little time for reading. Ma tem ca am prea putin timppentru citit.There are few birds left in Moldova. Au ramas (foarte) putin e pasariin Moldova.4. Alternative Questions (Intrebari alternative)Intrebarile de tipul: Is he a teacher or a doctor? (Este el profesor saumedic?) se numesc alternative. Se formeaza cu ajutorul conjuctiei or 43
  44. 44. [o:] – sau, si se rostesc cu urmatoarea intonatie: prima parte a intrebarii(pana la conjunctia “or”) se rosteste cu un ton ascendent, iar parteacare urmeaza dupa “or” cu un ton descendent: Is this a ‘table or a ‘desk?Spre deosebire de intrebarea generala, care se pune la intreagapropozitie, intrebarea alternativa se pune la diferite parti alepropozitiei:Is he a doctor or is she? (la subiect)Is he an engineer or manager? (la predicativ)Is he in London or in Paris? (la complement circumstantial de loc)Is the competition in summer or in spring? (la complementcircumstantial de timp)The Seasons of the Year. (Anotimpurile)Spring [spriŋ] primavaraSummer [sΛmэ] varaAutumn [o:tm] toamnaWinter [wintэ] iarnaCa subiect, anotimpurile nu primesc articolul hotarat:In Moldova summer is a warm season.Se spune in winter, in autumn , etc. cand exprimam o generalitate:In winter the trees are bare. (Iarna copacii sunt golasi).Cand ne referim la un anotimp dintr-un anume an, folosimarticolul hotarat:In the spring of 1999. (In primavara anului 1999).We will see you in the summer. (Te vom vedea la vara.)What can they do? Put in the verbs:1. He can play… football. 4. I can drink… milk.2. She can read… a book. 5. We can study… English.3. They can play… in the park. 6. You can write… on theblackboard. 44
  45. 45. Make sentences:Model: I can play football. (tennis) I can play football, but I can’t play tennis.1. I can drink tea. (milk)2. They can play chess. (rugby)3. We can read books. (novels)4. You can clean the blackboard. (the window)5. She can speak Romanian. (English)6. He can draw my dining-room. (classroom)7. He can open the door. (the window)8. I can write exercise 3. (exercise 5)Text: The Seasons in MoldovaWinter, spring, summer and autumn are the seasons of the year.December, January and February are winter months. The weather iscold. Usually it snows. The days are short and the nights are long. Youcan see snow everywhere. The rivers and lakes freeze and we can goskating and skiing.March, April, May are spring months. It’s a very nice season.Theweather is fine and it is warm. There are many green trees in thestreets and in the parks. Sometimes it rains but as usually the sunshines brightly.June, July and August are summer months. It is hot or warm. The daysare long and the nights are short. There are many green trees and niceflowers in the parks in summer.September, October, November are autumn months.It is cool. Theweather is changeable. It often rains. The days become shorter and thenights longer. You can see yellow, red and brown leaves everywhere.It is time for gathering harvest. 45
  46. 46. Exercises:1. Put in must or mustn’t1. Children … run in the street.2. You … do your homework.3. We … learn our lessons.4. You …sit on the table.5. We … read in bed.6. You … eat breakfast in the morning.7. They … answer these questions.8. He … smoke in the office.2. Read and translate these sentences. (Cititi si traduceti aceste propozitii)1. I have very little sugar at home.2. Peter has few friends at the university.3. Have they many children?4. Is there much or little coffee in your cup?5. There is a little tea in her cup.6. There are a few books on the shelf.7. There are a lot of English and French books in the university library.8. He usually has a lot of work to do in his office.3. Put in many, much, few, a few, little, a little and a lot of.1. There are not … books on the desk.2. Mr. Brown receives very … visitors on Tuesday.3. She types … letters every day.4. There are … students in the canteen.5. I want … coffee, please.6. There is not … bread at home.7. There are … students at the lesson.8. I have … cigarettes at home. 46
  47. 47. 4. Make up alternative questions1. He is a worker. 2. They have many friends. 3. She is a goodmanager. 4. I have much work. 5. Paris is the capital of France. 6.The bag is under the table.VocabularyDrawing room/living room/sitting room camera de ziBed room dormitorBath room baieDining room sufragerieKitchen bucatarieBalcony balconEntrance hall hol de intrare1. Bed room 1. Dormitorulbed patcarpet covorwardrobe sifonierwindow fereastracurtain perdea, draperiedressing-table masa de toaleta2. Drawing room 2. Camera de zisofa canapeaarmchair fotoliuchair scaunTV-set televizorpicture tabloudoor usafurniture mobilamirror oglindapiano pian3. Dining room 3. Sufragerietable masastool taburetlamp lampabuffet bufetglass-case vitrina 47
  48. 48. 4. Kitchen 4. Bucatarieoven/cooker/stove aragazfridge frigidercupboard dulapsink chiuvetavacuum-cleaner aspirator5. Room 5. Camerawall peretefloor dusumea/podeaceiling tavanblinds jaluzele6. Entrance hall 6. Holul de intrarepeg cuierclothes imbracamintekey cheiewallpaper tapet7. Bathroom 7.(Camera de)baiebasin chiuvetawater-closet closet, WCsoap sapuntowel prosopVerbs Verbeto open a deschideto shut/close a inchideto eat a mancato drink a beato sit a sedeato watch a privito look (at) a privi (la)to dry a (se) stergeto wash a (se) spalato dress a (se) imbracato make-up a (se) machiato go to bed a merge la culcareto get up a se sculato sleep a dormito cook a gati 48
  49. 49. to come in a intra into go out/to leave a iesi/a plecato live a locui/a traito put a puneText: My FlatI have a large flat in a new block of flats. There are ten floors in ourhouse. Our house has all modern conveniences such as: centralheating, electricity, gas, running water, and a telephone. Our flat isvery confortable. There are four rooms in it: a dining room, a bedroom, a bath room and a kitchen. In the bed room we have a bed nearthe window and a wardrobe near the door. There is a lamp above thebed. There is a green carpet on the floor. The walls are white, thecurtains are white, too and the blinds are green. It’s a nice bedroom.The living room is large and light. The walls in this room are yellow.The ceiling is white and the floor is brown. There is a square table inthe middle of the room. There is a vase of flowers on it. There are twoarm-chairs and a standard-lamp in the corner. We sit down in the arm-chairs and watch TV. There is also a piano in the room. My sisterplays the piano very well. She loves music. To the right of the pianothere is a writing-table. There are some books on it.Our dining room is a large room. In the middle of it there is a biground table and some chairs.The bedroom is not large. There are two beds, a night table(commode), a telephone, a wardrobe and a mirror.The study is large. There is a large writing-table in front of thewindow. There are many things in it. There are a sofa and a bookcasein the corner.The kitchen is not very large. There is a window and on the sill I havemany flower pots. There are a cupboard, a table, some stools, a sinkand a fridge. In the kitchen we have breakfast, dinner and supper. I likemy flat very much. 49
  50. 50. DialogueTed: Do you have a nice flat, John?John: Yes, I do. My flat is not large but comfortable.Ted: How many rooms do you have, John?John: I have two bedrooms, a dining-room, a kitchen, a bathroom anda living-room.Ted: Do you eat in the living-room?John: No, we don’t. My mother cooks in the kitchen and we eat in thedining-room.Mary: Is the entrance-hall large?John: Well, not very large.Mary: Is the fridge in the dining room or in the kitchen?John: The fridge and the freezer are in the kitchen near the window.Ted: Thank you.Better slowly, but surely.Take your time ang get it right. 50
  51. 51. UNIT 5The Present Indefinite (Prezent simplu)The Present Indefinite exprima actiuni obisnuite, repetate nu neaparatlegate de momentul vorbirii, de ex.: She is a very good doctor; Theylike to travel. Acest tip de propozitii include adesea informatia despreanumite capacitati (calitati). He reads very quickly. Tom speaksFrench fluently.Aceasta repetare este indicata prin adverbele de frecventa si imbinaride cuvinte ca: often – deseori, always [‘olweiz, olwэz]-intotdeauna,mereu, vesnic, usually – de obicei, never – niciodata, rarely – rar,once a week – odata pe saptamana/saptamanal, every day – infiecare zi, every year – in fiecare an, seldom –rar.Exemplu: I never drink milk. Eu niciodata nu beau lapte; He goes tothe theatre twice a month – El merge la teatru de doua ori pe luna.Adverbele de timp nedefinit si frecventa se asaza de regula intresubiect si predicat. I always get up early.They often forget to brush their teeth.They seldom come to the lessons.Exceptie: Intre verbul to be si numele predicativ: Helen is always dressed well. (Helen este intotdeauna bineimbracata) Kathy is never late for school.La interogativ: Do you often go to concerts? (Mergi des la concerte?)La negativ: I don’t always enjoy his plays.La interogativ-negativ: Don’t you ever read detective stories? (Nucitesti niciodata romane politiste?)O propozitie englezeasca neputand contine doua negatii, in exemplulde mai sus never a fost inlocuit cu ever. 51
  52. 52. Sometimes – uneori, cateodata are loc variabil in propozitie: Isometimes have news from him. Sometimes we go for a walk. She sayssometimes that she loves him. (Uneori ea spune ca-l iubeste).Terminatia Prezentului Indefinit la persoana a 3-a singular se conducedupa aceleasi reguli ortografice si fonetice ca si pluralul substantivelor.Verbele terminate in consoana, e, w sau y precedate de o vocala (evorba de litere), adauga terminatia –s:he knows,she forgets,it changes,she plays.Cele terminate in y precedat de o consoana formeaza persoana a 3-asingular in –ies:To cry-cries,to fly-flies,to hurry-hurries.Cele trminate in –ss, -s, ch, -tch, sh, -x = es:She teaches,He fixesHe watches,She passes,it washes.Verbele to go si to do = es: she goes [gouz], he does [dΛz]Terminatia –s sau –es a persoanei a 3-a singular se pronunta –z – dupavocale si dupa consoane sonore = b, d, g, m, l ,n, v ,ð, ŋ.Plays, descriobes, reads, calls, comes, learns, lives, bathes, says [sez].- s dupa consoane surde = f, k, p, t, θ: laughs [la:fs], cooks, hopes,meets, baths.- s dupa consoanele sueratoare – iz:rises [raiziz] – se redica, rouges [ru:зiz] – rujeaza, changes [t∫eidзiz]. 52
  53. 53. Affirmative Interrogative NegativeI know Do I know? I don’t knowYou know Do you know? You don’t knowHe, she,(it) knows Does he,she,it know? He, she, it doesn’t knowWe know Do we know? We don’t knowYou know Do you know? You don’t knowThey know Do they know? They don’t knowInterogativul Prezentului Nedefinit se formeaza exclusiv cu ajutorulauxiliarului do urmat de infinitivul scurt al verbului de conjugat. Caauxiliar verbul to do isi pierde total sensul de a face:Do you know me?Does he know English?Does she know how to cook? (Se pricepe sa gateasca?)Verbul to do, cu sensul de a face, se conjuga cu el insusi ca auxiliarpentru a forma interogativul:What do you do? (Ce faci?)What does he do? (Ce face el?)How do you do? (formula de salut).Where do you work? (Unde lucrezi?)When do you go home? (Cand mergi acasa?)Daca intrebarea este adresata subiectului propozitiei, atunci verbulauxiliar nu se intrebuinteaza:Who works in the garden? (Cine lucreaza in gradina?)Cand in calitate de predicat se foloseste verbul to be, formeleinterogativa si negativa nu include auxiliarul do:He is a farmer. He is not a farmer. Is he a farmer? 53
  54. 54. The Days of the Week (Zilele saptamanii)Monday [mΛ ndei] luniTuesday [tju:zdei] martiWednesday [wenzdei] miercuriThursday [θз:zdei] joiFriday [fraidei] vineriSaturday [sætэdei] sambataSunday [sΛndei] duminicaDenumirile zilelor saptamanii provin din timpurile vechilor credinte,cand fiecare zi era consacrata unui zeu sau unui eveniment sacru.Monday – provine din anglosaxonul day of the moon, adica zeullunii.Tuesday – provine de la Tiu, fiul Zeului Odin.Wednesday – provine de la Odin, numit in engleza Odin sau Woden.Thursday – Zeul Thor era venerat joia.Friday – provine de la Zeita Frei sau Frigg.Saturday – provine de la Saturn.Sunday – provine de la anglosaxonul day of the Sun, adica ZiuaSoarelui.In limba engleza zilele saptamanii se scriu cu litera mare. Pentru aspune: (in ziua de) luni sau (in ziua de) marti, se foloseste particulaon, de ex.: on Monday, on Tuesday.Expresii in legatura cu zilele saptamanii:(on) Monday – lunilast Thursday - joia trecutanext Sunday – duminica viitoareon Fridays – vinerea, vinerile(on) Wednesday morning – miercuri de dimineataon Saturday afternoon – intr-o dupa ameaza de sambataThe Meals of the DayMesele zilei:Breakfast micul dejun 54
  55. 55. Lunch 1. masa de pranz 2. gustarea de pranzluncheon dejuntea ceaiul (de dupa-ameaza)dinner 1. Masa (principala a zilei) 2. masa de seara 3. dineusupper 1. cina 2. supeuIn mod obisnuit, mesele zilei nu se articuleaza:We have dinner at 2 o’clock in the afternoon.What time is breakfast?Supper is a light meal. Cina este o masa usoara.The Months of the Year. (Lunile anului)January [‘dзænjuэri] July [dзulai]February [‘februэri] August [‘o:gэst]March [ma:t∫] September [sep’tembэ]April [‘eiprl] October [ok’toubэ]May [mei] November [nou’vembэ]June [dзu:n] December [di’sembэ]The 1st of January sau January the 1stThe 8th of March sau March the 8thExercises:1. Make sentences: 55
  56. 56. gets up in the mornig. the afternoon. washes the evening. He goes to school She watches TV at noon. plays in the park night. eight o’clock. Monday. goes to bed on Thursday. Sunday.2. Put in on, at or in:1. Nick goes to the university on…in the morning.2. He has lunch at… noon.3. He does his homework in… the afternoon.4. She has English on… Monday and Friday.5. He has dinner at… seven o’clock.6. He goes for a walk on… Sunday.7. He goes to bed at… night.3. Open the brackets using the verbs in the correct form. (Deschideti parantezele si folositi verbul respectiv la forma corecta).1. We (study) very much.2. She (speak) English very well.3. They (work) hard.4. He (read) many books.5. Peter (walk) very fast.6. This pen (write) well.7. He (like) coffee.8. She (drink) tea.9. We (get up) at 6 o’clock.10. He (watch) TV in the evening.4. Change these sentences.Model: He opens the window in the morning. (always) He always opens the window in the morning. 56
  57. 57. 1. I have coffee in the morning. (often) 2. Peter has tea in the morning.(usually) 3. She watches TV in the afternoon. (never) 4. My friend and I play chess on Sunday. (sometimes) 5. He goes to the cinema on Saturday. (often) 6. She listens to the music in the evening. (seldom) 7. He runs in the park every morning. (usually) 8. Mother cleans the rooms every Saturday. (always)5. Trasform these sentences. Give short answers to the questions. (Transformati aceste propozitiile. Dati raspunsuri scurte la intrebari.) Model: He often watches TV on Friday. “Does he often watch TV on Friday?” “Yes, he does.” 1. I always have dinner at home. 2. We usually play chess in the morning. 3. She sometimes has dinner at seven o’clock in the evening. 4. They seldom write letters to her mother on Friday. 5. He often has English class on Tuesday. 6. She usually has lunch on Sunday. 7. My sister goes to college every day. 8. Our father washes his car every week.6. Transform these sentences into negative. Model: Nick does his homework every week. Nick doesn’t do his homework every week. 1. My brother works very much. 2. I usually get up at 6 o’clock in the morning. 3. Tom often reads books in the evening. 4. We sometimes go for a walk at weekends. 5. He is busy all day. 6. Her grandparents live in the country. 7. He meets me every day. 8. You like French very much. 57
  58. 58. 7. Put in the interrogative:1. He goes to work every day. (who, where, when, what)2. She has two brothers and three sisters. (who, what, how many)3. My parents live in a small town near Paris.(who, what, where, what kind of)4. They have a three-room flat in a new house in the centre of London. (who, what, how many, what kind of, where)5. He comes to the factory at eight o’clock in the morning. (who, what, where, when)8. Complete these sentences with respective articles. (Completati golurile din urmatoarele propozitii cu articolul respectiv)1. He is a… student.2. They study at the… University.3. We live in a… good flat.4. We have … two-room flat in … new block of flats.5. Our flat is on the… ninth floor.6. He works in a.. big company.7. There are many things in their flat. the… things are good.8. There is a… nice picture on the… wall.9. Translate into English1.In Washington sunt multi studenti. there are a lot of studets inWashington. 2. Ei isi fac studiile in universitati si colegii. They studyat universities and coledgies 3. Studentii universitatilor lucreaza intens.4. Ei citesc multe carti. 5. Duminica parintii nu lucreaza. 6. Copiii numerg la scoala. 7. Duminica noi ne plimbam in parc. 8. Feciorului meuii place sa se plimbe cu mine. 9. Dumneata faci studii la Universitate?10. Cine va preda limba engleza? 11. Unde locuieste d-l Smith? 12. Elnu locuieste in Chisinau, el locuieste in Londra. 12. El este managerulunei mari companii.Vocabularyto walk [wo:k] a merge (pe jos)week [wi:k] saptamanato receive [ri’si:v] a primi (in vizita)to stay [stei] a sta, a ramane 58
  59. 59. to want [wont] a dori, a vreato study [stΛdi] a studiaonly [ounli] numaito rest [rest] a se odihniyoung [jΛŋ] tanar(a)to go [gou] a merge, a pleca, a se duceboy [boi] baitgirl [gз:l] fatafactory [fæktori] fabricato listen [lisn] to a ascultato [tu:] (prep.) la, spre, catreto discuss [diskΛs] a discutato return [ritз:n] a se intoarcehard [ha:d] intensafter [a:ftэ] dupaquestions [kwest∫nz] intrebarito read [ri:d] a citihome [houm] acasanewspaper [nju:speipэ] ziaruniversity [ju:nivз:siti] universitateText: Rob FellowsRob Fellows works in a company. He lives near the company. Heusually walks there. He only works five days a week. He works onMonday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday. He doesn’twork on Saturday and Sunday. He often receives visitors fromfactories in the afternoon. They discuss a lot of questions with him. Heusually finishes work at six o’clock in the evening.Rob learns French. He works hard at his French. He sometimes staysin the office after work for his French lessons. After classes he returnshome.Mr. Fellows has a family. His family is not large. He has a wife andtwo children, a boy and a girl. The boy goes to school. The girl doesn’tgo to school. She is very young. She is only three. She goes to anursery. His wife is a student at the University. She wants to be adoctor. She works very hard every day. 59
  60. 60. On Saturday we clean the house and cook breakfast, lunch and dinnerfor our family.On Sundays we rest from work. We walk in the park with our children.They play and we read some newspapers. We go home at 7 o’clock.The children go to bed at 9 o’clock, but we don’t. We watch TV andlisten to the radio.It’s hard, but it’s worth trying. 60
  61. 61. UNIT 6 The form of the Possessive/Genitive Case (cazulposesiv/genitivul in ‘s)The declension of nouns (Declinarea substantivelor)Nominativ The waiter wears white gloves.(the/a) (Chelnerul poarta manusi albe)Genitiv (of The gloves of the waiter are white./Thethe/a) waiter’s gloves are white. (Manusele ‘s chelnerului sunt albe)Dativ (to Don’t forget to give a tip to the waiter.the/a) (Nu uita sa-i dai chelnerului un bacsis)Acuzativ Let’s call the waiter. (Sa chemam(the/a) chelnerul)Vocativ (-) Waiter! The bill, please. (Chelner! Nota, te rog)The Genitive CaseGenitivul in limba engleza se exprima cu prepozitia “of” pentrulucruri si cu “s”, numai cu apostrof in general pentru persoane sialte fiinte:The boy’s name – numele baiatuluiTom’s father – tatal lui Tom.La plural, apostroful se asaza dupa s:The boys’ books – cartile baietilor.Daca pluralul substanivelor (neregulate) nu se termina in s, seadauga ‘s:The men’s club – clubul barbatilorThe children’s parents – parintii copiilor.Mike and Mary’s children. (Copiii amandurora.)Tom, Bill and Jane’s parents. (Parintii comuni ai celor trei copii.)In cazul acesta ‘s se aseaza numai dupa ultimul substantiv lagenetiv.Elena’s and Jerry’s parents. (Parintii fiecaruia in parte).In cazul acesta ‘s se asaza dupa fiecare substantiv la genetiv. 61
  62. 62. Genitivul sinteticse foloseste de asemenea: (the) baker’s (shop) – brutarie butcher’s – macelarie florist’s – florarie grocer’s – bacanie greengrocer’s – zarzavagerie tobacconist’s - tutungerie doctor’s, dentist’s (office) mother’s (house) Let’s go to mother’s tonight. Pentru a exprima distanta, durata si greutatea: A mile’s walk – cale de o mila pe jos. A two hours’ journey – o calatorie de 2 ore. A three pounds’ cake – un tort de trei lire. A 3 pound cake (Am.v.) Cu adverbe, ca: today, yesterday, tonight, sau cu substantive ce exprima timpul, spatiul sau greutatea- yesterday’s newspaper (ziarul de ieri)- tonight’s programme (propramul din aceasta seara)- a month’s holiday – (o vacanta de o luna.) Genetivul analitic “of” Se foloseste:- cu substantive comune: the colour of the sky – culoarea cerului the author of the book- autorul cartii the difficulty of the problem- dificultatea problemei.- cu denumiri geografice: the city of London – orasul Londra. 62
  63. 63. Personal Pronouns Pronumele Posesive (Pronumele personale) (Pronumele posesive) Dependente Independente I my mine You your yours He his his She her hers It its its We our ours You your yours They their theirs This is my book. Mine is on the desk. This is his car. That is hers. The place of direct and indirect object in the sentence. (Locul complementului direct si indirect in propozitie): In limba engleza complementul indirect, de obicei, preceda pe cel direct: He gives her many materials. El i-a dat ei multe materiale. Daca complementul direct il preceda oe cel indirect, atunci ultimul este precedat de prepozitia “to”, devenind complement prepozitional: He gives many materials to her. El ii da ei multe materiale. Disjunctive Questions (Intrebari disjunctive)- Se traduce in limba romana prin “nu-i asa?” sau “Nu?” sau “Asa- i?”- Dupa o propozitie afirmativa, intrebarea disjunctiva are forma interogativ-negativa: Fred is a student, isn’t he? Mr. Smith has got a car, hasn’t he? 63
  64. 64. - Dupa o propozitie negativa, intrebarea disjunctiva are forma interogativa simpla: He is not a student, is he? She can’t speak English, can she?- In intrebarile disjunctive se folosesc pronumele personale si, deregula, formele prescurtate ale verbelor.Intrebarile disjunctive la propozitiile continand there is (there’s),there are, there is not (there isn’t, there’s not), there are not (therearen’t) sunt:There are some flowers in the garden, aren’t there?There isn’t much time left, is there? (n-a mai ramas mult timp, nu-iasa?)Intrebarile disjunctive la propozitiile continand Prezentul Nedefinit seformeaza dupa regulile cunoscute, cu precizarea ca verbul notional nuapare in asemenea intrebari ci este inlocuit cu do, does, don’t,doesn’t:You know me, don’t you?You don’t know me, do you?She goes to bed early, doesn’t she?She doesn’t go to bed late, does she?The Adjective (Adjectivul)In limba engleza adjectivele au o singura forma, indeferent de gen saunumar. Ele se asaza de regula inaintea substantivului:A young womanA new flatA handsome manAdjectivele derivate din nume proprii se sriu cu initiala majuscula:RomanianEnglishFrench 64
  65. 65. Exercises:1. Model: The teacher has a good book. The teacher’s book is good1. Mr. Robinson has a new car.2. The boy has an old computer.3. The pupil has a clean notebook.4. Our ather has a white shirt.5. The woman has a new dress.6. My sister has a new bag.7. The man has a blue uniform.8. His brother has a dirty suit.2. Put in the plural:Model: The student’s composition is interesting. The students’ compositions are interesting.1. The girl’s blouse is beautiful.2. The boy’s shirt is white.3. The teacher’s pen is black.4. The doctor’s room is clean.5. The girl’s hair is nice.6. The student’s problem is difficult.3. Complete the sentences with possessive pronouns. (Completati propozitiile de mai jos cu pronumele posesive respective:1. Sylvia lives in London with her… parents. 2. Your pipe is in …place. 3. Jeff and Tom are at the cinema with … sister. 4. … brother’steacher is a man, but …is a woman. Is that coat …? “Yes, it is … .” 5.… mother is at home. Where is …? 6. We have a new TV set in …bedroom. 7. Mike and … wife are at the theatre. 8. Don’t show me …report, show me …. . 9. How old is … father? 10. Our house is new,but … is old.4. Change the places of direct and indirect objects. (Schimbati cu locurile complementele direct si indirect):1. He lends me his pen. 2. He sends the letter to her. 3. They show us 65
  66. 66. their new car. 4. She brings me a cup of coffee. 5. He demonstrates hisproject to them.5. Read these disjunctive questions and answer them.1. Peter goes to the cinema, doesn’t he? 2. John has some friends atschool, hasn’t he? 3. Your friend’s family isn’t large, is it? 4. There areten students in the classroom, aren’t there? 5. There aren’t any pictureson the walls, are there? 6. You always listen to the radio in theevening, don’t you? 7. He opens the window every day, doesn’t he? 8.His brothers don’t play chess every weekend, do they? 9. He hascoffee in the morning, hasn’t he? 10. They can speak English verywell, can’t they?6. Completati spatiile goale cu corespondentul romanesc al lui “nu-i asa?”1. It’s a tasty cake, … …? 2. Sally is your sister, … …? 3. Mr. and Mrs.Lee are your parents, … … ? 4. It isn’t late, … …? 5. You have got a car, … … ? 6. You aren’t very busy, … … ? 7. There is an English newspaper on the desk, … … ? 8. She can’t work, … … ? 9. She watches TV, … … ? 10. He isn’t happy, … … ?7. Translate into English.1.Tu ai multe greseli, nu-i asa?. 2. Apartamentul prietenului meu estefoarte confortabil. 3. Eu nu pot sa merg la petrecere in seara aceasta.4. Ei trebuie sa traduca acest text. 5. Ti-ai cumparat carti noi, nu-i asa?6. Noi cumparam paine de la bacanie. 7. Aceasta este cartea mea, daaceea a ta. 8. Pot sa deschid fereastra? 9. Culoare cerului. 10.Profesoarea de pian a lui Tom. 11. Lectia profesorului. 12. Marcaacestui automobil. 13. Primele capitole ale romanului. 14. Usa cameriilui Bill si Jane. 15. Noua prietena a Lizei. 16. Numele strazii noastre.17. Numarul casei lor.Vocabularycapital capitalaold vechicity oras (mare)huge urias, imens 66
  67. 67. bridge podacross pesteriver raunarrow ingustpavements trotuar, pavajfinancial financiarsights punct turistic de atractiebell clopotto weigh a cantariresidence residentaqueen reginacars automobilebuses autobusetube (underground)/subway (Am.v) metrounice frumosTEXT: LONDONLondon is the capital of Great Britain. It is a very old city. It is twothousand years old. London is not only the capital of the country, it isa huge port.London is situated on both banks of the Thames. There are 17 bridgesacross the river. The population of London is about 9 million people.London has three parts: the City of London, the West End, the EastEnd.The City of London is the oldest part of London. You can see narrowstreets and pavements there. There are many offices, firms and banksin this part of London. The City of London is the financial centre ofthe United Kingdom.The West End is the centre of London. There are many sights in theWest End. They are, for example, the Houses of Parliament with BigBen which is the biggest clock bell in Britain. It weighs 13.5 tons.The official London residence of the Queen is Buckingham Palace.There are many museums, libraries and galleries in London. There aremany cars and buses. There is a tube (an underground) in London, too.It is a nice one. 67
  68. 68. UNIT 7The Present Participle (Participiul prezent)The Present Participle, in general, are un sens activ, ex: I see himpainting.Functii: 1. Impreuna cu verbul auxiliar “to be”, formeaza aspectulcontinuu la diferite timpuri. 2. Are o valoare adjectivala, determinand un substantiv.Poate fi folosit atat atributiv (ex.: an interesting story = o povesteinteresanta), cat si predicativ (ex.:The story is interesting = Povestea este interesanta.)The Present Participle se formeaza cu ajutorul sufixului –ing, care seataseaza la infinitivul verbului fara partica “to”: to read – reading, tostay - staying, to take –taking, to get – getting.The Present Continuous Tense (Prezentul continuu)The Present Continuous se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar “tobe” la Presentul Simplu si Participiul I al verbului de conjugat.AffirmativeI am (I’m) reading a bookYou are (You’re) reading a bookHe is (He’s) reading a bookShe is (She’s) reading a bookWe are (We’re) reading a bookYou are (You’re) reading a bookThey are (They’re) reading a book 68
  69. 69. InterrogativeAm I reading ?Are you reading a book ?Is he reading a book ?Is she reading a book ?Are we reading a book ?Are you reading a book ?Are they reading a book ?NegativeI am not (I’m) not reading a bookYou are not (aren’t) reading a bookHe is not (isn’t) reading a bookShe is not (isn’t) reading a bookWe are not (aren’t) reading a bookYou are not (aren’t) reading a bookThey are not (aren’t) reading a bookThe Present Continuous exprima:a). – o actiune, care se petrece in momentul vorbirii: Ex.: Look! It’s raining. (Priveste! Ploua)b). – o actiune, care are loc pentru o perioada limitata de timp inprezent: Ex.: What are you reading these days? I’m taking driving lessons. (Iau lectii de conducere auto)c) - poate avea o valoare de viitor, exprimand o actiune ce va avealoc conform unui program stabilit inainte, si anume verbele, careexprima miscarea, ca to go, to come, to leave denota o actiune carese va efectua in viitorul apropiat: Ex.: He is coming tomorrow. (El vine miine)Unele verbe nu se pot folosi la forma continua:- verbe care exprima o activitate mintala (know, remember, believe, mean, understand, forget, doubt [daut], agree, appreciate, expect, assume, feel (=think), realize, recognize) 69
  70. 70. - verbe care exprima sentimente sau stari sufletesti (love, regret, prefer, want, like, to etc.)- verbe care exprima o perceptie senzoriala (see, hear, smell etc)- verbe care exprima posesia (have, belong (to) – a apartine, to own- a poseda, cat si verbul “to be”)- verbe modale (can, must, may )The Adverb (Adverbul)Adverbul poate determina un verb (She sings beautifully), un adjectiv(She has an extremely beautiful voice) sau un alt adverb (very late).Modul de formareMajoritatea adverbelor de mod se formeaza prin adaugarea sufuxului–ly la un adjectiv.Ex.: Adjectiv Adverb Useful usefully Easy easily True truly Slow slowly Full fullyAdjectivele terminate in –ic primesc terminatia –ally Fantastic fantastically Diplomatic diplomaticallyUnele adverbe au aceeasi forma cu adjectivele corespunzatoare: Friendly friendly Early early Lovely lovely Fast fast Late late Hard hard Only (singur,unic) only (numai, doar)Tipuri de adverbe:1. Adverbe de timp si frecventa: Yesturday (ieri), today (astazi), tomorrow (maine), soon(curand), often (deseori), always (intotdeauna), now (acum) 70
  71. 71. - She comes today (Vine astazi)- We often have dinner at home. (Noi deseori luam pranzul acasa)2. Adverbe de mod: Slowly (lent), bravely (cu curaj), angrily (suparat)- He is working slowly.- She replies angrily. (Ea raspunde pe un ton suparat)3. Adverbe de loc: Here (aici), there (acolo), near (aproape), below (dedesubt), down (jos), up (sus) etc. They stop here. (Ei sau oprit aici)4. Adverbe care indica gradul: Absolutely/completely (complet), incredibly (incredibil de), perfectly (perfect), simply (pur si simplu), very (foarte) etc. It’s incredibly boring (E incredibil de plicticos) I absolutely agree (sunt complet de acord).Pozitia adverbelor in propozitieCand in propozitie exista mai multe adverbe, ordinea este: MOD LOC TIMPEx.: He arrives safely in Washington today. (1) (2) (3) (Ajunge in siguranta la Washington astazi) 1 2 3Nota: Unele verbe ca become/ turn/keep/remain/stay/, look, seem,taste, smell sunt urmate de adjective si nu adverbe (Ex: It smells good= Miroase bine), He looks happy (Pare fericit), He was born rich. (S-anascut bogat).Exercises:1. Make sentences negative and interrogative:Model: They are reading now. They aren’t reading now. Are they reading now?1. The sun is shining. 71
  72. 72. 2. The men and the women are standing.3. The students are drinking cups of tea.4. The dog is sleeping.5. You are playing football.6. I am staying at that hotel.7. She is looking for her.8. We are looking after the children.9. He is smoking a cigarette.10.The birds are flying over the sea.2. Answer these questions using the model: Is Tom reading a book? (watch TV) No, he isn’t. He’s watching TV.1.Is she opening the window? (to close the window). 2. Is Jane askingquestions? (to answer questions). 3. Is he reading text 2? (to read text3). 4. Are they playing chess? (to watch TV). 5. Is Bill showing hisnew project to Peter? (to show it to Nick). 6. Are they listening tomusic ? (to listen to the latest news).3. Use the present continuous instead of the infinitives in brackets.1. Mary (to arrive) home now.2. Look, the sun (to rise). It (to rain)? Yes, it (to rain) very hard.3. The delegation (to leave) Moldova tomorrow.4. Peter (to smoke) a cigarette.5. Why you (to speak) so fast.6. They (not to work), they (to watch) TV.7. The weather is fine. The sun (to shine) and the birds (to sing).8. I can’t hear what they (to talk) about.9. She (not to work), she (swim) in the river.10.Why Ann (not to wear) her new dress?11.What Tom (to do) now? He (to clean) his shoes.11. He (to teach) his boy to ride. 72
  73. 73. 4. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple present or presentcontinuous.1. We (to study) at university. We (to study) English and French there.Now we (to be) in the classroom, we (to read) an English text. We (notmake) mistakes.2. We (to speak) Romanian at home, but we (to speak) English at the university.3. You (to speak) Romanian now? We (to speak) Englishbecause we (to be) at the English lesson.4. He (to go) to the university in the evening. Where he (to go)now?He always (to go) to the office at 9.5. Form adverbs from these adjectives and translate them: Occasional, real, bad, fruitful, happy, useful, helpful, beautiful, bright, slow, nice.6. Complete the sentences. Choose from:1. Father is tall. He isn’t … fat2. My friend Nick is thin. He isn’t … short3. Our office is clean. It isn’t … old4. We get up early. We don’t get up … dirty5. I like my new dress. I don’t like my … dress. late6. Felix is a white cat. It isn’t … bad7. The window of the classroom is open. It isn’t … black8. Tom is a good student. He isn’t … young9. Grandmother is old. She isn’t shut10. The grass is wet in the rain. It isn’t … dry7. Put the adverbs of time in the right place:1. I go to bed late (never). 2. We haven’t English lessons (every day). 3. Let’s go to the theatre (tonight). 4. Do you smoke (ever)? 5. I’m goingto mother’s (next Sunday). 6. We see each other (very often). 7. We gofor a walk (sometimes). 8. I get up early (always). 9. They comb andbrush their hair (seldom). 10. He can tell lies (never). 11. You can tell(never). (Nu se stie nici odata). 73
  74. 74. 8. Translate into English1. Cand te duci la culcare? 2. Ce asculti? 3. Unde luati pranzul?4. Ei va viziteaza des? 5. Unde va petreci vacanta de vara? 6. Eaculege flori. 7. Aceasta floare miroase frumos. 8. El e prietenul tau,nu-i asa ? 9. Imi place painea foarte mult. - 10. Si parintelor mei. 11.Trebuie sa pleci, nu-i asa? 12. Omul acela este fratele cumnatei mele.Text: At the English lessonThe students are in a classroom. The classroom is a big room. They arein the English class. They are having an English lesson. They aresitting on chairs in front of their desks. The teacher is standing at theblackboard. She is speaking to the students and she is writing the newEnglish words on the blackboard. The students are writing them intheir notebooks. They are also repeating the new words. The studentsare looking at their teacher and they are listening to what she is tellingthem. She has a pleasant voice. She is teaching them many new wordsand grammar rules.The students are making good progress in English and say thatlearning English is a great pleasure for them. They usually do all theirexercises and all their homework. They always say that they have toomuch to do.The students like to learn English and they say that English is notdifficult. They work hard and they learn many new English words inevery new lesson. They have a lot of work to do at home for theirEnglish lessons. They are hard-working students and their teacher likesthem. 74
  75. 75. If you want to attain something, you have to fight like a lion. 75

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