April 22, 2013110 April 2013Mobile accessibilityDevices and UE designPresented by: Kath Moonan1
2 April 22, 2013"I think anything that makes anyones lifeeasier is going to make life even easier forsomeone like me.”PaulExpert user with a severe motor impairment
April 22, 20133Mobile can be life changingConvenience and immediacy of smart (and feature) phonescan bring additional benefits for users with access needs• Maps and location based services– Transportation / independent travel• Camera as a seeing device– Money, labels• Apps can be more accessible– Task focussed, not having to go through clutter of website
April 22, 20134Numbers – Sagentia research for Vodafone, 200930 millionSevere accessneeds136 millionModerate accessneeds1.76 billionTotal population720 million people are likely to havedifficulties using mainstream handsets
April 22, 20135Dynamic user experienceSituation dependent abilities
April 22, 20136Contextual design www.haptimap.org“Many users are underserved, and even excluded, by the way products, servicesand systems are designed.Importantly, accessible design is not just about designing for people withmild to severe impairments of chronic nature (e.g. fringe market), but alsoabout people with situation-induced impairments”
April 22, 201313Eye conditions - simulationsAge related maculardegenerationCataracts Stargardt’s syndrome Tunnel vision
April 22, 201314Accessing the phone• Blind and partially sighted mobile users rely onthe following adaptions to access mobilephones:– Screen reading (speech output)– Screen magnification– Text increase– High contrast display– Voice recognition• A partially sighted user might combinemagnification, speech output and voicerecognition
April 22, 201315Cognitive overloadWhen users can only see one portion of thescreen at a time or are listening to the UI, theyhave to rely on memory much more.This can quickly result in cognitive overload.
April 22, 201317What devices & OS are most accessible to blind& partially sighted customers?In 2012 we asked RNIB toinvestigate the accessibility ofmainstream handsetsResearch was conductedusing expert review by sightedand vision impaired RNIBconsultants.Task based testing including:• Out of the box experience• Find-ability of accessibilityfeatures• Accessibility features help• Effectiveness of settings• Simple tasks for partially sighted /blind user• Making / terminating a call• Answering a call• Sending a message• Browsing the webHandsets / OS tested4, 52.2, 2.3, 4.0, 4.2Talks Screen reader5, 6, 7 & Clarity theme
April 22, 201318Key findings• Touch screens are not universally more accessible• Out of box accessibility is not universal across devices• Accessibility settings are hard to find & aren’t applieduniversally across the UI• Proximity, findability and learnability are essential formobile accessibility• Iphone 4GS+ is the most accessible device – butexpensive & learning curve can be steep
19Devices & solutionsInsert Confidentiality level | April 22, 2013
April 22, 201320Touch screens• The trend for devices without physical buttons isnot beneficial for many users with visionimpairments• Physical keys / buttons (ones that require aphysical depression to activate) are easier forblind and partially sighted users (for example, onthe HTC Desire and BlackBerry devices)• Not all devices with keys are useful – the keysare small – tactile indicators are not helpful
April 22, 201321TouchscreensNo physicalhome keyHard to findedges of touchareaSmall icons
April 22, 201322IOS – Best in classFeatures• Screen magnifier• Screen reader• Siri 4+• Speak selection IO6+• Magnifier + reader IO6+• Increase text size• White on black• Assisted touchIssues• Even best in class is notideal – many obstacles& a steep learning curve• Independent set uppossible but tricky• Settings are buried• Text increase is notuniversal across UI• Inverse colours (highcontrast) is unsatisfactory!Inverse coloursText increase Gesture help
April 22, 201323Inverse colours!RememberThere is NO way for adjustlow contrast colours.Always use good colourcontrast (WCAG 2.0 AA/AAA)
April 22, 201324Text increase!RememberThere is no effective way forthe user to adjust thesettings across the UI.Text adjustments are notapplied on apps
April 22, 201325Zoom improvements (IOS6)There have been several enhancementsto the magnifier on iOS6:• Text is much smoother at high levelsof magnification• Zoom can be used in conjunctionwith VoiceOver – though this is quitetricky to use it’s possible to operate• Can be used in conjunction withother accessibility features, such asVoiceover – operating both wouldtake soe practice but is possible• What is perhaps more useful is“Speak selection”
April 22, 201326VoiceoverMain means of interaction• Explore by touch• Flicking• Rotor• Siri (4S/5)
April 22, 201327Browsing the webRememberThere is no way of overridingpinch to zoom in SafariNo additional to assist sightedusers with access needs .Zooming text makes it difficult toread – no reflow in the viewingport.
April 22, 201328Android – techie’s choiceFeatures• Screen reader• Voice input• Large text• High contrastThird party solutions• Mobile accessibility app suiteIssues• OS paradigm puts emphasis onuser to know what they need &how to find/install it• Difficult to use – user must betechie and persistent• Poor support for partial sight /mild vision impairment (-4.0)• Large text is not large!• Accessibility settings are notgrouped• Different manufacturers may skinthe OS differentlyPoor text increaseMobileaccessibility appsuite
April 22, 201331Talkback• The TalkBack voices are clear and easy to understand.• However, the TalkBack functionality is very limited compared to Apples VoiceOver.• Its possible to touch and then tap most items to activate them, but this requires the user to knowwhere the item is on the screen, since theres no function that moves the focus to the next /previous item using a gesture like with VoiceOver.• VoiceOver also allows the user to tap anywhere on the screen to activate an item. TalkBack requiresthe user to tap on the item itself, which is practice, is much harder.
April 22, 201332Mobile accessibility• Walled garden suite of apps• Additional cost• Easier to use• Reports of bugs from Android experts• Doesn’t support 3rd party apps
April 22, 201333IOS / Android – answering a call!IOS 5 Android 2.+ Android 4.+
April 22, 201335Windows 7Windows 7• Useful text size and colouroptionsIssues• Win 7- no assistivetechnologies!Accent colour & large text areuseful features
April 22, 201336Windows 8• Useful colour options• Can flag accessible apps in windowsstore• Magnifier• Developers can build speech recognition intoappsIssues• Microsoft did not release Narrator screenreader with Windows 8 phone• Text size increases not large enough
April 22, 201340Nokia / TALKSFeatures• TALKS is a third partycombined screen reader andmagnifier (£150)• Nokia offer a free basicscreen reader – suitable fornovice users• Many blind and partiallysighted users find phoneswith physical buttons andkeys easier to use than touchscreen devicesIssues• Talks - Sometimes free fromnetwork but support ispatchy – phone is sent awayfor a week for installation• Feature phone onlyThe Nokia C5 is one of the fewhandsets left on the high streetthat offers substantial physicaltactility.
April 22, 201341BlackberryFeatures• Useful text increase and colouroptions• Text can be increased up to50pt• Low vision theme “clarity” isavailable on OS 5• Physical keys for receiving/ending a call• Keyboard is useful• Text size in the the web browsercan be adjusted but depends onhow well the website is codedIssues• Keys are small and markings arehard to see• Screen reader retails for £400!!!• Text can be scaled in browser butmay cause overlap• Accessibility theme Clarity onavailable in OS 5 Text increase in the browser cancreate overlapChanging text size
42What can you doInsert Confidentiality level | April 22, 2013
April 22, 201343Easy to see• Test designs iteratively with simulators and users• Use generous text size• Ensure controls are easy to see• Good colour contrast• Provide a means to increase text size in the app• NEVER suppress pinch to zoomRememberNot all users will know thatthey can change the settingsin their phone or whataccessibility isWhen text size is increased itisn’t consistent across the UIDon’t rely on the userknowing how toincrease text size
April 22, 201344Location, proximity and findability• Group information & controls logically• Important content located in important places on screenRememberBuried information ishard to find.Looking in differentplaces adds to cognitiveoverload.
April 22, 201345Screen reader access• IA / navigation that supports screen readers• Structural, semantically correct HTML should be used to facilitate the use of built-inscreen reader features such as jump to first heading, next list item etc.• Good labelling – alt text, forms, landmarks• Depending on the code order of the page, skip links should be provided to either themain content or the page navigation.
April 22, 20134646ThankyouKath.email@example.com