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hcid2011 - Creativity for open spaces - Dr Sara Jones (HCID)


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hcid2011 - Creativity for open spaces - Dr Sara Jones (HCID)

  1. 1. Information Spaces for Creative Design <br />HCID Open Day<br />April 19th, 2011<br />Sara Jones<br />Centre for HCI Design and<br />Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice<br />City University London<br /><br /><br />
  2. 2. Team photos<br />Neil Maiden<br />Kristine Karlsen<br />Kos Zachos<br />Helena Sustar<br />Meirion Williams<br />
  3. 3. Outline<br />Background<br />Creativity research at City<br />Techniques<br />Creativity workshops<br />Technologies<br />Software tools<br />Interactive surfaces and digitally augmented spaces<br />
  4. 4. Context<br />Interactive system<br />requirements and design <br />
  5. 5. Creativity research at City<br />
  6. 6. Creativity research at City (contd)<br />5 year RCUK research fellowship: Creativity and the development of interactive systems<br />2 year JISC-funded project: Information Spaces for Creative Conversations<br />Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice<br />Masters in Innovation, Creativity and Leadership<br />
  7. 7. Techniques used in creativity workshops<br />Constraint removal<br />Challenging boundaries<br />Creativity triggers<br />Analogical reasoning<br />Solution presentation<br />Storyboarding<br />Divergent<br />Convergent<br />
  8. 8. Structuring a creativity workshop<br />
  9. 9. Structuring a creativity workshop (contd)<br />
  10. 10. Creativity workshop process and outputs<br />
  11. 11. Creativity triggers<br />
  12. 12. Creativity triggers<br />
  13. 13. Constraint removal<br />
  14. 14. The challenge in developing creativity support tools<br />‘preserve appropriate elements of existing knowledge work [creative practice] while shaping new technologies and then integrating them into the workplace’<br />Shneiderman, 2000<br />
  15. 15. Schön’s view of activities to support<br />According to Schön (1983) :<br /><ul><li>The ‘language of designing’ includes sketching and talking – sketching enables experimentation, and when the designer talks about designing, this allows reflection
  16. 16. A designer designs by utilizing her/his repertoire of examples, images, understandings and actions from existing knowledge
  17. 17. At a certain point, the designer evaluates her/his ideas by considering desirability of their consequences</li></li></ul><li>Design principles for support tools<br />According to Resnick et al, NSF workshop, 2005:<br /><ul><li>Choose black boxes carefully: primitive elements available determine outputs
  18. 18. Support exploration: easy to try things out, then backtrack; make functionality self-revealing; pleasurable and fun; sketching; trying ‘what if’s’.
  19. 19. Support many paths and many styles: ‘hard’ and ‘soft’; ‘left brain’ and ‘right brain’.
  20. 20. Support collaboration: teams of different talents; foster community
  21. 21. Support open interchange: seamless operation with other tools; data import/export; extensibility.</li></li></ul><li>Some useful tools are already out there<br />Google wonder wheel<br /><ul><li> allows you to follow </li></ul>associations of interest<br />
  22. 22. Mind mapping<br /><br />
  23. 23. Sticky notes<br /><br />
  24. 24. Compendium<br />Compendium is ‘a knowledge map software tool for visual thinking’<br />We used it in a constraint removal exercise to map out constraints, ideas and their pros and cons<br /><br />
  25. 25. Combinformation<br />For searchingfor inspiration,<br />organising ideas and<br />exploring combinations of<br />ideas <br /><br />
  26. 26. Antique<br />Analysts reason with analogical services retrieved by AnTiQue to invent previously unspecified requirements <br />These requirements are ranked as more creative by domain experts<br />(Zachos et al 2008)<br />
  27. 27. Cris<br /><ul><li>Analysts do a scenario walkthrough</li></ul>with Combinformation providing creative stimuli<br /><ul><li>Requirements generated are judged as more creative</li></ul>(Karlsen et al, 2009)<br />
  28. 28. Support for collaborative creativity<br />Historical focus on lone genius being replaced by interest in social creativity, ‘co-creation’.<br />We believe in the importance<br />of neighborhoods and<br />communities in fostering <br />innovation<br /> IDEO (Kelley and Litman, 2001)<br />
  29. 29. Additional design principles for collaborative support tools<br />From Mamykina et al, 2002: enable groups to devise shared language and understanding, and to share knowledge resources<br />From Fischer et al, 2005: enable development of Communities of Practice and Communities of Interest eg through externalisations or boundary objects<br />From Warr and O’Neill 2005:<br />Reduce or eliminate production blocking by allowing multiple users to act in parallel<br />Reduce evaluation apprehension by making ideas anonymous<br />OR<br />Reduce social loafing (or free riding) by attributing ideas<br />
  30. 30. Our first exploratory study<br />With children doing a design task (designing a classroom layout) on a multitouch table<br />Lots of production blocking!<br />Also evaluation apprehension<br />Social loafing not such a problem<br />Adults may be different?!<br />
  31. 31. Another exploratory study<br />With adults doing a design task (sketching the user interface for a mobile calendar/clock application) <br />2 – 3 team members working together on a multitouch table, and 1 in a remote location using a tablet PC<br />Team connected using Adobe Connect and Skype<br />
  32. 32. Mezatop<br />Purpose-built interactive surface is supporting<br />wider range of studies<br />
  33. 33. Further exploration of digitally augmented spaces<br />Inspired by product design involving physical<br />artefacts and dynamic sketching<br />
  34. 34. Creative Design Station capabilities<br />Whiteboard<br />Whiteboard with projection<br />Whiteboard with projection and recording<br />
  35. 35. Creative Design Stations in action – year 1<br />
  36. 36. Creative Design Station use – year 1<br />Viewing – sharing previously identified or created artefacts<br />Planning, recording<br />Doing – co-designing or building<br />
  37. 37. Creative Design Stations in action – year 2<br />
  38. 38. Creative Design Station use – year 2<br />Joint work on creativity techniques eg brainstorming, challenging boundaries, creativity triggers, storyboarding.<br />Shared access to reference materials from online spaces, inspirations from internet searches.<br />Joint creation of written materials in online spaces.<br />Shared access to physical artefacts.<br />Private and joint creation of outputs eg storyboards.<br />
  39. 39. Ongoing work and future plans<br />Further evaluation of techniques and technologies<br />- looking for more case studies!<br />FP7 MIRROR project: <br />supporting learning at work through creative problem solving<br />combination of mobile apps and on-line discussion fora<br />Discussion after this!<br />
  40. 40. Online forum for further discussion<br />
  41. 41. Please get in touch!<br />Sara Jones<br />Centre for HCI Design and<br />Centre for Creativity in Professional Practice<br />City University London<br /><br /><br />@svjaok<br />Online discussion at:<br /><br />I’ll tweet the link!<br />
  42. 42. References and Related Reading<br />Shneiderman, B., 2000, ‘Creating Creativity: User Interfaces for Supporting Innovation’, ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, vol 7, no 1, pp114-138<br />Johnson, H and Carruthers, L, 2006, ‘Supporting Creative and Reflective Processes’, Int. J. Human-Computer Studies, vol 64, pp998-1030<br />Shneiderman, B, Fischer, G, Czerwinski, M, Myers, B and Resnick, M, 2005, ‘Creativity Support Tools: A workshop sponsored by the National Science Foundation’<br />Schon, D, 1983, The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action’, Basic Books, New York<br />
  43. 43. References and Related Reading<br />Hewett, T T, 2005, ‘Informing the design of computer-based environments to support creativity’, Int J Human-Computer Studies 63, pp383-409<br />Zachos, K. Maiden, N., ‘Inventing Requirements from Software: An Empirical Investigation with Web Services’, in Proceedings 16th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE08, 2008 <br />Karlsen, I.K, Maiden, M., Kerne, A., ‘Inventing Requirements with Creativity Support Tools’, in Proceedings REFSQ09, LNCS 5512/2009, Springer, 2009<br />Centre for HCI Design<br />
  44. 44. References and Related Reading<br />Streitz, N et al, 1999, ‘i-Land: An interactive Landscape for Creativity and Innovation’, CHI’99<br />Arias et al, 2000, ‘Transcending the Individual Human Mind—Creating Shared Understanding through Collaborative Design’, ACM ToCHI, 7(1), 84-113<br />Sugimoto et al, 2004, ‘Caretta: A System for Supporting Face-to-Face Collaboration by Integrating Personal and Shared Spaces’, CHI’04 <br />Centre for HCI Design<br />
  45. 45. References and Related Reading<br />Rogers et al, 2006, ‘Extending Tabletops to Support Flexible Collaborative Interactions’, IEEE Tabletop<br />Hilliges et al, 2007, ‘Designing for Collaborative Creative Problem Solving’, Creativity and Cognition 07<br />Buisine et al, 2007, ‘Computer-Supported Creativity: Evaluation of a Tabletop Mind-Map Application’, LNCS 4562/2007<br />Mamykina et al, 2002, ‘Collaborative Creativity’, CACM 45(10)<br />Fischer et al, 2005, ‘Beyond Binay Choices: Integrating Individual and Social Creativity’, IJHCS 63, 482-512<br />Warr, A and O’Neill, E, 2005, ‘Understanding Design as a Social Creative Process’, Creativity and Cognition 05<br />Centre for HCI Design<br />
  46. 46. References and Related Reading<br />Fischer, G, 2004, ‘Social Creativity: Turning Barriers into Opportunities for Collaborative Design’, Proc 8th Conference on Participatory Design<br />Gumm, D, et al, 2006, ‘Distributed Participatory Design – A Case Study’ Proc Nordichi workshop on DPD<br />Farooq et al, 2005, ‘Supporting Creativity in Distributed Svientific Communities’ Conference on Supporting Group Work<br />Fischer, G, 2005, ‘Distances and Diversity: Sources for Social Creativity’, Proceedings of the 5th conference on Creativity & Cognition<br />Centre for HCI Design<br />