What’s The Value of Ethnographic Research? - Simon Johnson

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What’s The Value of Ethnographic Research? - Simon Johnson

  1. 1. Ethnography 101Everything your granny didn’t tell youSo what type of ethnography am I hear to talk about and is it ‘proper’ ethnography?
  2. 2. Does corporateethnography suck?Sam Ladner - Ethnography Matter blog....The real essence of ethnography is the study of culture. Therefore, much of private-sectorethnography is as banal. In its bland quest to “understand the consumer,” it reduces cultureto mere consumerism.>> ADVANCEI would argue that practices have always been evolving to meet the needs of a changingworld. If we go back to Bronislaw Malinowski, a Polish-born- British-naturalizedanthropologist we can see that he challenged how ethnography was practiced in 1914.http://ethnographymatters.net/2012/01/13/does-corporate-ethnography-suck-a-cultural-analysis-of-academic-critiques-of-private-sector-ethnography-part-1-of-2/
  3. 3. Does corporateethnography suck?The answer isYesSam Ladner - Ethnography Matter blog....The real essence of ethnography is the study of culture. Therefore, much of private-sectorethnography is as banal. In its bland quest to “understand the consumer,” it reduces cultureto mere consumerism.>> ADVANCEI would argue that practices have always been evolving to meet the needs of a changingworld. If we go back to Bronislaw Malinowski, a Polish-born- British-naturalizedanthropologist we can see that he challenged how ethnography was practiced in 1914.http://ethnographymatters.net/2012/01/13/does-corporate-ethnography-suck-a-cultural-analysis-of-academic-critiques-of-private-sector-ethnography-part-1-of-2/
  4. 4. Sam Ladner - Ethnography Matter blog....The real essence of ethnography is the study of culture. Therefore, much of private-sectorethnography is as banal. In its bland quest to “understand the consumer,” it reduces cultureto mere consumerism.>> ADVANCEI would argue that practices have always been evolving to meet the needs of a changingworld. If we go back to Bronislaw Malinowski, a Polish-born- British-naturalizedanthropologist we can see that he challenged how ethnography was practiced in 1914.http://ethnographymatters.net/2012/01/13/does-corporate-ethnography-suck-a-cultural-analysis-of-academic-critiques-of-private-sector-ethnography-part-1-of-2/
  5. 5. Who’s yourDaddy?Bronislaw MalinowskiVideo replacedVideo mentions how revolutionaryit was for anthropologists to visitthe cultures they were studying.They would stay at home andstudy other peoples’ facts. Nowthey would observe first hand.They were moving from thearmchair to the veranda.He worked in the Trobriand Islands, in Melanesia where he stayed for several years, studyingthe indigenous culture.He is often referred to as the first researcher to bring anthropology "off the verandah", thatis, experiencing the everyday life of his subjects along with them.Even in those days looking at the present wasn’t seen as the remit of ‘serious’anthropologists.# Video 1 - RevolutionVideo mentions how revolutionary it was for anthropologists to visit the cultures they werestudying. They would stay at home and study other peoples’ facts. Now they would observefirst hand. They were moving from the armchair to the veranda.Father if the real deal. http://www.therai.org.uk/fs/film-sales/off-the-verandah-bronislaw-malinowski-1884-1942/
  6. 6. Bronislaw MalinowskiVideo replacedVideo mentions how revolutionaryit was for anthropologists to visitthe cultures they were studying.They would stay at home andstudy other peoples’ facts. Nowthey would observe first hand.They were moving from thearmchair to the veranda.He worked in the Trobriand Islands, in Melanesia where he stayed for several years, studyingthe indigenous culture.He is often referred to as the first researcher to bring anthropology "off the verandah", thatis, experiencing the everyday life of his subjects along with them.Even in those days looking at the present wasn’t seen as the remit of ‘serious’anthropologists.# Video 1 - RevolutionVideo mentions how revolutionary it was for anthropologists to visit the cultures they werestudying. They would stay at home and study other peoples’ facts. Now they would observefirst hand. They were moving from the armchair to the veranda.Father if the real deal. http://www.therai.org.uk/fs/film-sales/off-the-verandah-bronislaw-malinowski-1884-1942/
  7. 7. Corporate ethnographyis present-orientedVideo replacedMalinowski wasn’t sointerested in studying howthings had evolved like hispredecessors.What’simportant is how thingsactually worked at the time itwas being observed.The rapid pace of contemporary corporate life clearly and reasonably demands shorter timehorizons for any research project.Academia is a past-oriented society, with its obsession with paying homage to past greats ofthe literature and constant “reviews” of what others have previously found.# Video 2 Present orientedMalinowski wasn’t so interested in studying how things had evolved like his predecessors.What’s important is how things actually worked at the time it was being observed.A culture can be present oriented, by focusing on what is immediately present.At a click of a button you can access a huge amount of data about your potential customers.Why on earth would you delay your project with this additional research?
  8. 8. Video replacedMalinowski wasn’t sointerested in studying howthings had evolved like hispredecessors.What’simportant is how thingsactually worked at the time itwas being observed.The rapid pace of contemporary corporate life clearly and reasonably demands shorter timehorizons for any research project.Academia is a past-oriented society, with its obsession with paying homage to past greats ofthe literature and constant “reviews” of what others have previously found.# Video 2 Present orientedMalinowski wasn’t so interested in studying how things had evolved like his predecessors.What’s important is how things actually worked at the time it was being observed.A culture can be present oriented, by focusing on what is immediately present.At a click of a button you can access a huge amount of data about your potential customers.Why on earth would you delay your project with this additional research?
  9. 9. Ethnography isa waste of timeFive case studiesProduct manager in a company I recently worked for said “why ask people, what do theyknow. I’m the expert, not them!”However the next example shows the dangers of only relying on what we think we know.
  10. 10. Stinky cat people“Engineers and MBAs are fantastic at solving problems, but they arent any good at makingsure it is the right problem." ~ Don NormanProcter & Gamble, used habit insights to turn a failing product into one of its biggest sellers.In the mid-1990s, P.& G.’s began a secret project to create a new product that coulderadicate bad smells. P.& G. spent millions developing a colorless, cheap-to-manufactureliquid.ad featured a woman worrying about her dog, Sophie, who always sits on the couch. “Sophiewill always smell like Sophie,” she says, but with Febreze, “now my furniture doesn’t have to.”Fabreeze was a dud.The team conducted in-depth interviews to figure out what was going wrong, Stimsonrecalled. Their first inkling came when they visited a woman’s home outside Phoenix. Thehouse was clean and organized. She was something of a neat freak, the woman explained.But when P.& G.’s scientists walked into her living room, where her nine cats spent most oftheir time, the scent was so overpowering that one of them gagged.According to Stimson, who led the Febreze team, a researcher asked the woman“What do you do about the cat smell?”“No,” she said. “Isn’t it wonderful? They hardly smell at all!”Even the strongest odors fade with constant exposure. That’s why Febreze was a failure. Theproduct’s cue — the bad smells that were supposed to trigger daily use — was hidden fromthe people who needed it the most.Breakthrough
  11. 11. Stinky cat people“Engineers and MBAs are fantastic at solving problems, but they arent any good at makingsure it is the right problem." ~ Don NormanProcter & Gamble, used habit insights to turn a failing product into one of its biggest sellers.In the mid-1990s, P.& G.’s began a secret project to create a new product that coulderadicate bad smells. P.& G. spent millions developing a colorless, cheap-to-manufactureliquid.ad featured a woman worrying about her dog, Sophie, who always sits on the couch. “Sophiewill always smell like Sophie,” she says, but with Febreze, “now my furniture doesn’t have to.”Fabreeze was a dud.The team conducted in-depth interviews to figure out what was going wrong, Stimsonrecalled. Their first inkling came when they visited a woman’s home outside Phoenix. Thehouse was clean and organized. She was something of a neat freak, the woman explained.But when P.& G.’s scientists walked into her living room, where her nine cats spent most oftheir time, the scent was so overpowering that one of them gagged.According to Stimson, who led the Febreze team, a researcher asked the woman“What do you do about the cat smell?”“No,” she said. “Isn’t it wonderful? They hardly smell at all!”Even the strongest odors fade with constant exposure. That’s why Febreze was a failure. Theproduct’s cue — the bad smells that were supposed to trigger daily use — was hidden fromthe people who needed it the most.Breakthrough
  12. 12. Stinky cat people“Engineers and MBAs are fantastic at solving problems, but they arent any good at makingsure it is the right problem." ~ Don NormanProcter & Gamble, used habit insights to turn a failing product into one of its biggest sellers.In the mid-1990s, P.& G.’s began a secret project to create a new product that coulderadicate bad smells. P.& G. spent millions developing a colorless, cheap-to-manufactureliquid.ad featured a woman worrying about her dog, Sophie, who always sits on the couch. “Sophiewill always smell like Sophie,” she says, but with Febreze, “now my furniture doesn’t have to.”Fabreeze was a dud.The team conducted in-depth interviews to figure out what was going wrong, Stimsonrecalled. Their first inkling came when they visited a woman’s home outside Phoenix. Thehouse was clean and organized. She was something of a neat freak, the woman explained.But when P.& G.’s scientists walked into her living room, where her nine cats spent most oftheir time, the scent was so overpowering that one of them gagged.According to Stimson, who led the Febreze team, a researcher asked the woman“What do you do about the cat smell?”“No,” she said. “Isn’t it wonderful? They hardly smell at all!”Even the strongest odors fade with constant exposure. That’s why Febreze was a failure. Theproduct’s cue — the bad smells that were supposed to trigger daily use — was hidden fromthe people who needed it the most.Breakthrough
  13. 13. Stinky cat people“Engineers and MBAs are fantastic at solving problems, but they arent any good at makingsure it is the right problem." ~ Don NormanProcter & Gamble, used habit insights to turn a failing product into one of its biggest sellers.In the mid-1990s, P.& G.’s began a secret project to create a new product that coulderadicate bad smells. P.& G. spent millions developing a colorless, cheap-to-manufactureliquid.ad featured a woman worrying about her dog, Sophie, who always sits on the couch. “Sophiewill always smell like Sophie,” she says, but with Febreze, “now my furniture doesn’t have to.”Fabreeze was a dud.The team conducted in-depth interviews to figure out what was going wrong, Stimsonrecalled. Their first inkling came when they visited a woman’s home outside Phoenix. Thehouse was clean and organized. She was something of a neat freak, the woman explained.But when P.& G.’s scientists walked into her living room, where her nine cats spent most oftheir time, the scent was so overpowering that one of them gagged.According to Stimson, who led the Febreze team, a researcher asked the woman“What do you do about the cat smell?”“No,” she said. “Isn’t it wonderful? They hardly smell at all!”Even the strongest odors fade with constant exposure. That’s why Febreze was a failure. Theproduct’s cue — the bad smells that were supposed to trigger daily use — was hidden fromthe people who needed it the most.Breakthrough
  14. 14. Stinky cat people“Engineers and MBAs are fantastic at solving problems, but they arent any good at makingsure it is the right problem." ~ Don NormanProcter & Gamble, used habit insights to turn a failing product into one of its biggest sellers.In the mid-1990s, P.& G.’s began a secret project to create a new product that coulderadicate bad smells. P.& G. spent millions developing a colorless, cheap-to-manufactureliquid.ad featured a woman worrying about her dog, Sophie, who always sits on the couch. “Sophiewill always smell like Sophie,” she says, but with Febreze, “now my furniture doesn’t have to.”Fabreeze was a dud.The team conducted in-depth interviews to figure out what was going wrong, Stimsonrecalled. Their first inkling came when they visited a woman’s home outside Phoenix. Thehouse was clean and organized. She was something of a neat freak, the woman explained.But when P.& G.’s scientists walked into her living room, where her nine cats spent most oftheir time, the scent was so overpowering that one of them gagged.According to Stimson, who led the Febreze team, a researcher asked the woman“What do you do about the cat smell?”“No,” she said. “Isn’t it wonderful? They hardly smell at all!”Even the strongest odors fade with constant exposure. That’s why Febreze was a failure. Theproduct’s cue — the bad smells that were supposed to trigger daily use — was hidden fromthe people who needed it the most.Breakthrough
  15. 15. So what was going on?
  16. 16. So what was going on?
  17. 17. So what was going on?
  18. 18. AnalysisP.& G. had been trying to create a whole new habit with Febreze, but what they really neededto do was piggyback on habit loops that were already in place. The marketers needed toposition Febreze as something that came at the end of the cleaning ritual, the reward, ratherthan as a whole new cleaning routine.OutcomeAnd so Febreze, a product originally conceived as a revolutionary way to destroy odors,became an air freshener used once things are already clean.A year later, the product brought in $230 millionLesson: Ethnography ensures your product works in the real world
  19. 19. AnalysisWhen they got back to P.& G.’s headquarters, the researchers watched their videotapes again.Now they knew what to look for and saw their mistake in scene after scene.P.& G. had been trying to create a whole new habit with Febreze, but what they really neededto do was piggyback on habit loops that were already in place. The marketers needed toposition Febreze as something that came at the end of the cleaning ritual, the reward, ratherthan as a whole new cleaning routine.OutcomeA year later, the product brought in $230 million# Ethnography ensures your product works in the real worldhttp://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/19/magazine/shopping-habits.html?_r=1
  20. 20. AnalysisWhen they got back to P.& G.’s headquarters, the researchers watched their videotapes again.Now they knew what to look for and saw their mistake in scene after scene.P.& G. had been trying to create a whole new habit with Febreze, but what they really neededto do was piggyback on habit loops that were already in place. The marketers needed toposition Febreze as something that came at the end of the cleaning ritual, the reward, ratherthan as a whole new cleaning routine.OutcomeA year later, the product brought in $230 million# Ethnography ensures your product works in the real worldhttp://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/19/magazine/shopping-habits.html?_r=1
  21. 21. AnalysisWhen they got back to P.& G.’s headquarters, the researchers watched their videotapes again.Now they knew what to look for and saw their mistake in scene after scene.P.& G. had been trying to create a whole new habit with Febreze, but what they really neededto do was piggyback on habit loops that were already in place. The marketers needed toposition Febreze as something that came at the end of the cleaning ritual, the reward, ratherthan as a whole new cleaning routine.OutcomeA year later, the product brought in $230 million# Ethnography ensures your product works in the real worldhttp://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/19/magazine/shopping-habits.html?_r=1
  22. 22. AnalysisWhen they got back to P.& G.’s headquarters, the researchers watched their videotapes again.Now they knew what to look for and saw their mistake in scene after scene.P.& G. had been trying to create a whole new habit with Febreze, but what they really neededto do was piggyback on habit loops that were already in place. The marketers needed toposition Febreze as something that came at the end of the cleaning ritual, the reward, ratherthan as a whole new cleaning routine.OutcomeA year later, the product brought in $230 million# Ethnography ensures your product works in the real worldhttp://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/19/magazine/shopping-habits.html?_r=1
  23. 23. When the Thomson Directory went into battle with the ubiquitous Yellow Pages in the UK theywanted a point of difference – and to become the ‘most reached for’ directory over theircompetitor…By visiting people’s homes they saw only the Yellow Pages next to the phone, but in drawers,under stairs, propping up computer monitors etc. They noticed people stacked smaller bookson top of  larger books.Thomson used this insight to their advantage, producing a smaller book so it would be ontop, and the first directory people grabbed.- thanks to Nick Bowmast# Ethnography generates opportunities
  24. 24. Less or moreWhen the Thomson Directory went into battle with the ubiquitous Yellow Pages in the UK theywanted a point of difference – and to become the ‘most reached for’ directory over theircompetitor…By visiting people’s homes they saw only the Yellow Pages next to the phone, but in drawers,under stairs, propping up computer monitors etc. They noticed people stacked smaller bookson top of  larger books.Thomson used this insight to their advantage, producing a smaller book so it would be ontop, and the first directory people grabbed.- thanks to Nick Bowmast# Ethnography generates opportunities
  25. 25. Shabby chicIn 2000, the United States forged its current economic relationship with China bypermanently granting it most-favored-nation trade status and, eventually, helping thecountry enter the World Trade Organization.There is a long list of missteps, Home Depot, for example, overestimated the desire for D.I.Y.home projects and high-end materials in a country with an unbelievably cheap labor forceand a thriving black market. Kodak learned it couldn’t forever dump its unsold film on aconsumer base looking to make their first cameras digital ones. The Gap had to learn that athriving middle class does not want to dress shabby-chic.http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/29/magazine/come-on-china-buy-our-stuff.html?_r=3
  26. 26. Sky BroadbandBroadband anecdote.Engineers said people would systematically unpack 1-2-3
  27. 27. People’ don’t do things sequentiallyThere are 2 tasks - 1 wired installation- 2 - Account activationMicrofilters and phone splitters mixed upMental models - What is a Sky box, and a Sky broadband box?Delivery assumes activation90 metres of paper filled with findings!
  28. 28. People’ don’t do things sequentiallyThere are 2 tasks - 1 wired installation- 2 - Account activationMicrofilters and phone splitters mixed upMental models - What is a Sky box, and a Sky broadband box?Delivery assumes activation90 metres of paper filled with findings!
  29. 29. People’ don’t do things sequentiallyThere are 2 tasks - 1 wired installation- 2 - Account activationMicrofilters and phone splitters mixed upMental models - What is a Sky box, and a Sky broadband box?Delivery assumes activation90 metres of paper filled with findings!
  30. 30. People’ don’t do things sequentiallyThere are 2 tasks - 1 wired installation- 2 - Account activationMicrofilters and phone splitters mixed upMental models - What is a Sky box, and a Sky broadband box?Delivery assumes activation90 metres of paper filled with findings!
  31. 31. People’ don’t do things sequentiallyThere are 2 tasks - 1 wired installation- 2 - Account activationMicrofilters and phone splitters mixed upMental models - What is a Sky box, and a Sky broadband box?Delivery assumes activation90 metres of paper filled with findings!
  32. 32. People’ don’t do things sequentiallyThere are 2 tasks - 1 wired installation- 2 - Account activationMicrofilters and phone splitters mixed upMental models - What is a Sky box, and a Sky broadband box?Delivery assumes activation90 metres of paper filled with findings!
  33. 33. People’ don’t do things sequentiallyThere are 2 tasks - 1 wired installation- 2 - Account activationMicrofilters and phone splitters mixed upMental models - What is a Sky box, and a Sky broadband box?Delivery assumes activation90 metres of paper filled with findings!
  34. 34. People’ don’t do things sequentiallyThere are 2 tasks - 1 wired installation- 2 - Account activationMicrofilters and phone splitters mixed upMental models - What is a Sky box, and a Sky broadband box?Delivery assumes activation90 metres of paper filled with findings!
  35. 35. People’ don’t do things sequentiallyThere are 2 tasks - 1 wired installation- 2 - Account activationMicrofilters and phone splitters mixed upMental models - What is a Sky box, and a Sky broadband box?Delivery assumes activation90 metres of paper filled with findings!
  36. 36. People’ don’t do things sequentiallyThere are 2 tasks - 1 wired installation- 2 - Account activationMicrofilters and phone splitters mixed upMental models - What is a Sky box, and a Sky broadband box?Delivery assumes activation90 metres of paper filled with findings!
  37. 37. People’ don’t do things sequentiallyThere are 2 tasks - 1 wired installation- 2 - Account activationMicrofilters and phone splitters mixed upMental models - What is a Sky box, and a Sky broadband box?Delivery assumes activation90 metres of paper filled with findings!
  38. 38. Skys broadband proposition led to frustrations andmissed opportunities, eroded brand equity and createdoverheads in higher marketing and customer servicescosts to sustain the experience.The investigation modeled how people intended tomeet their expectations of a broadband installation withSkys solution, common pain points and positivemoments reveal themselves quickly.Stakeholders review intent models to see how thecurrent design solution fits the customers experience.This inspires fresh thinking in how to adapt the currentsolution and provides ideas to invent something new.By iterating new concepts we gradually validated whatworked and what failed. Co-creation develops buy-inas we built higher quality prototypes scaling up to alphaand beta tests with 200 and then 50,000 customers.The new solution specifically caters for the behavioursof customers knowing where they run into difficultywhilst augmenting things our research found they liked(a more personal, informal experience):!"#$%&()"*##(()&,/&.-$#*(<&&=;&1(3($%"#*&-/8&>?;@)&=1/$0$#&)/%52/#&")&5)(4&"#.%5"#*&,-(&"67/1,$#,4&5#(:7(.,(&"#,(#,&6/(%)&.5),/6(1)&(3(%/7&8-(#&5)"#*&$&)/%52/#4&8(&(3(%/7(&$&#(8&()"*#&,-$,&A/.5)()&05)"#())&"#3(),6(#,&/#&#(8&A($,51()&,-$,&*5"(&5#6(,&"#,(#,&6/(%)&$#&/#&1(B()"*#"#*&(:")2#*&A($,51()&,-$,&$67%"A;&.5),/6(1&3$%5(<&C:7(1"6(#,Executing a solution isnt only whats "do-able"technically or through engineering, a new solution willimpact human resources and the business modelsupporting it may need to evolve.1,088,308 fewer inbound calls a year.If average cost per call is £5 this is an annual saving of£5,441,540>D>ECFGFDHIDHC>JKLCH()($1.-DFGCH>IMFG=(-$3"/51&7$N(1#) O($)&P&Q/$%)H/$6$7The foundation of all our design work was our insights from the ethnography. It was easy tomake decisions, think of new ideas and substantiate our approach to others at Sky.
  39. 39. After launch...1,088,308 fewerinbound calls a year.Estimated annual savingof £5.44 million1,088,308 fewer inbound calls a year.If average cost per call is £5 this is an annual saving of £5,441,540Benefits recap# Reveals opportunities# Ensures your product is routed in the context of the real world# Saves you money
  40. 40. Simon’s rules forethnographers*
  41. 41. Simon’s rules forethnographers**Warning - may contain nuts
  42. 42. #1 Get yourself ahypothesesResearch without theory is not research at all, but merely “asking people things” or “noticingthings.” We must situate your questions within established theories in order to cohere ourresults.Two forms of enquiry; open (grounded theory) and hypothesis-based enquiry.
  43. 43. #2 Be open toeverythingVideo replacedSo much of what you canobserve of native life is boringand dull, just because youinitially don’t know what isgoing on.To begin withMalinowski was in the sameposition.Einstein: “If we knew what we were doing, it wouldn’t be research.”# Video 3 Be openSo much of what you can observe of native life is boring and dull, just because you initiallydon’t know what is going on. To begin with Malinowski was in the same position.Research without theory is not research at all, but merely “asking people things” or “noticingthings.” We must situate your questions within established theories in order to cohere ourresults.Two forms of enquiry; open (grounded theory) and hypothesis-based enquiry.
  44. 44. Video replacedSo much of what you canobserve of native life is boringand dull, just because youinitially don’t know what isgoing on.To begin withMalinowski was in the sameposition.Einstein: “If we knew what we were doing, it wouldn’t be research.”# Video 3 Be openSo much of what you can observe of native life is boring and dull, just because you initiallydon’t know what is going on. To begin with Malinowski was in the same position.Research without theory is not research at all, but merely “asking people things” or “noticingthings.” We must situate your questions within established theories in order to cohere ourresults.Two forms of enquiry; open (grounded theory) and hypothesis-based enquiry.
  45. 45. #3 Get stuck inHe stated that the goal of the anthropologist, or ethnographer, is "to grasp the natives pointof view, his relation to life, to realize his vision of his world"In it he coined the phrase ‘Participant observation’.A key principle of the method is that one may not merely observe, but must find a role withinthe group observed from which to participate in some manner.# Video 4 - Participant observationMalinowski soon realised that he wasn’t getting a ful picture of village life from his Veranda.He wasn’t taking part in their daily lives. He realised to do this he needed to come down offthe veranda and actually go and live with the natives. This style of field work, speaking thelanguage fluently, living with the community, keeping detailed daily notes, came to be calledparticipant observation.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronisław_Malinowski
  46. 46. He stated that the goal of the anthropologist, or ethnographer, is "to grasp the natives pointof view, his relation to life, to realize his vision of his world"In it he coined the phrase ‘Participant observation’.A key principle of the method is that one may not merely observe, but must find a role withinthe group observed from which to participate in some manner.# Video 4 - Participant observationMalinowski soon realised that he wasn’t getting a ful picture of village life from his Veranda.He wasn’t taking part in their daily lives. He realised to do this he needed to come down offthe veranda and actually go and live with the natives. This style of field work, speaking thelanguage fluently, living with the community, keeping detailed daily notes, came to be calledparticipant observation.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronisław_Malinowski
  47. 47. Video replacedMalinowski soon realised that hewasn’t getting a ful picture of villagelife from hisVeranda. He wasn’t takingpart in their daily lives. He realised todo this he needed to come down offthe veranda and actually go and livewith the natives.This style of fieldwork, speaking the language fluently,living with the community, keepingdetailed daily notes, came to be calledparticipant observation.He stated that the goal of the anthropologist, or ethnographer, is "to grasp the natives pointof view, his relation to life, to realize his vision of his world"In it he coined the phrase ‘Participant observation’.A key principle of the method is that one may not merely observe, but must find a role withinthe group observed from which to participate in some manner.# Video 4 - Participant observationMalinowski soon realised that he wasn’t getting a ful picture of village life from his Veranda.He wasn’t taking part in their daily lives. He realised to do this he needed to come down offthe veranda and actually go and live with the natives. This style of field work, speaking thelanguage fluently, living with the community, keeping detailed daily notes, came to be calledparticipant observation.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronisław_Malinowski
  48. 48. 28 29Ethnography:The Empathic ModelOne of thepioneers ofthe UniversalDesignmovement,Dr. PatriciaMoore, isprofessionallyassociatedwith FlamingoInternational.I experiencedrejection, hatredand fear.Dr. Patricia Moore is best known for conducting an intensive three-year study ofthe way our society treats its elders. At the age of 26 while studying Gerontology atColumbia University, Moore collaborated with a makeup artist to transform herself intothe character of woman more than eighty years of age, with a range of health andsocioeconomic status challenges. She utilized wigs, theatrical make-up, padding, andcostuming to make her look the part. More importantly, a variety of prosthetics wereemployed to limit her physical capacity. Splinted legs and back, taped fingers, cloudyglasses, and hearing limiters achieved the simulation of an elder woman’s experienceencountering a world designed and built for younger, healthier individuals. This EmpathicModel allowed Moore to be perceived as an elder by those around her, and provided hertrue access to other elders. The resultant interactions enabled Moore to develop uniqueinsights into the challenges that elders face as consumers, far more effectively thantraditional research methods had ever allowed.In her own words: “While I was in character, I traveled to more than 100 cities throughoutthe United States and Canada. I experienced, firsthand, the reaction of people who,upon encountering an older woman, a physically challenged woman, chose either tosupport my presence or look the other way. I was shown kindness, friendship and love.And I experienced rejection, hatred and fear. I was attacked by a gang of young boyson an isolated city street, mugged, beaten and left for dead. The injuries I sustainedhave left me with permanent challenge and constant pain. When I reemerged fromthe study, once again a young woman, I was forever changed, both as a person anda professional.” Moore’s experience provides the means by which communities andcorporations alike can benefit. Her rare understanding of elders and consumers of allabilities has impacted the quality of global products and environments. Moore continuesto expand the knowledge base and concerns for lifespan consumer needs by expandingthe user-centered design research inspired by her Empathic Research Model.Brian McMahonFlamingo New YorkCall Brian McMahon at our NYC offices for more information on Dr. Moore and herassociation with Flamingo International: +1 212-886-8300. Read the complete story ofthis study in DISGUISED: A TRUE STORY by Pat Moore, available on Amazon.Empathic design.For three years, Dr. Moore traveled in the persona of an 80 year old, achieving the transformation with complicated prosthetics that simulated the sensory and appearance changes ofageing.
  49. 49. #4 Dress downDon’t turn up in a suit or anything formal. This is all about being one of them.In developing countries, you might need to reverse this rule!
  50. 50. #4 Dress downDon’t turn up in a suit or anything formal. This is all about being one of them.In developing countries, you might need to reverse this rule!
  51. 51. #5 Blend inPlay down your role.Carry absolutely no air of importance “I’m just there to take notes and perhaps ask a fewquestions”Try to maintain a distance and position that lets you slip out of the participant’s viewpoint (sothey can forget you are there)# Video 5 - Native’s point of view
  52. 52. #5 Blend inPlay down your role.Carry absolutely no air of importance “I’m just there to take notes and perhaps ask a fewquestions”Try to maintain a distance and position that lets you slip out of the participant’s viewpoint (sothey can forget you are there)# Video 5 - Native’s point of view
  53. 53. #5 Blend inPlay down your role.Carry absolutely no air of importance “I’m just there to take notes and perhaps ask a fewquestions”Try to maintain a distance and position that lets you slip out of the participant’s viewpoint (sothey can forget you are there)# Video 5 - Native’s point of view
  54. 54. #6 Don’t mentiondesignersTry not to mention design or designers.You don’t want participants to alter what they say to impress or second guess who will beusing the information.This is about minimising the Hawthorne affect. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawthorne_effect
  55. 55. #7 Watch yourlanguageMake minimal and only neutral comments like “I see”  … as opposed to “good” whenacknowledging comments.Keep questions open.After every statement a user makes, ask the question why?Dont ask compound questions.
  56. 56. #8 Off the recordUsing the off the record post-session questions often helps to elicit peoples real feelings onthe matter. Just before you leave and it seems that the session is over, and your leaving, askthe participant in a conspiratorial tone of voice what they really thought of the thing you weretesting. You often get get the most insights then.
  57. 57. #9 Downplay the techPlay down any techy kit. The more visible it, the more it diverts people’s attention.
  58. 58. #9 Downplay the techPlay down any techy kit. The more visible it, the more it diverts people’s attention.
  59. 59. #9 Downplay the techPlay down any techy kit. The more visible it, the more it diverts people’s attention.
  60. 60. #9 Downplay the techPlay down any techy kit. The more visible it, the more it diverts people’s attention.
  61. 61. Gadgets
  62. 62. Video kitKodak Z8iBatteries - 1.5 hours each32GB SD cardSeinheiser microphone
  63. 63. Video kitKodak Z8iBatteries - 1.5 hours each32GB SD cardSeinheiser microphone
  64. 64. Polaroid PoGo
  65. 65. Penultamate - More/real stylus
  66. 66. Livescribe PulsepenGood for field notes3D soundOnline archiving - good for sharingHandwriting recognition -search for terms400 hours
  67. 67. Livescribe PulsepenGood for field notes3D soundOnline archiving - good for sharingHandwriting recognition -search for terms400 hours
  68. 68. Livescribe PulsepenGood for field notes3D soundOnline archiving - good for sharingHandwriting recognition -search for terms400 hours
  69. 69. Livescribe PulsepenGood for field notes3D soundOnline archiving - good for sharingHandwriting recognition -search for terms400 hours
  70. 70. Livescribe PulsepenGood for field notes3D soundOnline archiving - good for sharingHandwriting recognition -search for terms400 hours
  71. 71. Livescribe PulsepenGood for field notes3D soundOnline archiving - good for sharingHandwriting recognition -search for terms400 hours
  72. 72. Analogue backup4pen accent palladium - model L495MoleskinFaber and Castell - eMotion
  73. 73. Freeky iPhone gadgets
  74. 74. Freeky iPhone gadgets
  75. 75. Get some juice
  76. 76. Equib power striphttp://www.eubiq.com/
  77. 77. Equib power striphttp://www.eubiq.com/
  78. 78. Equib power striphttp://www.eubiq.com/
  79. 79. APPS and Software
  80. 80. iMovie 11
  81. 81. Keywords
  82. 82. Convert that suckerElgato turbo 264 HDBrilliant for getting anything into a format iMovie can useGreat for exporting from iMovie to other formats
  83. 83. Highlighthttp://cohdoo.com/highlight.php
  84. 84. Highlighthttp://cohdoo.com/highlight.php
  85. 85. Highlighthttp://cohdoo.com/highlight.php
  86. 86. Lifelapsehttp://lifelapse.com/
  87. 87. Lifelapsehttp://lifelapse.com/
  88. 88. Lifelapsehttp://lifelapse.com/
  89. 89. Lifelapsehttp://lifelapse.com/
  90. 90. Lifelapsehttp://lifelapse.com/
  91. 91. Lifelapsehttp://lifelapse.com/
  92. 92. Lifelapsehttp://lifelapse.com/
  93. 93. Mr Tappy
  94. 94. Mr Tappy
  95. 95. Video replacedA Native’s point of viewThe last words are reserved forBronislaw Malinowski. He statedthat the goal of the anthropologist(ethnographer), is “to grasp thenative’s point of view, his relationto life, to realise his vision of hisworld.”# Video 5 - Native’s point of viewThe last words aer reserved for Bronislaw Malinowski. He stated that the goal of theanthropologist (ethnographer), is “to grasp the native’s point of view, his relation to life, torealise his vision of his world.”
  96. 96. Lots more @squaxor.posterous.comLearn more at...http://squaxor.posterous.com/project-methodologyhttp://squaxor.posterous.com/simons-list-of-ux-techniques-im-trying-to-imphttp://squaxor.posterous.com/2-methods-of-research-analysis

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