Ch. 4 and 5 review ppt

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Ch. 4 and 5 review ppt

  1. 1. AP BIOLOGYChapters 4 & 5<br />http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/740/55147.JPG<br />http://www.yellowtang.org/images/macromolecules1_tb_784.jpg<br />
  2. 2. Identify the following functional groups<br />sulfhydryl<br />carbonyl<br />carboxyl<br />Hydroxyl(alcohol)<br />phosphate<br />amino<br />Images from: http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/week2/2webimages/Groups_5.gif<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphate<br />
  3. 3. Identify the kind of molecules<br />ketone<br />aldehyde<br />Images from: http://www.chemcases.com/nutra/nutra1b.htm<br />
  4. 4. Identify the asymmetric carbon in the following molecule<br />B is asymmetric; it has 4 different groups attached<br />Campbell and Reece 7th edition<br />
  5. 5. Identify the type of geometric isomeras TRANS or CIS<br />CIS TRANS<br />http://www.emeraldinsight.com/fig/0170950206002.png<br />
  6. 6. adding a phosphate group to ADP<br />Cells store energy by ________________<br /> a) Adding a phosphate group to ADP<br /> b) Removing a phosphate group from ATP<br />Compounds containing carbon are called<br />___________<br />organic<br />
  7. 7. IDENTIFY THE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN THIS TRIPEPTIDE<br />carbonyl<br />phosphate<br />sulfhydryl<br />carboxyl<br />amino<br />hydroxyl<br />carbonyl<br />? Modified from Cambell and Reece; AP Biology 7th edition Chapter 4 Self quiz<br />
  8. 8. Carbon atoms are able to form bonds with<br /> ___ different atoms at the same time.<br />4<br />The ionized form of an amino group has a___ charge.<br />positive<br />http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20101/bio%20101%20lectures/biochemistry/ionized%20amino%20group.gif<br />
  9. 9. Carbon is tetravalent. What does this mean?<br />It can form 4 covalent bonds<br />
  10. 10. These are examples of which kind of isomer you learned abouut?<br />geometric<br />http://www.emeraldinsight.com/fig/0170950206002.png<br />
  11. 11. Molecules that are mirror images of each other that differ in spatial arrangement around an asymmetric carbon are called ________________<br />Enantiomers (stereoisomers)<br />How are isomers are different from isotopes?<br />ISOMERS are molecules with the same <br />molecular formula but different structures<br />ISOTOPES are atoms with the same number <br />of protons but different numbers of neutrons <br />
  12. 12. Hydrocarbons contain many _________carbon-hydrogen bonds.<br /> polar nonpolar<br />Nonpolar<br />The ionized form of a carboxyl group has a___ charge.<br />negative<br />http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20101/bio%20101%20lectures/biochemistry/biochemi.htm<br />
  13. 13. Chemical process that splits molecules <br />by the addition of water.<br />hydrolysis<br />http://www.usd116.org/apalla/biology/unit3/notes/3notes1.htm<br />
  14. 14. Chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule<br />Condensation reaction (Dehydration synthesis)<br />Name the four main classes of<br />biological macromolecules<br />Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids<br />
  15. 15. The simplest sugars are called<br />________________<br />monosaccharides<br />GLYCOGEN<br />_____________ is the highly branched<br />polysaccharide used by animal cells to<br />store glucose. <br />NONPOLAR<br />Lipids are____________ molecules<br />polar nonpolar<br />
  16. 16. Chemical process that splits molecules <br />by the addition of water.<br />hydrolysis<br />http://www.usd116.org/apalla/biology/unit3/notes/3notes1.htm<br />
  17. 17. Molecules made of two monosaccharides<br />are called ______________<br />dissaccharides<br />The subunits joined to make proteinsare _______________ <br />amino acids<br />The major polysaccharide component <br />found in plant cell walls is<br />_____________________<br />cellulose<br />
  18. 18. 6<br />4<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />Use the correct numbering sequence to identify the number of this carbon<br />5<br />
  19. 19. Carbohydrates made from joining manysugar molecules together are called<br />____________________<br />polysaccharides<br />Glucose and fructose can be joined to makesucrose via a ___________________ reaction.<br />dehydration synthesis<br />
  20. 20. The two interconvertible forms of glucose differ in the placement of the hydroxyl group attached to the #1 carbon.<br />Label the two forms as α (alpha) orß (beta)<br /> BETA ALPHA Hydroxyl is up Hydroxyl is down<br />http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/images/543Halphabetaglucose.gif<br />
  21. 21. Amylose and amylopectin are both forms of _____________<br />starch<br />How are these different?<br />Amylose is unbranched and joined only<br />by α 1,4 linkages<br />Amylopectin is branched with 1,6 linkagesat the branch points<br />
  22. 22. How are starch and cellulose different?<br />Starch is made up of glucose rings in the α (alpha) form joined by 1,4 linkages; helical; can be branched; humans can digest this<br />Cellulose is made up of glucose rings in the ß (beta) form so every other glucose is upside down the respect to its neighbors; joined with 1,4 linkages; straight-never branched; hydrogen bonds join parallel molecules into microfibrils; humans can’t digest this<br />
  23. 23. A structural polysaccharide of plant cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by β-1, 4-glycosidic linkages. <br />cellulose<br />Where is chitin found in nature?<br />Cell walls of fungi; <br />exoskeletons of arthropods<br />
  24. 24. Which type of bonds hold the parallel cellulose strands together?<br />Hydrogen bonds hold about 80 cellulose molecules together to make a microfibril<br />Image modified from: Campbell and Reece; AP Biology 7th edition<br />
  25. 25. Image modified from: http://www.yskf.jp/yskf_en/img_03/03_01.gif<br />This subunit is _________________<br />N-acetylglucosamine<br />(NAG)<br />It can be joined together in long chains by <br />ß 1,4 linkages to make _________<br />chitin<br />
  26. 26. Which kind of fatty acids have kinks in their shape so that they don’t pack closely together- saturated or unsaturated?<br />unsaturated<br />Another name for a triacylglycerol molecule<br />fat<br />
  27. 27. What kind of bond is a disulfide bridge?<br />ionic covalent hydrogen<br />covalent<br />A fatty acid possessing one or more doublebonds between carbons in the hydrocarbontail is called _______________<br />unsaturated<br />
  28. 28. Which type of bonds hold the parallel cellulose strands together?<br />Hydrogen bonds<br />A fatty acid in which all carbons in the<br />hydrocarbon tail are connected by singlebonds is called _______________<br />saturated<br />
  29. 29. The subunit used to make starch, cellulose, and glycogen is __________<br />glucose<br />The sequence of amino acids in a proteinis called the ________ structure<br />Primary 1o<br />
  30. 30. The polysaccharide made up of glucose subunits with a nitrogen containing group attached which is used to build the exoskeletons of arthropods is called_______________<br />chitin<br />A fat is made up of one ________ molecule<br />and three ___________ molecules.<br /> glycerol<br />fatty acid<br />
  31. 31. Amino acid molecules used by living things are<br />usually the ___ stereoisomer version.<br /> L or D<br />L<br />The covalent bond<br />that joins sugarmolecules to make <br />a polysaccharide is<br />called a<br />_________ bond.<br />glycosidic<br />
  32. 32. The alpha helix coiling and beta pleated sheet shapes seen in proteins is called the _____________ structure. <br />Secondary 2o<br />Which kinds of bond holds these together?<br />Hydrogen bonds between the C=O ofone amino acid and the N-H of another<br />
  33. 33. The addition of smaller similar subuints to build a large repeating molecule is called <br />polymerization<br />The subunits are called___________ and themolecule that is formed iscalled a ______________<br />monomers<br /> polymer<br />Image by K.Riedell<br />
  34. 34. Sugar molecules used by living things are<br />usually the ___ stereoisomer version.<br /> L or D<br />D<br />The structural polysaccharide found<br />in plant cell walls that provides supportis ____________<br />cellulose<br />
  35. 35. Chaparonins<br />_____________ are molecules that help proteins fold up into their correct 3D<br />shape by shielding them from the cytoplasmic environment.<br />Image from: AP BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reese 7th ed.<br />
  36. 36. Sugars with 6 carbons are called<br />_______________<br />hexoses<br />Sucrose is made by joining which 2 sugars?<br />Glucose + fructose = sucrose<br />
  37. 37. Sugars made from 2 sugar monomers are called __________________<br />disaccharides<br />Name one of the polysaccharides <br />you learned about.<br />Glycogen, starch, cellulose, chitin<br />
  38. 38. The kind of covalent bond that joins <br />amino acids together is called <br />a _________ bond<br />peptide<br />-><br />http://www.chemicalconnection.org.uk/chemistry/topics/images/pp3.jpg<br />
  39. 39. Unsaturated fats and fatty acids are _________ at room temperature.<br /> solid liquid<br />liquid<br />http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/cm1503/lipids.htm<br />
  40. 40. The folding of a protein molecule into its 3D shape due to the interactions of R side chains involved hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, an disulfide bridges result in its ___________ structure.<br />Tertiary 3o<br />
  41. 41. http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/fatyacid.jpg<br />Tell the kind of macromolecule you learned about that could be built from these subunits<br />Fat (triacylglycerol)<br />http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/chemfat.html<br />
  42. 42. This isomer of glucose<br />in which the -OH on C1 hangs down below the plane of the ring is called <br />_____ glucose<br />α<br />Name a polysaccharide that this form ofglucose could be used to make<br />Starch (amylose or amylopectin) or glycogen<br />
  43. 43. The association of multiple protein chainstogether results in its _____________<br />Quaternary 4o<br />http://www.bio.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/chemistry/hemoglobin.jpg<br />
  44. 44. Saturated fats and fatty acids are _________ at room temperature.<br /> solid liquid<br />solid<br />http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/cm1503/lipids.htm<br />
  45. 45. This isomer of glucose<br />in which the -OH on C1 sticks up above the plane of the ring is called <br />_____ glucose<br />ß<br />Name a polysaccharide that this form ofglucose could be used to make<br />Cellulose or chitin (if nitrogen group added)<br />
  46. 46. Name this type of<br />Lipid characterized<br />by a carbon skeleton<br />consisting of 4 rings<br />with various<br />functional groups<br />steroids<br />
  47. 47. Sugar molecules with 6 carbons arecalled ________ <br />hexoses<br />Which nitrogen base is not found in RNA?<br />thymine<br />
  48. 48. Name this steroid<br />from which other<br />steroids including<br />human sex hormones<br />are synthesized.<br />cholesterol<br />Which part of a phospholipid is polar?<br />Glycerol-phosphate head<br />
  49. 49. http://z.hubpages.com/u/105829_f520.jpg<br />A diet high in____________<br />fats is one of <br />the factors that <br />can contribute <br />to cardiovascular<br />disease.<br />saturated<br />saturated unsaturated<br />
  50. 50. CONTRAST: GLYCOGEN and STARCH<br />Differences:<br />Glycogen Starch <br />Highly branched amylose (unbranched)<br /> amylopectin (less branched than glycogen)<br />Made by animals made by plants<br />α 1,4 & 1,6<br />
  51. 51. Which part of a phospholipid molecule is non-polar?<br />Fatty acid tails<br />ENZYMES<br />__________ are proteins that act <br />as catalysts to speed upchemical reactions in living things<br />
  52. 52. How many fatty acid tails are found in a phospholipid?<br />2<br />Fatty acid molecules consist of long <br />hydrocarbon chains with which functional<br />group attached at one end?<br />carboxyl<br />http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/fatyacid.jpg<br />
  53. 53. COMPARE GLYCOGEN and STARCH<br />Alike:<br />Made of α –glucose subunits<br />α 1,4 linkages<br />1,6 linkages @ branch points<br />Glycosidic bonds<br />Glucose polymers<br />Ways to store glucose<br />Digestible by humans<br />
  54. 54. Which of the four biomolecule groups you learned is hydrophobic?<br />lipids<br />Another name for a fat is<br />____________________<br />triacylglycerol<br />
  55. 55. Which of these structures would NOT<br />be found in a DNA molecule?<br />A (ribose)and D (uracil)<br />Image from LearningExpress.com<br />
  56. 56. Dehydration synthesis is also called<br />____________ reaction.<br />condensation<br />Which nitrogen base is not found in DNA?<br />uracil<br />
  57. 57. The addition of a phosphate group to ADP<br />____________ energy.<br /> stores releases<br />stores<br />Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistrythat studies molecules that contain _______ <br />carbon<br />
  58. 58. The removal of a phosphate group from ATP to form ADP____________ energy.<br /> stores releases<br />releases<br />TRUE or FALSE<br />L and D stereoisomers have the samechemical properties because they contain the same number and kinds of atoms<br />
  59. 59. TRUE or FALSE<br />L and D stereoisomers have the samechemical properties because they contain the same number and kinds of atoms<br />FALSEL and D enantiomers can have very differentchemical properties.Ex: L-Dopa is a drug used to treat Parkinson’s disease, but D-Dopa has no effect on patients.<br />Thalidomide- one enantiomer of used to treat morning sickness; other form caused birth defects<br />
  60. 60. Name the structural polysaccharidefound in the cell walls of plants thatprovides support<br />cellulose<br />Polymers of amino acids are called<br />______________<br />polypeptides<br />
  61. 61. Chemical bond in which atoms share<br />2 pairs of electrons<br />List some functions of fat<br />Covalent double bond<br />Energy storage <br />(1 g of fat has more than twice as much energy as 1 g of polysaccharide)<br />Cushions vital organs<br />Insulates body against heat loss (blubber)<br />
  62. 62. List some functions of nucleic acids<br />Store genetic information<br />Protein synthesis<br />Nucleotide subunits:<br /> ATP: store and transport energy<br /> NAD+ NADP+ FAD Coenzyme A energy/electron carriers<br />
  63. 63. Which form of glucose is used to buildcellulose molecules?<br />ß-glucose<br />The “kinks” in fatty acids are due to_____________________<br />cis-double bonds<br />
  64. 64. Which chemical reaction joins glycerol and fatty acids to make a fat?<br />Dehydration synthesis or condensation<br />The place on an enzyme where the substrate attaches is called the<br />_______________<br />Active site<br />
  65. 65. The reactant in an enzyme catalyzed reaction is called a _____________<br />substrate<br />Name the amino acid that can form disulfide bridges<br />Cysteine<br />
  66. 66. Which functional group is responsible for the formation of disulfide bridges?<br />-SH sulfhydryl<br />The unwinding and loss of conformationin proteins is called _____________ <br />denaturing<br />
  67. 67. GLYCINE<br />It has an –H<br />for its R group<br />Which is the only amino acid without anasymmetric carbon?<br />http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/07/Glycine2.png<br />
  68. 68. Name an environmental factor that can cause proteins to denature<br />pH extremes<br />Salt concentration<br />Temperature (heat)<br />TRUE or FALSE<br />Denaturing in proteins is due to the disruption of peptide bonds<br />False; 1° remains intact but hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds and <br />disulfide bridges in 2° & 3°are disrupted<br />
  69. 69. cysteine<br />-SH (sulfhydryl) group forms disulfide bridges<br />Which amino acid is involved in making disulfidebridges to form the tertiary structure of proteins?<br />http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5e/L-Cysteine.png<br />http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Disulfide_bridge.htm<br />
  70. 70. COMPARE and CONTRAST:<br />DNA RNA<br />Double stranded Single stranded<br />Contain A, T, C, G Contain A, U, C, G<br />No uracil No thymine<br />Deoxyribose Ribose <br />Store genetic info Carry info from DNA to cell<br /> Protein synthesis<br />BOTH:<br />Nucleic acids, made of nucleotide subunits, are polymers,<br />Information molecules, joined using dehydration synthesis,<br />Contain pentose sugars and nitrogen bases, <br />have phosphate-sugar backbones,<br />
  71. 71. Nitrogenous bases consisting of 2 ringsare called _______________<br />purines<br />The two sugar-phosphate backbones ina DNA molecule run in opposite directions, <br />an arrangement referred to as<br />___________________<br />antiparallel<br />
  72. 72. Nitrogenous bases consisting of 1 ringare called _______________<br />pyrimidines<br />Name the subunit used to build nucleic <br />acids which consists of a pentose sugar, <br />nitrogen base, and a phosphate group.<br />nucleotide<br />
  73. 73. The nitrogen bases that join by<br />hydrogen bonds to form the stair stepsof the DNA ladder always pair up so that<br />_________________ match up with each other.<br />a pyrimidine-a purine<br />two purines<br />two pyrimidines<br />a pyrimidine-a purine<br />
  74. 74. Give an example of a pyrimidine<br />Cytosine (C), Thymine (T) and Uracil (U)<br />In a DNA molecule guanine always pairs upwith _____________<br />cytosine<br />
  75. 75. Which of these structures would NOT<br />be found in an RNA molecule?<br />C (deoxyribose)and F (thymine)<br />Image from LearningExpress.com<br />
  76. 76. Carbohydrates that contain 5 carbon atoms are called _____________<br />trioses<br />Which carbon is important in determiningwhether a glucose molecule is in theα or ß form?<br />C1<br />
  77. 77. In a DNA molecule adenine always pairs <br />with _____________<br />thymine<br />A pentose sugar with only the nitrogen baseattached is called a _____________<br />nucleoside<br />
  78. 78. Molecules with both polar and nonpolar parts are called _______________<br />amphipathic<br />Molecules containing only hydrogen and <br />carbon are called ________________<br />hydrocarbons<br />
  79. 79. Compare and contrast phospholipids and triglycerides (fat)<br />BOTH<br />PHOSPHOLIPIDS TRIGLYCERIDES<br />Glycerol backbone<br />Multiple phobic fatty acid chains attached<br />By ester linkages <br />2 fatty acid chains 3 fatty acid chains<br />phosphate group nonpolar<br />Amphipathic(polar head; nonpolar tails)<br />
  80. 80. Cysteine<br />methionine<br />Which two amino acids contain SULFUR ?<br />methionine<br />Look at these structures. Why can’t methionine formdisulfide bridges?<br />No –SH group; it’s got a methyl group<br />http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5e/L-Cysteine.png<br />http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/64/L-Methionine.png<br />
  81. 81. Tell the central dogma of molecular biology<br />that describes how information flows<br />in eukaryotic cells <br />DNA ->RNA -> proteins<br />Write the chemical formula for amonosaccharide with 3 carbons<br />C3H6O3<br />
  82. 82. What disaccharide does it make?<br />Glucose + glucose = ______________<br />Glucose + fructose = ____________<br />Glucose + galactose = ______________<br />maltose<br />sucrose<br />lactose<br />
  83. 83. http://altopower.files.wordpress.com/2008/04/sugar.jpg<br />Table sugar is called ____________<br />sucrose<br />Which parts of a nucleotide form thebackbone of a nucleic acid?<br />Sugar and phosphate<br />
  84. 84. Put the following in order from least to most branched…<br />Glycogen amylose amylopectin<br />amylose amylopectin glycogen<br />
  85. 85. Saturated<br />___________ fats are more common in<br />animals than plants.<br />TRUE or FALSE<br />Amino acids be enantiomers<br />True; the center carbon is attached to 4different groups; there are D and L formsof all amino acids except glycine <br />
  86. 86. https://sharepoint.cisat.jmu.edu/isat/klevicca/Web/NMR_2002/glycine/Glycine2.gif<br />Name the only amino acid of the 20 amino acids used to make proteins that doesn’t have a stereoisomer (enantiomer)<br />GLYCINE<br />It does NOThave a chiralcarbon; it doesnot have 4different groups<br />attached<br />
  87. 87. Amylase is an enzyme that can break <br />glyosidic linkages between α-glucose monomers.<br />Which of the following could amylase<br />break down?<br />cellulose glycogen amylopectin starch chitin<br />Glycogen, amylopectin, starch<br />? From AP BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reese 7th edition Chapter 5 self quiz<br />

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