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Internet - Petite histoire de la Toile

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Quelques éléments d'histoire de la Toile et d'Internet.

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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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Internet - Petite histoire de la Toile

  1. 1. INTERNET La petite histoire de la Toile Bruno Marchal , université Thammasat – 2013
  2. 2. Paul BARAN • En 1962 cet ingénieur expose dans des publications spécialisées son concept de réseaux maillés par opposition aux réseaux centralisés : l’idée d’un « réseau de réseaux » et le présage d’une « toile » sont nés. Ses recherches intéressent l’armée américaine : la même année, il est chargé par le Pentagone de diriger une équipe dont les travaux aboutiront quelques années plus tard à la création de l’ancêtre d’Internet : ARPANET.
  3. 3. Léonard KLEINROCK • En octobre1969, dans une salle de l’Université de Californie à Los Angeles, Léonard K. va tenter le tout premier envoi d’un message électronique. L’expérience de ce fameux jour d’octobre 1969 connaît un succès mitigé : le message de test ne contenait que deux mots mais l’ordinateur est tombé en panne en cours d’envoi. Seules les deux premières lettres du premier mot ont réussi à transiter d’un ordinateur à un autre : LO…
  4. 4. Ray TOMLINSON • En 1971, Ray T. travaille sur la normalisation des adresses de courrier électronique : il cherche un caractère qui séparerait distinctement le nom du destinataire de celui du serveur de messagerie. Sur son clavier, il choisit le symbole @ [arobase], déjà présent à l’époque sur les touches, mais tombé en désuétude (il était autrefois utilisé par les commerçants américains sur des étiquettes de prix).
  5. 5. Vinton Gray CERF & Robert Elliott KAHN • En 1971, « Vint » (professeur assistant à l'université de Stanford) et « Bob » (chargé des études sur l'architecture du réseau ARPANET pour l'agence DARPA) publient leurs recherches sur un protocoles réseau d'échange de paquets. Le protocole TCP/IP vient de naître (ensemble de normes régissant le transfert des données sur les réseaux). Il est au cœur même du fonctionnement d’Internet
  6. 6. Sir Timothy John BERNERS-LEE • Est l’inventeur du premier navigateur et de l’adoption du principe de l’hypertexte (autrement dit : les liens sur lesquels on clique), le protocole http qui nous sert quotidiennement à visiter des sites. (1990) • Est aussi le fondateur du World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), organisme à but non lucratif, chargé de veiller à la standardisation et la compatibilité des technologies employées sur la Toile (notamment les protocoles et les langages spécifiques). (1994)
  7. 7. Peter DEUTSCH, Alan EMTAGE, Bill HEELAN et Mike PARKER • Quatre étudiants canadiens à l'Université McGill (Québec) inventent le 10 septembre 1990, l'un des tous premiers moteurs de recherche sur Internet qui aura une influence importante sur les futurs systèmes : Archie • Ce logiciel dérivé du mot « archives » permet à ses utilisateurs de retrouver les dossiers stockés dans sa base - rafraîchie tous les mois. La recherche s'effectue sur le nom des fichiers et non sur le contenu.
  8. 8. Jerry YANG et David FILO • Changent le référencement des sites web : plutôt que confier cette tâche à un logiciel, ils misent sur le travail humain. Les sites sont ainsi évalués et classés de façon intellectuelle et non mécanique : c’est la naissance du tout premier annuaire web : YAHOO. L’origine de ce nom est une référence à la célèbre œuvre Jonathan Swift – Les Voyages de Gulliver – dans laquelle les Yahoos sont des créatures sauvages et sales. Dans le monde anglophone, yahoo sert d'insulte et signifie approximativement « abruti ».
  9. 9. Larry PAGE et Sergey BRIN • En 1997, ces deux étudiants de Standford travaillent sur le développement d’un moteur de recherche auquel ils attribuent un premier nom : BackRub. Finalement, d’après le terme anglais « googol » qui désigne le chiffre 1 suivi de 100 zéros (ou 10 à la puissance 100), et après une faute d’orthographe tapé sur le clavier pour l’enregistrement du site, BackRub deviendra Google.
  10. 10. Mark ZUCKERBERG • Le premier réseau social est apparu sur la toile en 1995 pour retrouver ses anciens camarades d’école : classmates.com • En 2004 dans l’université de Harvard, Mark Z. s’était engagé dès 2003 avec d’autres étudiants sur un autre projet de réseau social à destination des étudiants de Harvard : connectU.com • La couleur unie et bleue de Facebook sera choisie parce Mark Z. est daltonien et qu’il ne distingue pas le rouge.
  11. 11. Sources diverses – le Journal du Net Pour aller plus loin => http://www.evolutionoftheweb.com/?hl=fr

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