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780

  1. 1. Secondary Student Preferences Toward Physical Education Department of Sports Education Leadership University of Nevada, Las Vegas March 7, 2007 Kevin Smoot Smoot 780
  2. 2. Presentation Map <ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons to analyze preferences of secondary students toward physical education? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So What? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has been done to research preferences and attitudes of secondary students toward physical education? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Now What? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study will begin soon at Odyssey Charter High School? </li></ul></ul>Smoot 780
  3. 3. Smoot 780 Hand out Discussion Topic
  4. 4. Why Study High School Physical Education? <ul><li>We live in a society that seems to have a habit of disregarding physical activity, though recent research has shown that regular, moderate-intensity physical education can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, adult-onset diabetes, hypertension, certain cancers, osteoporosis, and depression (Surgeon General’s Report, 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical inactivity is increasingly recognized as a public health problem due to the increased risk for chronic diseases and disabling physical conditions that limit movement and mobility in adults. (Ainsworth,2005) </li></ul><ul><li>What are the different purposes and characteristics of programs at the elementary, middle/junior high, and high schools. (Pangrazi, 2003) </li></ul>Smoot 780
  5. 5. Question One 1. Should Mr. Harrison try and teach the class today? Why? <ul><li>I believe Mr. Harrison should try and teach the class. Too many people in present day society try and take the easy way out. It is his job to teach the students physical education. If he does not like the job then maybe he should look for something else. </li></ul>Smoot 780
  6. 6. Review of Literature <ul><li>Curriculum needs to meet the needs and interest of students </li></ul><ul><li>In general, students are satisfied </li></ul><ul><li>Allow students opportunity of decision making </li></ul><ul><li>A majority of students prefer team sport, however, students also like individual activities (bowling, golf, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Dislike grading on skill level alone, dressing out, publicly embarrassed, short classes </li></ul>Smoot 780
  7. 7. Question Two 2. What are some variables the students might posses that would make it difficult for Mr. Harrison to conduct his physical education class? Determinants of Physical Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults: The Basis for High School and College Physical Education to Promote Active Lifestyles (Nahas, Goldfine, & Collins, 2003) <ul><li>Personal Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>age, sex, education, working characteristics, past and present experiences, smoking status, body mass index, and health status. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>self-efficacy, intention to be active, enjoyment, self-motivation, and perceived barriers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social support from friends and relatives, availability of facilities, cost, climate, safety. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Activity Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>activity intensity and type </li></ul></ul>Smoot 780
  8. 8. Secondary School Student Preferences toward physical education (Strand and Scantling, 1994) <ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>958 students were given a 13-item questionnaire determining preferences of secondary students on assessment, activity offerings, academic physical education, hygiene and objectives of physical education. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basketball, volleyball, and swimming were personal favorites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferred ABCDF grading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75% would enroll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferred Cardiovascular fitness, strength, and flexibility objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grade on participation, effort, sportsmanship, attitude </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The authors used the findings to conclude that many physical education teachers need to assess student needs, address areas of concern, and evaluate practice within their individual physical education program </li></ul></ul>Smoot 780
  9. 9. Attitudes of high school students toward physical education activities, teachers, and personal health (Rice, 1988) <ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>602 students were given a 73-item questionnaire pertaining to attitudes of students toward their personal state of health and fitness, specific physical education program and activities offered, likes and dislikes concerning their program, and their preferences regarding their specific teacher. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team sports were preferred over individual sports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority of the students preferred their physical education classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers where good role models and considered them friendly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liked a variety of activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dislike brief class periods and dressing out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers should not be resistant to changes in curriculum designed to meet the needs and interest of students </li></ul></ul>Smoot 780
  10. 10. Attitudes of middle school students toward their physical education teachers and class (Ryan, Fleming, & Maina, 2003) <ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>611 students were given a 40-item questionnaire pertaining to attitudes of middle school students toward their physical education teacher and class. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferred a variety of activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disliked brief class periods and dressing out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoyed teachers with good physical ability, but disliked the teachers could not always relate to them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical education teachers utilized in the study had a significant role in developing favorable attitudes regardless of the students’ attitude. </li></ul></ul>Smoot 780
  11. 11. Are physical education classes encouraging students to be physically active? Experience of ninth graders in their last semester of required physical education (Portman, 2003) <ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers conducted interviews and observations using 46 physical education students. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a student was proficient at the specific activity it was considered fun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If student was not skilled at the activity they didn’t like the activity and didn’t try and get better at it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students enjoyed being in classes with friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disliked co-educational classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After physical education class was over a majority had no interest in continued physical education class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical educators in this study failed to encourage their students to participate in an active lifestyle. Changing curriculum, increasing opportunities to participate, mixing teams by ability and gender, and better sportsmanship by high skilled individuals might encourage some of the non-active students to become more active and involved. </li></ul></ul>Smoot 780
  12. 12. Secondary Student attitudes toward physical education (Stewart, Green, & Huelskamp, 1991) <ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2,130 students where given 66-item questionnaire pertaining to fitness development, skill development, and social development. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High School boys liked fitness domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High School Girls and middle school boys enjoyed fitness and social domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle School girls preferred the social domain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This research concluded a physical educator needs to be aware of the differences of students’ preferences when developing curriculum </li></ul></ul>Smoot 780
  13. 13. Question Three 3. If he chooses to teach the class how is he going to get the kids to participate? <ul><li>Behavioral strategy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find things that promote physical education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find things that discourage the physical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Give students plenty of information about the activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make the activity enjoyable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fun is when the challenge meets the ability level of the student (s). (Mrs. Vicki Allen) </li></ul></ul>Smoot 780
  14. 14. Now What? <ul><li>Kevin Smoot’s research </li></ul>Smoot 780
  15. 15. Research Questions <ul><li>What do students like about physical education class? </li></ul><ul><li>What activities are students likely to participate in during physical education class? </li></ul><ul><li>What do students dislike about physical education class? </li></ul><ul><li>What activities are students likely not to participate in during physical education class? </li></ul>Smoot 780
  16. 16. Setting and Participants <ul><li>Odyssey Charter High School </li></ul><ul><li>13-17 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Attend physical education class at Sunset Park </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(n=47) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attend physical education class at Desert Breeze Park </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(n=59) </li></ul></ul>Smoot 780
  17. 17. Questionnaire <ul><li>Modified version of Student Preference Survey of Physical Education (Strand and Scantling, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Found in handout </li></ul>Smoot 780
  18. 18. Procedures <ul><li>Collect parent and youth consent forms </li></ul><ul><li>Students take the questionnaire online at school. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive statistics regarding student preferences will be generated in means, percentages, and rankings. </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation will be given to class and a two-sided document will be given to parents </li></ul><ul><li>Use the information gathered to help with curriculum </li></ul>Smoot 780
  19. 19. Questions??? Smoot 780
  20. 20. References <ul><li>Aicinena, S. (1991). The teacher and students attitudes towards physical education. The Physical Educator , 48, 28-32. </li></ul><ul><li>Ainsworth, B. E. (2005). Movement, mobility, and public health. Quest , 57, 12-23. </li></ul><ul><li>Nahas, M.V., Goldfine, B., & Collins M.A. (2003) Determinants of physical activity in adolescents and young adults: The basis for high school and college physical education to promote active lifestyles. The Physical Educator, 60, 42-56. </li></ul><ul><li>Pangrazi, P. P. (2003). Physical education k-12: “All for one and one for all.” Quest , 55, 105-117. </li></ul><ul><li>Portman, P. (2003) Are physical education classes encouraging students to be physically active? Experience of ninth graders in their last semester of required physical education. The Physical Educator, 60 , 150-161. </li></ul><ul><li>Rice, P.L. (1988). Attitudes of high school students toward physical education activities, teachers, and personal health. The Physical Educator , 45 , 94-99. </li></ul><ul><li>Ryan, S., Fleming, D., & Maina, M. (2003). Attitudes of middle school students toward their physical education teachers and classes . The Physical Educator, 60 , 28-36 </li></ul><ul><li>Silverman, S., & Subramamam, P. R. (1999). Students attitude toward physical education and physical activity: A review of measurement issues and outcomes. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 19 , 97-125. </li></ul><ul><li>Stewart, M. J., Green, S. R., & Huelskamp, J. (1991). Secondary student attitudes toward physical education. Physical Educator, 48 , 78-79. </li></ul><ul><li>Strand, B., & Scantling, E. (1994). An analysis of secondary student preferences toward physical education. The Physical Educator, 51 , 119-129. </li></ul><ul><li>US Department of Health and Human Services. (1996) Physical activity and health: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. </li></ul>Smoot 780

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