Models of Urban Structure

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Models of Urban Structure

  1. 1. Models of US Urban Structures Ms. Patten 2012
  2. 2. OverviewAll models deal with social structure, orclass High, middle, low incomeAll developed in ChicagoLater applied to cities in the US and othercountries
  3. 3. Burgess’s Concentric Zone Model1923First to explain thedistribution of differentsocial groups withinurban areasBased on class orsocial structureCity grows outwardfrom a central area ina series of rings
  4. 4. Burgess’s Concentric Zone Model A: CBD  $$$$ B: Zone in Transition  industry  sub-standard housing  slums  new immigrants C: Zone of Independent Workers  Older houses  Working class
  5. 5. Burgess’s Concentric Zone Model D: Zone of Better Residences  Middle class, larger homes E: Commuter Zone  Work in center and live in suburbs Invasion and succession This model does not really exist in the US today.
  6. 6. Hoyt’s Sector Model1939-Homer HoytUses social structure todetermine neighborhoodsThe city develops in aseries of sectors; basedon transportationnetworks rather thandistance from CBD RR in ChicagoAs a city grows activitiesexpand outward in awedge from the center
  7. 7. Hoyt’s Sector Model1: CBD2: Transportation andIndustry3: Low ClassResidential4: Middle ClassResidential5: High ClassResidential
  8. 8. Harris and Ullman’s Multiple Nuclei Model 1945 City is a complex structure that includes more than one center around which activities revolve Urban growth is independent of the CBD Examples of nodes could be: ports, neighborhood business center, university, airport, park Edge cities often result from this model Multiplier effect
  9. 9. Harris and Ullman’s Multiple Nuclei Model 1: CBD 2: Wholesale, Light Manufacturing 3: Low Class Residential 4: Medium Class Residential 5: High Class Residential
  10. 10. Harris and Ullman’s Multiple Nuclei Model 6: Heavy Manufacturing 7: Outlying Business District 8: Residential Suburb 9: Industrial Suburb
  11. 11. Harris: Periphery Model Radial highways move people from CBD to suburbs an urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road

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