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  1. 1. Prejudice, Discrimination,Racism, and ScapegoatingA Way to Understanding the Holocaust
  2. 2. PrejudiceIs making a decision about a person or group ofpeople without sufficient knowledgePre-judgingBased on stereotypesIs an attitudeAre not born being prejudiceIs learned.Causes discrimination
  3. 3. PrejudiceExample: We may create subtle or overt pressures which will discourage persons of certain minority groups from living in a neighborhood.
  4. 4. PrejudiceExample: Victimizing women and minorities through discrimination in employment, education, and social services.
  5. 5. PrejudiceExample: We may shy away from people with a history of mental illness or physical disability because we are afraid they may harm us..
  6. 6. PrejudiceExample: Women and minorities are often excluded from high positions in the business world.
  7. 7. PrejudiceExample: Many clubs have restrictive membership policies which do not permit Jews, African- Americans, women, and others to join.
  8. 8. StereotypeIs a standardized conception or image ofa specific group of people or objects. Stereotypes are "mental cookie cutters"--theyforce a simple pattern upon a complex mass andassign a limited number of characteristics to allmembers of a group.
  9. 9. StereotypeOccurs without our awareness:Some advertisements show mothers servingmeals to their families (but very few showfathers doing this).
  10. 10. StereotypeMany television advertisements show youngboys playing with action toys such as trucksand super-hero figures (but girls are not showndoing this)
  11. 11. StereotypeMany magazine photographs andadvertisements show teenage girls groomingthemselves such as putting on make-up,brushing their hair and generally worryingabout their appearance (but few show teenageboys doing these things).
  12. 12. StereotypeObjects can be stereotyped as well.• Places: • "All inner cities are corrupt and sinful." • "Small towns are safe and clean." • "In England, it rains all the time.”• Things • “All American cars are cheaply and terribly made." • "A good house has a large lawn, big garage, and at least two bathrooms."
  13. 13. StereotypeDisney characters stereotyping: •For example, you assumed that because Gaston in Beauty and the Beast is handsome and strong, he must be the good guy.
  14. 14. StereotypeHow about the handsome prince saving theday? Why can’t he be plain, or not a prince, ormaybe the girl in distress can be strongwithout a handsome prince to save her?
  15. 15. DiscriminationMaking choices about how we treat other people. Can be made using real and relevant information. Can be based on prejudices, stereotypes and bias.
  16. 16. DiscriminationMaking choices about how we treat other people. Unlawful like sexual and racial discrimination Not unlawful like a coach who shows favoritism towards his/her child over other players
  17. 17. DiscriminationUndesirable if it leads to unfair treatment ofplayers, members and other participants inrecreation and sport.
  18. 18. DiscriminationExample: Sex Discrimination: Prizes of different value are given for male and female competition in the same club.
  19. 19. DiscriminationExample: Racial Discrimination: A Chinese player is overlooked for team selection due to his race.
  20. 20. DiscriminationExample: Age Discrimination: Not hiring a senior citizen for a job that he/she is very qualified
  21. 21. DiscriminationExample: Marital Status Discrimination A player is deliberately excluded from team activities and social functions after she divorces her husband who is a club official.
  22. 22. DiscriminationExample: Pregnancy Discrimination; A woman is dropped from her softball team when she reveals she is pregnant.
  23. 23. DiscriminationExample: Sexuality Discrimination: A football player is ridiculed by his team mates after his homosexuality is disclosed.
  24. 24. DiscriminationOther Example: Impairment or Disability Discrimination: A junior player is overlooked because of her mild autism.
  25. 25. DiscriminationWhat is Fair Discrimination? Related to teams: • Choices must be based upon relevant criteria: • Ability • Attitude • Effort • Attendance at practice
  26. 26. DiscriminationExample: If a coach/selector, has more players than he/she can fit in his team, he/she must discriminate between the available players. He/She must choose who will be in the starting team and what positions they will play, to arrive at the best possible team.
  27. 27. ScapegoatingIs blaming an individual or group unfairly forsomething when in fact the blame lies elsewhereor when it is uncertain where the blame lies• Examples: Blaming all the Muslim people for the attack on 9/11 Blaming all the Japanese for the attack on Pearl Harbor
  28. 28. RacismMeans attitudes, practices and other factors thatdisadvantage any person because of their race,color or ethnicity.
  29. 29. Types of RacismIndividual Racism: An Iraqi student who is brutally murdered because the attacker blames him for the war in Iraq
  30. 30. Types of RacismIndividual Racism: An employer who decides not to hire an Asian American employee because she believes that the employee might drive away business, but tells the person that there are no more openings available.
  31. 31. Types of RacismInstitutional Racism: A country club that has clearly written rules which prevent any non-White members. A store only hires blonde haired blue eyed girls to be salespeople.
  32. 32. Types of RacismCultural Racism: The extermination of Jews in the Holocaust The enslavement of African Americans. The unrealistic and stereotypical portrayal of ethnic minorities in the media.
  33. 33. Solutions No group should be made to feel embarrassed, ashamed or inadequate based on their race, color, religion, gender, disability, or appearance.3/29/2007 33
  34. 34. Do We Stereotype?